Biochemical performance, vigor and characteristics of initial growth of wheat plants under different sowing depths

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Author: 
Geison Rodrigo Aisenberg, Gustavo Zimmer, Felipe Koch, Simone Morgan Dellagostin, Vinícius Jardel Szareski, Ivan Ricardo Carvalho, Maicon Nardino, Velci Queiróz de Souza, Tiago Pedó, Emanuela Garbin Martinazzo, Francisco Amaral Villela and Tiago Zanatta Aumonde
Subject Area: 
Life Sciences
Abstract: 

Triticum aestivum L., world’s second most produced grain, may have its productivity harmed due to various factors, such as sowing depth. This study aimed to evaluate the biochemical performance, vigor and characteristics of initial growth of wheat plants under different sowing depths. The experiment was performed in a greenhouse (31º48’15” S and 52º24’19” W). The experimental design were randomized blocks and the treatments were the sowing depths of 20, 30, 40 and 50 mm. The experimental unit was each tray with 50 seeds. Results were subjected to analysis of variance (p<0.05) and, when significant by F-test, adjusted to orthogonal polynomials. Variables evaluated were: seedling emergence, shoot and root length, shoot and root dry matter, leaf area, shoot to root ratio, isoenzymatic expression of peroxidase and malate dehydrogenase and a, b and total chlorophyll content. Seedling emergence, shoot dry matter and leaf area reduced with the increasing sowing depth, as the best performance in seedling emergence and the higher leaf area were obtained at 20 mm depth and the shoot dry matter decreased from 30 mm downwards. Chlorophyll a, b and total contents were higher at sowings depths from 30 to 40 mm. An additional isoenzyme of malate dehydrogenase was expressed at the shoots at the sowing depth of 50 mm while an extra peroxidase isoenzyme was expressed at the roots at the sowing depths of 30, 40 and 50 mm. Deep sowings reduce seed vigor, negatively affecting the initial growth of wheat plants.

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