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November 2010

  1. Kavitha, A. and Vijayalakshmi, M

    A study has been undertaken to optimize the amylolytic activity of Streptomyces tendae TK-VL_333 isolated from laterite soil samples of Guntur region by using basal medium as inorganic salts-starch medium. Four-day old culture showed maximum enzymatic activity when grown at pH 7.0 and temperature 30oC. The productivity of the strain was enhanced by amending the medium with sorghum flour and peptone at a concentration of 3% (w/v) and 0.5% (w/v) respectively. This is the first report on the production of amylases by S. tendae.

  2. .A. Bangroo, M.I. Bhat, Tahir Ali, Aziz M.A., M.A. Bhat, and Mushtaq A. Wani

    Importance of nutrient balance in determining yield and quality of crops is well established but there was no means to quantify it until the introduction of the Diagnosis and Recommendation Integrated System (DRIS) in which leaf analysis values are interpreted on the basis of inter-relationship among nutrients, rather than nutrient concentration themselves. The DRIS is based on the comparison of crop nutrient ratios with optimum values from a high yielding group (DRIS norms). The DRIS provides a means of simultaneous identifying imbalances, deficiencies and excesses in crop nutrients and ranking them in order of importance. The major advantage of this approach lies in its ability to minimize the effect of tissue age on diagnosis, thus enabling one to sample over a wider range of tissue age than permissible under the conventional critical value approach. Several researchers affirm that once DRIS norms based on foliar composition has been developed for a given crop; they are universal and applicable to that particular crop grown at any place and at any stage of its development.

  3. Senthamaraikannan, K Senthilkumar, B Ponnuraja, C and Venkatesan, P

    The paper investigates a Bayesian hierarchical model for the analysis of longitudinal data from a randomized controlled clinical tuberculosis trial. Data for each subject are observed on thirteen time point of occasions of the trial. One of the features of the data set is that observations for some variables are missing for at least one time point. In the Bayesian approach, to estimate the model, we use the Gibbs sampler, which as well allows missing data for both the response and the explanatory variables to impute at each iteration of the algorithm, given some appropriate prior distributions.

  4. Asima Amin, Faheema Mushtaq, Singh, P.K., Wani, K.P., Sonam Spaldon and Nadia Nazir

    Pea (Pisum sativum L; 2n=2x=14) also commonly known as English pea or green pea and is a commonly grown leguminous vegetable in the world. Pea is highly self – pollinated due to cleistogamous flower structure and has less than one percent out crossing. It is consumed as fresh vegetable or dry seed throughout the world. It is also one of the most popular vegetables grown for home use by home gardeners. The main emphasis in pea improvement has been on early maturity, yield, quality, and resistance to diseases and insect pests. Three single recessive genes, cry, la and le influence internode length and plant height. Each gene governs these characters along with other two genes. Similarly branching is controlled by two single recessive genes, fr and fru in presence of each other. A single recessive gene, ram is responsible for increasing the number of branches. The characters of leaves, leaflets, stipules and tendrils are governed by single recessive genes. Single dominant genes confer resistance to several diseases like Enation mosaic virus (en), Near Wilt, Fusarium oxysporum f. pisi race 2 (fnw), Fusarium wilt, Fusarium oxysporum f. pisi race 1 (fw), Brown root of peas, Fusarium solani f. sp. pisi, Rust, Uromyces fabae, Downy mildew Perenospora pisci and Bacterial blight. Pseudomonas syringe pv. pisi race 1. The resistance to Bacterial Brown spot of Pea, Pseudomonas syringe pv. pisi, is due to a complex system of inheritance. The highly heritable polygenic characters are plant height, earliness, number of pods per plant, pod length, seeds per pod and 100 seed weight. Seed yield per plant had additive genetic variance and positive epistatic gene action for seed yield per plant. Days to flowering showed non additive gene action with partial dominance and over dominance. Partial dominance or over dominance were also observed for plant height. Arkel and Bonneville must get priority on the part of vegetable breeders as a challenge to them.

  5. Akpet, S. O., Orok, E. E., Essien, A., Meremikwu, V.N and Ukorebi, B. A.

    320-day-old Hubbard broiler chicks were used to determine the interaction of supplemental thiamin (vit. B1) and riboflavin (vit. B2) and and palm oil on the performance of broilers fed practical diets based on groundnut cake. The diets were isocaloric and isonitrogenous and contained 2% or 4% palm oil, 0 or 0.05mg/kg thiamin and 0 or 0.10mg/kg riboflavin supplementation in various combinations to produce a total of 8 duplicate treatments of 20 birds per replicate. Daily feed intakes, weekly live weight and weight gains were measured and at the end of the 9th week two birds per replicate were slaughtered for carcass studies. Birds on treatment 5 with 2.5mg/kg thiamin, 5.0mg/kg riboflavin and 4% fat grew faster. It is suggested, from the observation, that 2.5mg/kg thiamin, 5.0 mg/kg riboflavin and 4% palm oil was adequate for optimum broiler performance when diets contain groundnut cake and further supplementation with these vitamins would not be beneficial.

  6. Muthukumaran, P., Pattabiraman, K. and Kalaiyarasan, P.

    The ethanol extract of Mimosa pudica (Mimosaceae) leaves was evaluated for its hepatoprotective and antioxidant activities against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced liver damage, in wistar albino rats. The ethanol extract of Mimosa pudica (Mimosaceae) leaves (200 mg/kg body weight, p.o.) was administered to the experimental rats for 14 days. Silymarin (50 mg/kg body weight (b.w.) was given as the standard drug. The hepatoprotective activity was assessed using various serum biochemical parameters as glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT), glutamate pyruvate transaminase (SGPT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), bilirubin, and total proteins. Malondialdehyde (MDA) level as well as the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), reduced glutathione (GSH) and catalase (CAT) was determined to explain the possible mechanism of activity. The substantially elevated levels of serum GOT, GPT, ALP and total bilirubin, due to CCl4 treatment, were restored towards near normal by Mimosa pudica (Mimosaceae), in a dose. Mimosa pudica (Mimosaceae) also increased the serum total proteins of CCl4-intoxicated rats. Reduced enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant levels and elevated lipid peroxide levels were restored towards near normal, by administration of Mimosa pudica (Mimosaceae). The results revealed that, the ethanol extract of Mimosa pudica (Mimosaceae) afforded significant dose dependent hepatoprotective and antioxidant effects in CCl4-induced hepatic damage.

  7. Robin, R.S, Pradipta, R . Muduli, Vishnu Vardhan, K., Raj Kumar, J.S.I., Prasun Goswami and Balasubramanian, T

    The present study was undertaken with an aim to estimate the health of marine environment of Kerala in terms of primary production, chlorophyll a and community structure of phytoplankton with respect to existing environmental conditions. Maximum productivity (27.26 mg C m-3 h-1), chlorophyll-a concentration (3.83 mg m-3) and phytoplankton density (5928 cells L–1) were observed at Paravur, where as low productivity, chlorophyll a and phytoplankton count were observed at Veli. Maximum diversity of phytoplankton was encountered at Kasaragod. A total of 29 genera of phytoplankton comprising 23 diatoms, 4 dinoflagellates and each of blue green algae and green algae were identified. The most common diatom encountered in the study was Chaetoceros, Coscinodiscus and Pleurosigma. The acidic effluent discharged from Travancore Titanium Products Limited (TTP) seems to have adversely affected the phytoplankton diversity, abundance and the primary productivity at Veli. Along the Kerala coast, Phytoplankton abundance, community structure and biomass could be controlled by spatial variability of nutrients and species specific association with respect to differences in the hydrographical conditions and anthropogenic inputs from point sources.

  8. Orok, E.E., Essien, A., Akpet, S.O., Ibom, L.A. and Etop, S.C.

    Two crossbred boars were trained to mount a dummy sow and semen was collected through the gloved-hand technique. The semen was extended with Beltsville L1 (BL-1) extender containing penicillin-streptomycin antibiotics from 5 pharmaceutical sources namely: Sigma, Pfizer, Verticare, Squibb and Butler. Evaluation of semen after 1, 24 and 48 hours storage at 100C for sperm concentration and percent motility was used as a basis for determining the effect of ingredients in antibiotic from different sources and storage time on spermatozoa. Different sources of antibiotics used did not affect (P>0.05) sperm concentration and percent motility. However; storage time had effect on percent motile sperms.

  9. Kachare, S.V and Suryawanshi, S.R

    The present work deals with ethno medicines on Jaundice from Nanded district. For this an ethnobotanical survey was undertaken in Nanded district. Authors have collected the traditional knowledge to cure Jaundice from Tuppa, Daheli, Anandwadi, Mahur, Kinwat, Nanded, Loni etc. Took the interviews noted on paper and recorded their traditional knowledge. The medicines were collected, their vernacular name noted & their scientific validity was found by referring the Ayurvedic literature.

  10. Peters Okoeguale Ibadin and Olumhense Imoisili

    Organization contexts (termed organizational contextual variables, hereafter) and management accounting system design (MASD) have been linked in literature. The tendency that has grown over the last couple of years is how to reflect these contexts in MASD. Researchers have argued in this area of accounting research that the paucity or dearth of empirical research was the product of complex interactions and inter-relationships among organizational contextual variables and the difficulty in developing theories of how these complex interactions influence MASD. The objective of this paper is to extend the frontiers of previous efforts by examining the impact of organizational contextual variables on MASD. To do this, we extended the model used by incorporating into the model, organization size (SIZ) and organization technology (TEC).Using a sample size of sixty(60) companies, and the Ordinary Least Square(OLS) regression of SPSS 17.0 to test the relationships, our findings revealed that while SIZ was significantly and positively associated with MASD, no relationship was established between TEC and MASD. Based on these findings, it was recommended that designers of management accounting system should incorporate organization contexts into MASD so as to change the perception and pressure on the system.

  11. Bakkialakshmi, S and Menaka, T

    Fluorescence, Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) and Scanning Electron Microscope(SEM) Spectroscopic investigations have been made to reveal the native of the interactions between xanthene dye Rhodamine 6G (R6G) and the well known amines (i) n-butyl anine (BTA) and (ii) triethyl amine (TEA). From the analysis of the steady – state fluorescence quenching of Rhodamine 6G in aqueous solution in the presence of BTA and TEA, it is revealed that the quenching is dynamic in nature. FTIR and SEM studies confirm this quenching. The stern-volmer constant, Molar extinction coefficient, stoke’s shift have been computed. The tentative frequency assignments for the FTIR spectra have been tabulated.

  12. Shubashini K. Sripathi and Poongothai, G.

    Pisonia grandis is an herb claimed to be used for treatment of various diseases by local folks. Since, this plant possesses many medicinal properties; there are not many scientific studies carried out on this plant which promoted us to pursue a systematic pharmacological evaluation of Pisonia grandis leaves to verify their medicinal properties. Bioassay- guided fractionation of ethanol extract of leaves of Pisonia grandis was studied for its anti-fungal activity against microorganisms Candida albicans, Aspergillus niger, Pencillium citrinum and Monascus purpureus by disc diffusion method. The ethanol extract showed good anti-fungal activity against Monascus purpureus comparable to standard clotrimazole.

  13. Gopal Chandra Mandal and Kaushik Bose

    The Millenium Development Goals (MDGs) aim towards the reduction of maternal and child mortality. Low income, bad healthcare and neglect of basic education can all be influential in causing and sustaining the extraordinary level of undernutrition in India. Undernutrition among preschool children may be the result of faulty feeding practices rather than scarcity of the food. The nutritional status of the people is increasingly being recognized world over as an important indicator of development of a country. Anthropometry is widely recognized as one of the useful techniques to assess the growth and nutritional status of an individual or population. One of the basic reason is that, anthropometry is highly sensitive to undernutrition. Under the Integrated Child Development Service (ICDS) scheme, the development of women as well as children implements the food supplementation program for improving nutritional status of the mother and children. The package of services provided by the ICDS scheme includes supplementary nutrition, immunization, health check-up, referral services, nutrition and health education, and preschool education. Keeping these in mind, the present work attempted to study the nutritional status of 894 children (boys = 441; girls = 453) aged 2-5 years rural preschool children from 20 ICDS centers of Bali-Gram panchayat, Hooghly district, West Bengal, India. Here, we tried to assess the nutritional status of the studied children with the help of the head circumference (HC) by using new WHO (2007) recommended cutoff points. The overall (age combined) rate of undernutrition among girls was slightly higher (64.9%) than boys (62.8%). There is clear increasing trend of undernutrition among the boys with the increasing age. The age specific highest prevalence among boys was found at age 5 years (74.8%), whereas, among girls, the highest rate (76.5%) was noticed at age 4 years followed by children of 5 years of age and the lowest (44.3%) prevalence was found at age 3 years. The overall prevalence (age combined) of undernutrition based on head circumference cut-off points, showed significant association with the sex (χ2 = 5.50; df=1, p < 0.025). Our study clearly indicated that the nutritional status of these pre-school children was serious with very high rates of undernutrition in both sexes based on HC.

  14. Samiran Bisai, Romendro Khongsdier, Kaushik Bose, Amal Kumar Bhunia, Dilip Mahalanabis and Slawomir Koziel

    Objective Obesity has become known as an epidemic worldwide. Therefore a study was undertaken to assess the prevalence of adolescent overweight and obesity in Midnapore town, West Bengal, India. The results were compared with national and international prevalence levels in respect to economic status. Methods The subjects were selected from Bengalee speaking lower-middle socio-economic class. A total of 1265 (640 boys and 625 girls) children aged 10-12 years were measured and included in the present analysis. Body mass index (BMI) was computed using the following standard equation: BMI = Weight (kg)/height (m)2. Presence of overweight and obesity were evaluated using the International cut-off values as recommended by International Obesity Task Force (IOTF). Results The overall frequencies of overweight and obesity were 5.69% and 0.79%, respectively. The prevalence of overweight was significantly higher among girls (7.20%) compared to boys (4.22%). They had 1.89 (95% CI: 1.33 – 3.18) fold more chances to being overweight than the boys. There was a significant decreasing trend in the rate of overweight with increasing age among boys. The odds ratios for ages 10 and 11 were 3.94 and 3.01, respectively. The highest rate was observed among 10 year in both boys (5.88%) and girls (7.88%), while the lowest rate was found among 12 years in both boys (1.46%) and girls (6.37%). The prevalence of obesity was slightly higher in girls than in boys across ages. Conclusions The moderate rates of overweight and low rate of obesity were found among adolescents of Midnapore Town, West Bengal. We recommend that similar studies be undertaken among children and adolescents of different socioeconomic groups of different ethnicities from diverse parts of India. Such studies would help us to have a better and clearer picture on the overweight and obesity situation in India and other developing countries experience with rapid economic transition.

  15. Sajad Majeed Zargar and Muslima Nazir

    Silicon (Si) is a micronutrient, though not considered to be an essential nutrient for terrestrial plants but is often a major constituent of plant tissues. Apparently no other non-essential element is present in such consistently high amounts in the terrestrial plants. Si concentration in the plant tissues sometimes even exceeds the concentrations of nitrogen and potassium. It has been found to give resistance against various abiotic and biotic stresses mainly drought and blast disease respectively in case of rice. We estimated the soluble silicon content from fresh leaves at flowering stage of 51 diverse rice genotypes grown under aerobic conditions. Single marker analysis (SMA) and stepwise multiple regression analysis (SMRA) was done to find-out markers contributing for the silicon accumulation in rice. We identified a number of RAPD markers associated with the accumulation of soluble silicon in rice. Among the various RAPD markers, SMA established association of five RAPD markers among which maximum association was shown by OPD31000 (23.07%), followed by OPB8700 (17.42%)while the SMRA showed OPB82000 and OPC141200 contributing more than 7% for accumulation of soluble silicon in leaves at flowering stage with positive parameter estimates. These markers can be used as an initial resource for identification and validation of tightly linked markers for this trait and later be used in molecular breeding program for improvement of rice crop. As silicon gives resistance against various abiotic (mainly drought) and biotic (blast disease) stresses in rice, hence can also be utilized in determining the resistance status of rice against these stresses.

  16. Sangeetha, P and Jebanesan, A

    A survey was conducted in five selected dairy farms in and around Chidambaram town between April 2004 to March 2005. The aim was to describe the seasonal and relative abundance of Hymenopterous parasitoids that attack puparia of Musca domestica Linnaeus. Two species of parasitoids Spalangia cameroni Perkins, Spalangia endius Walker were observed in different dairy farms. When the proportion of parasitoids recorded from pupae was analysed, Spalangia cameroni was recorded as the most prevalent species when compared to Spalangia endius. The climatological factors viz., temperature, rainfall and relative humidity had a significant correlation with both Spalangia cameroni and Spalangia endius.

  17. Alireza Binesh , S. Mohammadi, A. Mowlavi and P. Parvaresh

    Radon and its radioactive progenies in indoor places are recognized as the main sources of public exposure from the natural radioactive sources. The tap water used for drinking and other household uses can increase the indoor radon level. In the present research data on radon concentrations in the water samples of Mashhad city has provided. Water samples were collected from various places and supplies of public water used in Mashhad. Then radon concentration has been measured by PRASSI system tree times for each sample in this research. Result shows about 75% of water samples have radon concentration gather than 10Bq/L which advised EPA as a normal level. According to measurements data, the mean radon concentration of all samples was 16.238 ± 9.322 Bq/L. The annual mean effective dose in stomach and long are 42.674 ± 24.525 and 45.305 ± 26.037 μSv/y, respectively, per person of Mashhad population which is more then 4 millions people. Results show about 75% of water samples have radon concentration gather than 10Bq/L as advised of EPA normal level. The radon and radium concentrations in drinking water samples actually used by people in Mashhad in some regions are not low enough and below the EPA proposed limits. Since a main section of radon come in body is due to drinking and household water, and for improvement of the social health level, we suggest using the low radon level water source, or public water supplies authority reducing the radon in the drinkable water before using by people.

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