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IJCR is following an instant policy on rejection those received papers with plagiarism rate of more than 20%. So, All of authors and contributors must check their papers before submission to making assurance of following our anti-plagiarism policies.





July 2012

  1. Prabudoss, V. and Stella, D.

    The Red rot is the very worst disease in sugarcane caused by Colletotrichum falcatum which leads to drastic reduction in the cane yield .Hence in the present research a combined inoculation of Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus and Glomus fasciculatum were attempted for the control of red rot disease. The outcome of the present research clearly showed that nearly 70% of the red rot disease incidence reduced by combined inoculation of G.diazotrophicus and Glomus fasciculatum insugarcane

  2. A. Pappu Rajan and S.P. Victor

    Web mining is a new developing research discipline and also it is subdivision of Data Mining , it has attracted a great deal of attention in the Information Technology and in society as a whole in recent years, due to the wide range and availability of huge amount of heterogeneous data. The web has become versatile tool for almost all application today. Mine this available huge data to make it proper use and presentable, giving right solution to a particular problem is a big real challenge . In this paper deals with a introductory idea about the data mining, web mining , web log mining and challenges of mining the web data.

  3. Ofomatah Anthony Chibuzor, Ibeto Cynthia Nkolika, Okoye Chukwuma Obiajulu Benedict and Unachukwu Godwin Ogechi

    A comparative study of biogas production from ash-treated and untreated bagasse and its storage was investigated. Both wastes were charged into two 200L metal prototype biodigesters in the ratio of 3:1 (water:waste). The first biodigester contained partially hydrolyzed untreated bagasse while the second contained bagasse which was soaked in ash-treated water for one week. Proximate analyses as well as total solids, volatile solids, carbon content and calorific value were conducted on the waste while microbial level, PH and temperature were determined on the slurry. The wastes were subjected to anaerobic digestion for 30 days at mesophilic temperature range of 25 to 33oC. Relative humidity, ambient temperature, PH, slurry temperature and volume of gas were monitored and recorded on daily basis throughout the retention period. Biogas yield of ash-treated waste (1184.3 L) was four times higher than that of untreated waste (288.8 L). Onset of gas flammability was observed on the 4th day for both samples and was sustained throughout the retention period. The gas produced in each case was analysed and found to contain 64% methane. Storage was achieved with a modified pressure pump and maximum pressure of 23.2 MPa was recorded with a corresponding cooking time of 3.75 hours.

  4. V. Anto Sahaya Varghese and S. Prathiba

    This paper presents a high-efficiency and high-step-up nonisolated interleaved dc–dc converter with a common active-clamp circuit. In the proposed converter, the coupled-inductor boost converters are interleaved. A boost converter is used to clamp the voltage stresses of all the switches in the interleaved converters, caused by the leakage inductances present in the practical coupled inductors, to a low voltage level. The leakage energies of the interleaved converters are collected in a clamp capacitor and recycled to the output by the clamp boost converter. A new topologies and interleaving modulation concepts for multilevel dc–dc boost converter enabling a significantly less loss and a reduced chip size of the power semiconductors are proposed. The proposed converter achieves high efficiency because of the recycling of the leakage energies, reduction of the switch voltage stress, mitigation of the output diode’s reverse recovery problem, and interleaving of the converters. A prototype of the proposed converter is developed, and its experimental results are presented for validation.

  5. Archana Paranjpe Abhay Kumar Sharma R.K. Ranjan Parul Tripathi

    Present investigation reveals the energy yield, environmental issues, and waste management through optimal two stage anaerobic digestion process. The various process parameters (TKN, pH, C/N ratio, moisture content etc.) need to control in such a manner that in less retention time, more biogas yield to be recorded with high quality manure. Present disposal of municipal solid waste (MSW) through incineration / landfills creates air, soil and ground water pollution. Presently, modern anaerobic digestion prefers two stage technology worlds- wide, because major environmental problems eliminated with the optimum biogas yield. The future challenges to be met are production of Bio H2, Bio fuel, using various substrates along with MSW.

  6. Bhanwar Singh Takhar and Sanjeev Saxena

    Background: Plantar fasciitis (PF) is an overuse injury causing inflammation at the origin of the plantar fascia and surrounding perifascial structures, such as the calcaneal periosteum, which affects about 10% of the population at least in one moment in life. Successful treatment of plantar fasciitis usually requires a combination of treatment modalities, rather than administering only one treatment at a time. This study is aimed to examine the effect of dorsiflexion night splints with ultrasound therapy and exercises in the management of plantar fasciitis. Methodology: 12 subjects of both genders, with mean ± SD age of 46.08 ± 3.82 years were selected on the basis of selection criteria. The subjects were under a structured 6 weeks exercise program, dorsi flexion night splint and ultra sound therapy for each day for 6-days a week. Result: There is statistically significant reduction in foot functional score index measures and improvement in range of motion of ankle joint with p value less than 0.05 after 6 weeks of supervised exercise program. Conclusion: The results of the present study, suggest that dorsiflexion night splints with ultrasound therapy and exercise are effective for plantar fasciitis.

  7. Kousalyadevi, R. and Ramakrishnan, S.S.

    Multi-band satellite imagery used in remote sensing for environmental monitoring, mapping and land use planning is compressed using Discrete Wavelet Transform to reduce storage capacity and transmission bandwidth in an efficient and effective manner. This paper explains the use of 2D Discrete Wavelet Transform for compression of Landsat5 multispectral band satellite image and analysis of its performance using various parameters such as Compression Ratio (CR), Peak Signal to Noise Ratio (PSNR), Digital Number Minimum (DN min) and Digital Number Maximum (DN max). Various wavelets are applied over the multi-band image for compression and the performance is analyzed. Using those values, the Spectral Signature graph is plotted and a particular wavelet is selected based on the parameter values.

  8. Abhik Dasgupta and Sanat Kumar Guchhait

    The mosaic of demographic surface experiences a continuous change over time, if the area is frequented by constant influx of population from outside. This phenomenon is very well-known in the developing countries wherein rural to urban migration is very prominent. Being a part of developing world India bears such imprints as here the propensity of migration from the remote areas to larger cities or metropolis is an evident phenomenon. After the independence, drastically reduced death rate and slightly reduced birth rate have instigated booming of population. The influx population from the west and East Pakistan added an extra momentum to the population growth due to partition of India in 1947. All these events are continuously modified demographic relief of the state and this is prominent in the province like West Bengal which is densest populated province in India. In West Bengal, the district Howrah bears such imprints as since the beginning of the 20th century it has received an influx population due to rapid pace of industrialisation as well as result of partition. These circumstances have widened the gap of demographic relief. The present investigation has been made to unfold the changing expression of demographic surface of the district and at the same time it will spot lights on the dynamics of demographic relief in inter-block level.

  9. Weldon Kipkoech Kering and Simon Kiprotich Korir


  10. Simon Kiprotich Korir

    The fundamental message of sacred scripture proclaims that the human person is a creature of GOD and sees in his being in the image of GOD the element that characterizes him, in the image of himself (GOD) he created male and female. The likeness with GOD shows that the essence and existence of man are constitutively related to GOD in the most profound manner this is a relationship that exists in itself, it is therefore not something that comes after more do and is not added from the outside. GOD among the Africans is addressed as creator (or maker), an attribute which is very closely related to that of being father. He is invoked as creator of everything and omniscient to who offerings and prayers are made. Spiritually a picture of man is seen as a child before GOD and the departed and that he has no strength in the presence of the Almighty GOD. Man is at the very centre of existence, and African peoples see everything else in its relation to this central position of man. GOD is the explanation of their origin and sustenance; it is as if GOD exists for the sake of man. The spirits are ontologically in the mode between GOD and man: they describe or explain the destiny of men after physical life. From an African world view, a person is thought of first of all as a constituent of particular community, for it is the community which defines who he is and who he can become. “The individual is conscious of himself in terms of I am because we are, and since we are, therefore, I am”. Thus relatedness is so central in an African concept of a person. From an African world view, a person is thought of first of all as a constituent of particular community, for it is the community which defines who he is and who he can become. “The individual is conscious of himself in terms of I am because we are, and since we are, therefore, I am” Thus relatedness is so central in an African concept of a person.

  11. Nina Singh and Jitendra Kumar

    Urbanization is inevitable and irreversible. In India, more than two-fifths of the total 377 million urban dwellers inhabit 53 metropolitan cities as per 2011 census. This is radically transforming the urban environment of metropolitan areas in the country creating social and environmental problems in the condition of inadequate provision of basic infrastructure for sustenance and proper housing at affordable cost. All this has made the cities mismanaged. A rapid impetus and thrust is required for the development of urban areas on sustainable basis to meet the increasing demand of urban population for housing, infrastructure, civic amenities and green space without comprising the natural resources’ assets and quality of life. It is proposed that the urban landscape and human environment be studied by integrating satellite imagery with population census data to support research and planning efforts related to land development and conservation. The idea is reinforced taking Kanpur, the largest urban agglomerations of Uttar Pradesh among cities with at least million population, as a case study. High resolution of Cartosat-1 (PAN image), LISS-IV (MX) satellite, Census Data, Toposheets at scale of 1:50,000, Municipal Corporation map of Kanpur city 2005-06 and Kanpur City Development Plan, 2006 have been used for meaningful analysis. Satellite data have been used for the land-use/land cover classification of Kanpur city, based on NUIS Manual, 2008 which provides the geographic understanding of the city and a key aspect to provide the base for the city management.

  12. Madhumita Sen and Probodh Kumar Mondal

    Women are economically excluded member of family in traditional society of developing countries, but they are engaged in house hold works like cooking, children rearing, manage the all parts of family throughout the day. Because, socially constructed rules are usually unequal in terms of power, decision- making, freedom, ownership of resources, and so on. This is the scenario of non-tribal and rural women in traditional society of main-stream civilization. Women of tribal community are exception to this discipline in terms of family income and other works of family. Tribal women as a hard worker collect the fuel and other resources like fruits, leaf and different types of grass from forest; consequently, they work in agricultural field. Refusing the forest and to some extent the agricultural field by introduction of basalt quarrying in 1960s, most of the tribal women of the area of Rampurhat-1C.D block of Birbhum district are forcefully engage in crasher. Traditional occupations of the tribal women were eco-friendly as well as biogenic resource process. Upcoming economy i.e. basalt quarrying sector create the problems of the position of tribal women in terms of socio-cultural spectrum. The paper made an attempt gives the realistic view about an informal economy as well as position of tribal women in quarrying sector.

  13. M. Florida, Aneesh Nair and T. Sekar

    In the present scenario where herbal and eco-friendly substances are being preferred over their synthetic counterparts, the present study is a contribution to the ongoing oncology research with a similar aim. Barringtonia acutangula L. and Stereospermum colais L. plants were selected based on their medicinal properties, which are well documented. The plants were subjected to a series of assays to evaluate its anti-cancer potentials. The preliminary screening by NO assay and MTT assay indicated the free radical scavenging and anti-cancer activity of the plants in the methanol and ethyl acetate extracts of S. colais and ethyl acetate extract of B. acutangula against Colon cancer cell lines Colo320. Further, DNA fragmentation assay attributed the cytotoxicity of the plant extracts to apoptosis. The CASPASE assays proved the activation of apoptosis in the cells treated with the plant extracts. Hence, it is suggested that both B. acutangula and S. colais have anti-cancer potentials. The present research suggests the use of these two medicinal plants as a therapeutic agent to treat the deadly disease of colorectal cancer.

  14. Jerry Bagaya, James Nicholas Odiya, and Grace Kasigwa Mbabazi

    Research has demonstrated considerable controversy over the relationship between supervision and professional efficiency. This paper seeks to analyze the relationship between supervision practices and Human Resource Management efficiency (HRM) levels in Gulu district primary schools. The study employed a cross sectional parallel sample survey design. It was conducted on a sample of 14 supervisors, 39 headteachers and 237 teachers of primary schools in Gulu district. Data was collected through a questionnaire that contained 25 and 20 close-ended items to measure supervision practices and HRM efficiency levels respectively. The validity and reliability of the questionnaire was ensured through experts’ opinion and pilot testing. A KR20 reliability coefficient of 0.77 and content validity index (CVI) of 0.90 for the supervision practices items were obtained. For the HRM efficiency level items, a Cronbach’s alpha of 0.86 and CVI of 0.92 were obtained. The data was captured on an SPSS 17.0 data file and the Chi square test for independence used to analyze the three hypotheses. First, the results indicated that there was a significant difference in respondents’ perceptions of supervision practices. Supervisors perceived supervision practices as less supportive while headteachers and teachers perceived them as more supportive. Secondly, there was a significant difference in respondents’ perceptions of HRM efficiency levels. Supervisors perceived HRM efficiency as low while headteachers and teachers considered them as only moderate. Finally, there was a significant correlation between supervision practices and HRM efficiency levels. This implies that the less supportive the supervision practices, the lower the HRM efficiency levels. The study will serve as a motivation for application of more supportive supervision practices so that the human resource is developed to its full potential. The findings will also be useful to researchers in exploring factors affecting the effectiveness of supervision and inspection. The paper has four parts. First, it reviews the relevant literature and outlines the problem setting. Secondly, the research methodology is presented and discussed. Next, the findings are reported, discussed and conclusions drawn. The paper concludes with managerial implications and directions for further research.

  15. Srajan Kumar Goyal, R. Vinayagamoorthy and M. Anthony Xavior

    Aerospace components from titanium alloys require the greatest reliability and satisfied surface integrity requirement. However, during machining of titanium alloys, the machined surface is easy damage because of the difficult-to-machine material and poor machinability. The aims are to investigate the surface integrity of Ti-6%Al-4%V precision machining under dry cutting condition. The results showed that the surface roughness values recorded were more affected by feed rate and nose radius geometry. Surface roughness was high value at the first machining followed by decreasing. Work hardening beneath the machined surface caused higher hardness than based material; on the other hand, Changing orientation of microstructure and 2 μm of white layer on the machined surface was found when turning at cutting speed of 30 m/min, feed rate of 0.02 mm/rev and depth of cut of 0.01 mm.

  16. Sundararasu, K. and Neelanarayanan, P.

    The study was conducted to evaluate the effect of vermicompost and inorganic fertilizers on growth and yield of tomato plants. Physico-chemical properties of the soil in both control and experimental plots were studied and interrupted with results. Plant growth (height), number leaves per plant, number of flower and fruits were also recorded. Vermicompost treated soil showed increased plant growth, number of leaves, flower and fruits compared to control soil. Significant yield was recorded on vermicompost soil. The present study suggested that vermicompost is more favorable for vigorous production of tomatoes. The vermicompost can be economically and environmentally suitable and also maintenance of soil environment.

  17. Emmanuel I. Bigwan, Gabriel C. Okezie and Sheyin, Z.

    Objectives: This study investigated the prevalence of gastro- intestinal parasites among patients attending a secondary health care facility in Dadin Kowa community, Jos metropolis, North Central Nigeria. Methods: Fecal samples from 300 patients were examined microscopically using formal ether concentration technique. Results: Out of 300 stool samples examined the overall prevalence of intestinal parasites was 43(14.3%).The males had the highest with 16(16.5%) while the females had 27(13.3%).Patients in age group 21-40 years had the highest with 26(16.6%) while age group 1-20 years had the lowest with 10(11.0%).The study revealed that those patients that uses water closet system had the lowest prevalence of 3(3.0%), followed by those using pit latrines with 18(16.4%), while those that usually defecate indiscriminately in the bush/open air had the highest with 22 (24.4%). The study reveals that those with non-formal education had the highest with 18(22.5%), followed by those with primary education with 13(21.7%), those with secondary education had 7(10.0%), and those with tertiary education had the least with 5(5.6%).The study indicates that those using ponds/stream water as sources of drinking /domestic purposes had the highest with 6(60%),followed by those using well water with 34(37.8%) and the least were among those using tap/bottled water with 3(1.5%) .The gastrointestinal parasites recovered in the study area were Entamoeba histolytica, Ascaris lumbricoides, Hookworm and Schistosoma mansoni having a prevalence of 8.7%, 3.7%, 1.3% and 0.7% respectively. Conclusion: The high prevalence recorded was found to be associated with poverty, illiteracy, poor water supply and poor environmental sanitation.

  18. Srajan Kumar Goyal, R. Vinayagamoorthy and M. Anthony Xavior

    The objective of the work is to perform precision turning using conventional lathe on Ti6Al4V under dry working conditions. Various parameters that affect the machining process were identified and a consensus was reached regarding its values. The proposed project is to perform machining under these conditions and parameters and to compare the chip morphology and tool. This thesis work aims to optimize the machining performance in precision turning operations. In finishing operations, Tool wear and Chip Morphology are major concerns. Hence, to quantify the machining performance in precision turning operations, two criteria are used in this thesis; Chip breakability and Tool Wear. Chip breakability takes care of chip shape and size, and chip side flow. By finding optimal depth of cut and feed in each segment through the profile, the machining performance in precision turning can be improved

  19. Kirti Rani and Swapnil Saxsena

    Amylases are starch degrading enzymes. They are widely distributed in microbial, plant and animal. They degrade starch into free glucose and limit dextrins. Hence, amylases have couple of applications in food & pharmaceutical industries too. Amylase extracted form Phaseolus vulgaris was immobilized on a Bombyx mori silk fabric activated by chlorination and diazotization. The 82 % of immobilization was done onto chemically charged Bombyx mori silk fabric. The optimum temperature, pH, time of incubation, substrate concentration and effect of calcium chloride concentration were studied. Thermal stability of enzyme was improved after immobilization up to 60oC which was 50oC for free enzyme. As well as immobilized enzyme was stable at least for 4 -5 months when stored at 1 M KCL solution at 4º C.

  20. D.K. Dwivedi, Anil Kumar, V.K.Mishra and Saket Dwivedi

    The association among yield and yield components, their direct and indirect influences on grain yield were estimated in 58 rice introgression lines including check varieties. Analysis of variance for the design of experiment indicated that only three characters were non-significant and two characters were significant and other characters were highly significant indicating variability among treatments under drought condition. Leaves per seedling significant and other. All the characters showed highly significant differences among treatments under control conditions except leaves per seedling, which recorded significant differences. The entries IR82853-6 followed by IR82873-27, IR82936-16, IR 82848-9 and IR 82873-38 produced highest grain yield. These lines also possessed average to high mean performance for most of the yield components. Correlation coefficient analysis indicated that harvest index had the highest positive direct effect followed by biological yield/plant and kernel length on grain yield/plant in all environments and pooled level. Based on mean performance for yield and majority of yield components, the above mentioned lines were identified as most promising to be incorporated in hybridization programme as donor parent for incorporation of these characters along with drought tolerance. The path coefficient analysis indicated that biological yield and harvest index had maximum direct effect on grain yield at phenotypic and genotypic level under drought condition. Biological yield and harvest index had maximum direct effect on grain yield at phenotypic level and grains per panicle and panicles per plant had maximum direct effect on grain yield at genotypic level under control condition. Seedling height, leaves per seedling and plant height exerted very high positive indirect effect on grain yield at phenotypic and genotypic level under control conditions via harvest index.

  21. G. Rajiv and M. Prakash

    Field experiments were conducted to study the effect of seed pelleting with flyash on growth, gas exchange parameters and seed yield in greengram with different concentrations ranging from 25 to 300g kg-1 of seed. Observations on growth and yield parameters viz., plant height, number of branches, number of leaves, leaf area, dry matter production, number of pods, number of seeds per pod, 100 seed weight, seed yield per plant and gas exchange parameters viz., net photosynthetic rate, transpiration rate, stomatal conductance and intercellular CO2 concentration were recorded. Based on the results, it was observed that greengram seeds treated with flyash @ 250g kg-1 recorded increased seed yield with increase in growth and yield parameters.

  22. Khalida Shoukat, Nadia Rasheed and Mohammad Sajid

    Studies based on subtractive genomics approach could facilitate the selection, processing and development of strain-specific drugs against various pathogens. The current study based on complete proteome information of Chlamydia trachomatis strain D/UW-3/Cx (ocular-urogenital pathogen of human) revealed 623 proteins; which were non-homologous to human genome. Subjecting this set of non homologous proteins against the Database of Essential Genes 203 proteins were screened out as essential proteins of the C. trachomatis. Among 203 proteins; around 39 essential proteins were found to be part of membrane of pathogen using PSORT tool at Expasy server. All the non homologous essential genes were characterized for differential metabolic pathways using the KEGG Automated Annotation Server and 182 proteins were found to be involved in major metabolic pathway of bacterium. The 12 hypothetical essential proteins were functionally annotated through SVMProt server. Druggability of each of the identified drug targets was also evaluated by the DrugBank database. Moreover, metabolic pathway analysis of the identified druggable essential proteins also revealed 7 proteins that participate in unique pathways of C. trachomatis strain D. Enzymes from Peptidoglycan and Riboflavin biosynthesis were identified as attractive candidates for drug development.

  23. Gudadhe, S. P and V. S. Dhoran

    The aim of the present investigation is to assess the pollen viability and in vitro germination in Chlorophytum comosum and Asparagus officinalis. Pollen viability was tested with 1 % acetocarmine and 0.5 % TTC stain. For in vitro germination different media with variable concentrations and compositions of sucrose and boric acid were used. Maximum in vitro pollen germination in sucrose (40%), boric acid (40 ppm), sucrose + boric acid (30 % sucrose + 50 ppm boric acid) was found to be 77.62, 76.18 and 79.56 % in Asparagus officinalis. In Chlorophytum comosum maximum in vitro germination in sucrose (30 %), boric acid (20 ppm) sucrose + boric acid (30 % sucrose +20 ppm boric acid) was found to be 86.25, 95.48, and 81.34 % respectively. The rate of growth of pollen tubes was higher in 30% of sucrose for both the species because sucrose is the best carbohydrate source for pollen germination and tube growth for most of the plants investigated. Sugar also maintains the osmotic pressure of the medium. The pollen tube length was increased with increase in the time of germination.

  24. Pratiksha Pradhan and Gireesh Babu, K

    The focus of the present study is to isolate and identify the potential methanogenic bacteria from the cowdung procured from Namchi, South Sikkim, India. It was observed that, two bacterial isolates PRATIK-20 and VBC3 showed biogas (methane gas) production of 33.54% and 40.50% respectively using cow dung concentration 75% (w/v), inoculum 25% (w/v) at pH 7 and temperature 35°C in the fabricated anaerobic digester. Based on the 16S rDNA sequence, the bacterial isolates PRATIK-20 and VBC3 were identified as Bacillus sp. and Proteus sp. respectively.

  25. Rane, A.A, Bharat Kag, Vinay Hegde and B.N. Sathyanarayana

    Aonla (Emblica officinalis L.) belongs to the family Euphorbiaceae. The chromosome number of Aonla is 2n=28. Aonla is indigenous to tropical south eastern Asia particularly in central and southern India. The fruit is highly nutritive and it is a rich source of vitamin C. It is valued as antiscorbutic, diuretic, laxative and antibiotic. The investigation was comprised of estimation of genetic diversity of Aonla by using Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA marker. The light green colored leaves harvested from 20 different germplasm were used for DNA extraction by CTAB method. Isolated genomic DNA subjected to PCR amplification using 40 RAPD decamer primers. The data from molecular profiling using RAPD primers were analyzed mainly by scoring for the presence or absence of polymorphic bands through visual interpretation and this binary data was used for statistical analysis. The data was used to generate genetic similarity coefficient similarity matrix on the basis of Jaccard’s coefficient. The Dendrogram (cluster diagram) generated by unweighted pair group method with arithmetic average (UPGMA) algorithm using Sequential Agglomerative Hierarchial and Nested (SAHN). Dendrogram revealed that the genotypes could be grouped into four clusters. The dendrogram showed two (A and B) major clusters at 57% similarity while C and D depicted 59% and 60% of homology respectively within the cluster. The cluster information thus enables us in selecting the parent for breeding programme.

  26. Maganti Surekha, Kiran Saini, Naresh Advala and Solipurum Madhusudhan Reddy

    Production of penitrem B by Penicillium aurantiogriseum under different cultural conditions was investigated. The toxin production was analysed by employing different media. Among the different media employed Richards medium was good substratum for both vegetative growth and toxin production. Except beef extract, all the other microbial nutrients tried enhanced the production of penitrem B.

  27. I. A. Ahangar, M. F. Mir, D. N. Saksena and M. A. Ahangar

    Phytoplankton biodiversity and water quality of famous lake, Anchar Lake, Srinagar (Lat 34° 20΄- 34° 36΄N. 74° 82΄ - 74° 85΄E Long.), Kashmir were examined in the study. During the study period (June 2010 to May, 2011), phytoplankton composition and physico-chemical characteristics of water are indicative of eutrophic condition in three different collection zones (ZA, ZB and ZC) of the lake. The species richness displayed fair variety of algal species (86 taxa). The community was dominated by the members of Bacillariophycea, Chlorophyceae and Cyanophyceae. Highest phytoplankton density (2082 individual/ L) and species diversity (0.928-2.628) was found during the summer season in the area (ZA) where there was anthropogenic activity. The area with maximum disturbance in water column (ZC) showed a minimum phytoplankton density of (164/L) and species diversity (0.991-2.319). Phytoplankton densities have significantly positive correlation with chloride (r= 0.707, significant at 0.05 level) and significantly negative correlation with DO (r= -0.449, significant at 0.05) in ZA and significantly positive correlation with Total alkalinity (r=0.728, significant at 0.01 level) and calcium hardness (r= 0.672, significant at 0.05 level) in ZB.

  28. I. A. Ahangar, M. Farooq Mir, D. N. Saksena and M. A. Ahangar

    Our work was focused on the taxonomic composition of zooplankton in Anchar lake during June 2010 to May 2011. During the investigation, 23 species of zooplankton were observed belonging to the different groups i.e., Protozoa, Rotifera, Copepoda, Cladocera and Ostrocoda. During study period, the zooplankton was composed of 06 taxa of Protozoa, 07 taxa of Rotifera, 07 taxa of Cladocera, 02 taxa of Copepoda and 01 of Ostrocoda. Comparison of the obtained results with those of earlier investigations performed during 2001 showed that changes have occurred in the interval. The total zooplankton composition is significantly changed. Comparison of diversity and density in the lake was studied with diversity indices. The study results clearly indicate intensified eutrophication of lake. This fragile ecosystem has to be prevented from further eutrophication.

  29. Dr Ballah Akawu Denue, Prof. Owochio Adams Enyikwola, Mal Anas yusuf Hussainy, Mrs Cecilia Akawu and Babajide Babatunde Ajayi

    Background: Determination of normal CD4 count and understanding the total lymphocyte count (TLC)-CD4 count relationship could assist in making clinical decisions during antiretroviral therapy, especially in underserved resource-poor settings. The aim of this study is to establish the normal reference values of CD4 count in healthy HIV negative adults residing in our environment. Methods: Three hundred and eighty four apparently healthy adult participants who presented at the HIV clinic for HIV counselling and testing (HCT) between March 2009 and January 2010 were equally recruited based on sex into the study. Those that tested negative had their CD4 count and TLC assessed using cy flow method and hematology analyzer. Result: Their ages at presentation ranged from 18- 67 years (males, 18–49 years; females, 18–67 years) total mean age was 27.29 years (SD = 6.92 years). The male´s mean age of (27.43 years, SD = 5.95 years) was similar to (27.15 years, SD = 7.7 years) in females (p > 0.05). The participants’ CD4 cell count at presentation ranged from 247-1840cells/µl with a mean of 766.66 (SD = 245.69 cells/µl). Mean CD4 cell count at presentation was significantly higher in females (828.41 cells/µl, SD = 268.68cells/µl) than in males (704.26cells/µl, SD =202.37 cells/µl) (f=22.82, p = 0.000). The mean ± SD (min-max) TLC of the studied participants was 5.26 ±1.97 (1.2-14.3). The mean TLC was similar in females (4.94x109/l, SD = 1.95 and males (5.57x109/l, SD =1.97) (p = 0.9). The mean CD4 counts of subjects were similar across the different groups. Similarly there was no statistically significant difference in the mean TLC across all the groups. A positive correlation was observed between CD4 count and TLC (r=0.36, p=0.000). Conclusion: This study shows that females have higher CD4 count than males. There was no observed difference in mean CD4 count across all age groups. A positive correlation was observed between CD4 count and TLC (r=0.36, p=0.000); this association shows that TLC is a suitable surrogate marker for CD4 count in normal adults in our environment.





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