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Plagiarism Detection

IJCR is following an instant policy on rejection those received papers with plagiarism rate of more than 20%. So, All of authors and contributors must check their papers before submission to making assurance of following our anti-plagiarism policies.





July 2021

  1. Ram Bahadur and Vijaykant Pandey

    Helically coiled heat exchangers are globally used in various industrial applications for their high heat transfer performance and compact size. Nanofluids can provide the superb thermal performance in helical coil heat exchangers. Research studies on heat transfer enhancement have gained solemnmotion during recent years and have been proposed many techniques by different research groups (1). A fluid with higher thermal conductivity has been developed to increase the proficiency of heat exchangers. The dispersion of 1-100nm sized solid nanoparticles in the traditional heat transfer fluids, termed as nanofluids, exhibit substantial higher convective heat transfer than that of traditional heat transfer fluids. Nanofluid is a heat transfer fluid which is the combination of nanoparticles and base fluid that can improve the performance of heat exchanger systems. In this present paper the efforts are made to understand that how to compare the heat transfer rate in Tapered Helical Coil by using TiO2 nanofluid as water and ethylene glycol as a base fluid by studying research papers of various authors.

  2. Dr. Kallol Chatterjee, Subrata Samadder and Dr. Mrinal Das

    Background: Motor movement is the key to physical education. Motor development, at its highest level, can take place in an individual with favourable environmental in fluencies from the very childhood. The purpose of the study was to investigate the difference on general motor ability between Govt. and Non-Govt. B.P.Ed. college male students. Method: As subjects 80 B.P.Ed. college male students were taken randomly, forty (40) from Post Graduate Government Institute for Physical Education, Banipur, North 24 Parganas, W.B., India and another forty (40) from Model B.P.Ed. college, Jalpaiguri, W.B., India, age ranged from 22 to 28 years. To measure general motor ability Phillip’s J.C.R Test was used that is consisted of three items namely Vertical Jump, Shuttle Run and Chinning Ups. For statistical calculation all the obtained raw score was converted to z-scale to use J.C.R Test Scoring Table and finally‘z’ test was employed at 0.05 level of significance. Result: As per statistical analysis no significant difference were found between Govt. and Non-Govt. B.P.Ed. College male students.

  3. Neelam Rao Bharti, Ms. Abhilasha Verma, Bhawna Solanki and Dr. Rajul Rastogi

    Aim of the study was to evaluate better visualization of patellofemoral joint space among various x-ray tube angulation of 15°,20°,25°cranially with flexion of 45° with use of the anterior border of the patella and tibial tuberosity. Objectives: 1. To determine the skyline or axial view has provided useful information about the morphology and anatomy of the patellofemoral joint. 2. To assess the clinical handiness of the new horizon, see imaging procedure as a standard strategy into clinical practice. Methodology: our database consisted of various x-ray tube angulations of 15°,20°,25°cranially with flexion of 45° of the patella of the same patients. We are taking images from three different angles. And the IR read to the reader and image displayed and the evaluation will be made by blinding the radiologist and the score for the different projection will be recorded. The Final score will be tabulated according to the evaluation given by the radiologist. obtained with use of inferior –superior view of skyline projection for the radiographic diagnosis of knee-joint diseases. Result: A total of 29 patients ranging in age from 20 to 70 years with mean age 39.21 years. Conclusion: This prospective clinical study confirmed that the best visualization of the patellofemoral joint space with the skyline-view imaging technique, which uses the 25° x-ray tube angulation with the 45° knee flexion in the supine position. That provides more accurate axial images of the patella.

  4. Marianne W. Robertson, Daniel M. Delaney, and Casey R. Watson

    Kin selection is common in nature among cannibalistic organisms that have a high kin encounter rate. The jumping spider Phidippus audax (Araneae: Salticidae) has a high, localized population density and is widely distributed. We studied the effects of kinship on cannibalism in the second through the seventh instars of this species. We observed low levels of cannibalism in second instars and high levels in fourth through seventh instars, with no effects of relatedness in those stages. In the third instar, siblings avoided cannibalism, and non-siblings were highly cannibalistic. Starvation results were similar with the only significant difference occurring in the third instar where starvation was significantly higher in related versus unrelated pairs. These results may indicate an age-dependent instinctive response among spiderlings that determines whether or not they will starve rather than confront and attempt to cannibalize their own kin.

  5. Agon Skeja Ph. Candidate and Prof Dr. Seadin Xhaferi

    Background: The main issues of This paper deals with is the analysis of contemporary monetary instruments, specifically digital currencies and cryptocurrencies as well as their impact on the monetary, financial and economic perspective around the world. As the central banks of the countries of the world are still the main followers of all the major global financial trends, we will pay special attention to their response to the challenge posed by the monetary constructs coming from the private sector. Finally, we will make a brief analysis of the legal framework of digital currencies and cryptocurrencies and examine the legislation approache of individual countries towards them.

  6. Boyagoda, E.W.M.S.

    The study sets out to find the contribution rendered by the Rajarata Regional Radio Station and the perception of its listeners in Anuradhapura District, Sri Lanka. In order to carry out the objectives, survey method, interviews and observations were conducted. The study concluded that Rajarata radio which was in forefront in the beginning has been collapsed and unpopular at present. Most of the programmes which broadcasted by the station were given entertainment value and education value as well and it had maintained its identity and offered a unique service to the region at the beginning. In order to bring it to right track to contribute the region again, there is a dire need to improve the quality of the programmes and technological facilities, and to avoid political influences and to build up and improve the close relationship with the community producing locally-made programmes on various regional issues such as agricultural, educational, social, religious, health and all aspects of lives. The listeners of Rajarata Radio strongly believe that the channel should be continued with the improvements in future in order to serve and empower the community in the region and proposed some of the suggestions too.

  7. Kourti, E., Strakas, D., Pantelidou-Papadopoulou, O. and Tolidis, K.

    Background: Laser-assisted endodontic treatment is a suitable instrument for smear layer removal in root canals. Objective: This ex-vivo study evaluated the efficiency of an Er: YAG laser (2940nm) at different pulse energy levels to remove smear layer with or without chelators from the middle and apical third of mesial roots. Methods: This study evaluated the efficiency of an Er: YAG laser (2940nm) at different pulse energy levels to remove smear layer with or without chelators from the middle and apical third of mesial roots. 48 mesial root canals of first mandibular molars were divided into 4 groups of 12 teeth each. Each group consisted of 2 subgroups each (A and B), regarding the irrigation protocol. In subgroup A, teeth were rinsed only by distilled water whereas in subgroup B, teeth were rinsed by 5ml 17% EDTA for 60sec, 5ml 5% NaOCL and 5ml distilled water. Four different pulse energy values were tested, namely 30mJ, 50mJ, 70mJ, 80mJ in order to irradiate the roots in Group 1, Group 2, Group 3 and Group 4 respectively. Control groups (n=4) was instrumented and rinsed as experimental groups (subgroup A & B) but not irradiated. Teeth were sectioned longitudinally and observed under SEM. Results: Results were statistically analyzed with the Kruskal-Wallis Test. There is statistically significant difference between groups irrigated with chelators and groups with distilled water before laser irradiation in the apical third. Group 1B (0.75W) showed statistically significant outcome in apical part. The results showed no statistically difference between subgroup B and control group. Conclusion: The presence of chelating factor may play an important role in the laser mechanism of smear layer removal from apical part of narrow and curved root canals.

  8. Dr. Yamini S., Dr. Mohanpatil, Dr. Divyasri and Dr. Anil. B. Kurane

    Background: Immunization is the powerful tool to reduce the Under 5 mortality and morbidity. National Immunization schedule is prepared by ministry of health and Family Welfare; It makes vaccine free of cost. 1 Considering current situation where social restrictions and fear of COVID -19 has occupied entire nation , emphasis should be made on routine vaccination for children, reducing the risk for outbreak of vaccine preventable diseases. Aim and objective: To find out how many Under 5 children have missed vaccination in lockdown; To find out the reason for the missed vaccination. Methodology: This observational study was conducted among 160 under 5 age children visiting the D.Y.PATIL hospital Pediatric OPD in during June2020 to November 2020. Detailed immunization history noted and number of children who has missed vaccine and their reason noted. Result : Of total 168 study sample, 18% had missed vaccination. On assessing the reason for missing the due schedule , 45% due to closure of anganwadi , 29% due to fear of COVID,19% due to other illness, 7% gave reason as they were not notified. Conclusion: Vaccination for most vaccine preventable diseases are given free of cost to all children by government2 ,utilizing them are core responsibility as a citizen. This survey shows highest reason for missing routine vaccine as closure of anganwadi. As government has not given orders to close anganwadi ,public health should take adequate action to make sure all anganwadi should kept open even during strict lockdown and Action should be taken to create awareness to the public through social media and public sources by Public health agencies on need of continuation of routine vaccines in such adverse situation to prevent outbreak of vaccine preventable disease.

  9. Rahul Anand, Valsa Diana, G. and Sujatha. P

    PCOS is an ovarian disorder characterised by hyperandrogenism, ovulatory dysfunction and polycystic ovaries. Clinically, the ovulatory dysfunction often presents as oligo/amenorrhoea, although menorrhagia is not uncommon.PCOS can present as heavy menstrual bleeding in adolescent girls because of the associated endometrial thickening caused by unopposed anovulatory hyper-oestrogenism

  10. Dr. Arun krishnan and Dr. Vijay Ebenezer

    A ZMC fracture is also known as a tripod, tetrapod or quadripod fracture, trimalar fracture or malar fracture. They can account for approximately 40% of mid-face fractures. They are the second most common facial bone fracture after nasal bone injuries. For the reduction of ZMC fractures various surgical techniques including one, two and three point fixation have been used, these are based on the severity and the extent of the fracture, Several approaches are used namely lateral eyebrow, sub ciliary, intra oral incisions for fixation of ZMC fractures. At this time it remains unclear which treatment is best. This present study is aimed to compare the efficacy of one point versus two point fixation following repair of zygoma fractures in 10 patients and to compare the treatment outcomes of one point versus two point fixation.

  11. Mahendra Kumar Tiwari and Mahendra K Tiwari

    Water plays a noteworthy role in maintaining the human strength and interests. Hygienic water is now distinguished as a basic accurate of human beings. Heavy metals and high minerals content being perceptible contaminants positions imperative toxicological impacts to human life and exist ecological backgrounds. Physical properties of heavy metals having, relative a high atomic weight along with binding abilities with additional elements. It is a leading usual resource, contributes structures and drinking water reserve in increasing countries is a global alarm. The piece of task is carried out to study the water suitability of Bansagar dam, Shahdol for irrigation and consumption views. Three water samples were collected from three specific sites which serve as groundwork of water at various positions of Bansagar dam. Samples were examined for minerals and heavy metal content throughout 2019 and 2020 to assess the impact of seasonal variations in water of the dam via observing different minerals and heavy metal content viz, Ca, Mg, Na, K, Fe, Hg, and Fluoride, in different seasons. Basically all explored parameters communicated their standard and below position suggested by means of WHO and ISI as drinking and utility of water. Parameters were under seasonal modification variety, Hence, it can concluded that Bansagar Dam water influenced due to participation of geographical association and their recurrent alterations, other than water increasingly concentration towards eutrophication which point in the direction and suggested about the accessibility of protected dam water in expressions of drinking along with the irrigation exploitation. For a detailed analysis the monitoring and analysis should be carried out for a longer period of time. The minimum time for such monitoring should be two year in order to have a series of data or trends to confirm the study reliability.

  12. Harmanpreet Singh, Dr. Gitanjali Goyal and Jagroop Singh

    Background: No data is available evaluating the difference in serum versus plasma sample assay of commonly tested parameters in the biochemistry department, where the sample processing time can be significantly reduced if plasma is used for analysis instead of conventionally used serum. Hence, this study aimed comparsion of various biochemical parameters in serum and plasma. Material and method: The comparative descriptive study was conducted in department of Biochemistry in Guru Gobind Singh Medical college and hospital, faridkot. Total 300 participants were enrolled in this study. Result; Mean age of study group the maximum number 23% of patients The were from the age group of 20-39 years. On the other hand, age-group 40-49 and 50-59 years were sharing 40% and 37% (respectively) of the total number of participants. Mean age was 35.46±8.5 years and range 20-59 years. Total numbers of participants enrolled in the study were 193 males and 107 were females, sharing a percentage 63% and 37% respectively The comparison of Rft/Lft and electrolytes from serum and plasma were performed on fully auto analyzer which show significant correlation (p< 0.05). Conclusion: It was concluded that good correlation is found between routine parameters analyzed in serum and plasma but mean difference between the two is significant so serum preferred for routine biochemical analysis.

  13. K. Lalnunsiami, Dr. Lalhriatpuii and Lalhruaitluangi Sailo

    Career maturity among adolescents is of overriding concern so as to live a happy and contented life. Choosing the right kind of profession or career in accordance to an individual’s interest and preference is very much crucial in ensuring self-adequacy and self-assuredness. The present study aims to examine the level of career maturity among college students in Aizawl District of Mizoram. For the present study, stratified random sampling was used on a total sample of 300 college students from 5 degree colleges in Aizawl city. For the data collectionCareer Maturity Inventory (Indian adaptation) developed by Dr. Nirmala Gupta. (1989) was used to measurethe level of career maturity of college students. For data analysis mean, t-test and Anova were used. The results indicated that out of 300 college students, 222 (74%) college students were found to have an average level of career maturity. It was also found that the level of career maturity between male and female college students have no significant difference. Out of 100 respondents from each stream, students from arts streams only 5% have scored high level of career maturity, 74% of arts students have an average level of career maturity and 21% of arts students have low level of career maturity. The result also indicated that only 14% of commerce students have high level of career maturity, whereas 80% of commerce students scored average level of career maturity and only 6% of commerce students have low level of career maturity. Furthermore, only 21% of science students have high level of career maturity and majority of 69% science students have an average level of career maturity and only 10% of college science students have low level of career maturity.

  14. Dr. Abhijit Sarkar

    This research investigates the connect between technology and office safety, As the world continues to become more connected, it’s becoming increasingly important to adjust security and safety procedures in the workplace and adapting or use of technology will be one of the recommended solution. Intelligent and Smart surveillance is a function available in IoT It takes several forms. Facility managers across different industries can explore using the use IoT to obtain live information about potential emergency situations with a view to responding before the issue gets escalated. Method: Use of several methods including case studies , data sources and validation of findings with industry representatives and conference peer-review processes, have been used to validate the research design and findings during the research process Initial exploratory interviews, observations in industry seminars and industry reports. The starting point for this research was the interest on the topic of enhancing and improving efficiency of workplace security system through technology. To investigate what this interest was in particular, the author had been participating in several industry seminars, where the technology, sustainability and health and safety were the subject of discussion. At the same time, several industry reports published on the topic of IOT and technology improving the security systems in the workplace where studied. The observations from industry seminars and reports were used for designing initial exploratory interviews with real estate/work place owners. These seminars and reports addressed the topicality of technology used and integrated with the workplace security system to improve the safety and security of the employees and the premises and improve the occupier satisfaction and save cost, which therefore indicate that the research has potential for practical relevance. The Study reveals that the author, have been core advisory member of various associations and in touch with the fraternity and been following the trend globally, author being a core Facility Management professional and has personally seen the best practices followed and integration of technology with workplace security has resulted in improvement of the then entire security process and led the users satisfaction and overcome avoiding any kind of incidents. The study reveals that the author has been doing research and has read various articles on technology and its positive impact on workplace. The findings from the literature review demonstrate that there is a need to integrate the technology with the workplace security system to the occupier satisfaction, enhance better control and surveillance, save cost & contribute towards sustainability.

  15. Nripesh Trivedi

    This paper describes three directions along which user reaction could be studied.

  16. Ayesha Bee and Diker Dev Joshi

    Introduction: The rapid and extensive spread of the COVID-19 pandemic has become a major cause of concern for the healthcare profession. With this mode of transmission, healthcare workers including physiotherapists are among the highest risk of being infected. Thus it is essential for the physiotherapy students to have awareness about COVID-19 transmission The objective of this study is to assess the awareness of COVID-19 disease among physiotherapy students. Method: A cross sectional questionnaire was conducted among physiotherapy students of Padmashree Institute of Physiotherapy, Bangalore, Karnataka. The population of students included UG students, Interns and PG students. An online questionnaire consisting 20 questions about awareness of COVID-19 was sent to the students through google forms and the data was collected. Results: A total of 60 students participated in this survey (13 males and 47 females). The overall awareness for all the participants was adequate with more than 70% students being highly aware. The findings of this study revealed that 74.76% of masters in physiotherapy and 73.58% of bachelors in physiotherapy students have good awareness of COVID-19. Conclusion: This study concludes that there is sufficient awareness among physiotherapy students of Padmashree Institute of Physiotherapy, Bengaluru, Karnataka on COVID-19.

  17. Aschalew Emire, Sintayo Demise and Temesgen Giri

    This study was conducted at Bore Agricultural Research Center, on station. The objective of this study was to identify the best adaptable agro forestry multipurpose tree and shrub species for the study area. Seedlings of multipurpose tree and shrub species were out planted in a randomized complete block design (RCBD) with three replications. A plot size of 13mx7m was used for each multipurpose tree and shrub species selected for this study. A plot consisted of three rows of multipurpose trees, on each row three multipurpose trees were planted and each plots had nine multipurpose trees. Based on the objective of this study, quarterly the following parameters such as survival rate, tree height and diameter at breast height (DBH) were recorded until the end of the study. The results of this study revealed that, multipurpose tree and shrub species such as Acacia abysinica, Grevillia robusta, Hagenia abysinica, Acacia saligna and Pinus patula had the highest survival rate at the study site. In addition, their survival rate were significantly (P<0.05) higher than Cordia africana, Susbania acculeta and Leuceana leococephala multipurpose tree species. However, from all multipurpose tree and shrub species selected for this study Leuceana Leococephala was shown poor survival rate. The reason low survival of Leucaena leucocephala was observed at study site was due to agroecology of the study site was not suitable for the species. The height data recorded by the end of the experiment revealed that there were not significance (P<0.05) differences in height were viewed between Acacia saligna, Acacia abysinica,Grevillia robusta and Hagenia abysinica multipurpose tree and shrub species and all the tree species were attained the highest mean value respectively. However, Cordia africana, Susbania acculeta and Leucaena leucocephala were multipurpose tree and shrub species achieved the lowest mean value respectively.Diameter at breast height (DBH) data recorded at the end of this study showed that, Acacia abysinica and Acacia saligna were the tree species attained the highest mean values of DBH and Grevillea robusta, Pinus patula, Hagenia abysinica and Susbania acculeta attained medium mean values of DBH. However, from multipurpose tree and shrub species selected for this study, Cordia africana and Leuceana Leococephala had the lowest value of DBH. Generally, these findings could be used to promote those adapted promising native and exotic multipurpose tree and shrub species for promotion of agroforestry practice. Moreover, it can help all stake holders to properly allocate species into the site that grow and adapt well.

  18. Médard Ngouala Mabonzo

    Background: This article focuses on the assessment of the water quality of Lake Kongo and rivers in the vicinity of the sugar cane plantations in Nkayi in the Republic of Congo. Objective: The physico-chemical study is based on the determination of the contents of the various parameters. The samples taken in the field were subjected to physico-chemical analyzes. The levels were determined by several methods: in situ and in the laboratory. Methods: The results of the chemical analyzes were processed by hydrochemical and statistical methods. Results: The organoleptic parameters reveal contents of the wastewater higher than the WHO standards (MES: 591 mg / l, turbidity: 806.5 NTU in the rainy season and MES: 469 mg / l, turbidity: 463.98 NTU in season dried). The physico-chemical parameters also show levels higher than WHO standards for certain rivers such as Louadi (bicarbonates: 235.5 mg / l), Livouba (calcium: 89.83 mg / l) in the dry season. The pH is basic, greater than 7, only the wastewater gives an acidic pH with 6.09 in the dry season and 6.4 in the rainy season. Regarding undesirable substances, nitrates have levels higher than WHO standards: 67.59 mg / l for Lake Kongo and 72.6 mg / l for the Mintouyou river in the dry season, 51.59 mg / l for wastewater and 55.38 mg / l for the Louadi river in the rainy season. Conclusion: The mineralization of water is mainly caused by the phenomena of dissolution and precipitation of minerals (calcite, dolomite, anhydrite, gypsum and halite). The results obtained by the PCA indicate that the variables which control the salinization of water are Ca2+, Mg2+, Al3+, HCO3-, SO42- and K+. Most of these waters are polluted by a permanent source of pollution which remains to be determined in the future.

  19. Raffaele Perez and Victor Martinez-Pacheco

    In this article, the authors intend to analyse and learn as much as possible how the Layout Workshops of Architecture schools, in addition to producing architectural design prototypes and project models, function mainly as teaching support in an environment that becomes educational classroom. Students and teachers discuss and exchange information with the help of graphic technical language and scale models. Technological resources are basic needs for the development of projects and tutorials are a group tool to learn not only to project but to defend the values of one's own work. We will illustrate that the current basic needs of future architects will be to train with an open technology and within the reach of all designers with the aim of being competitive and current.

  20. YETONGNON Judith Eric Georges

    Commune de Kpomassè dispose d’un certain nombre d’ouvrages hydrauliques pour l’approvisionnement en eau potable des populations en milieu rural dont la plupart est fonctionnelle. Pour éviter les problèmes liés à la mauvaise gestion des ouvrages, elle fait l’option de la gestion professionnalisée par affermage. De façon générale cette recherche envisage analyser les forces et les faiblesses de l’affermage des ouvrages d’approvisionnement en eau potable dans le processus de développement local. De façon spécifique, il s’agit de : Faire ressortir les forces de l’affermage des ouvrages d’approvisionnement en eau potable ; Identifier les faiblesses de l’affermage des ouvrages d’approvisionnement en eau potable et Faire le lien entre l’affermage des ouvrages d’approvisionnement en eau potable et le développement local. Pour y parvenir, le modèle d’analyse SWOT a été associé à l’analyse stratégique de Crozier et Friedberg. Il en ressort donc que la Commune de Kpomassè dispose de divers ouvrages d’approvisionnement en eau potable qui sont mal répartis dans ses arrondissements et gérés par des fermiers recrutés selon la procédure. Malgré les faiblesses et les menaces que présente l’affermage, il permet une meilleure gestion des ouvrages d’approvisionnement en eau potable, garantit au mieux la continuité du service public de l’eau, favorise la promotion du secteur privé, etc. en un mot l’affermage des ouvrages d’approvisionnement en eau potable contribue au développement local de la commune de Kpomassè.

  21. Amanda Dávalos Azambuja and Jacir Alfonso Zanatta

    Este texto busca compreender, por meio da revisão de literatura, como Ferenczi percebe o cuidado. O entendimento de cuidado na saúde mostra uma atitude frente às várias situações, sejam elas doentias ou não. Ao analisar as dimensões do cuidado em Sándor Ferenczi nos artigos disponíveis nas bases de dados do e, podemos dizer que as noções de empatia e hospitalidade são referências para a clínica intersubjetiva, e exige a capacidade de estar com o outro a partir da sensibilidade e afetividade implicada no processo. Podemos concluir que o cuidado é um conceito estruturante do ser, contrapondo a ideia de um objeto independente de nós. O cuidado atravessa o ser humano e é fator constituinte de subjetivação. É fundamental tomar a ética do cuidado como referência, sendo elemento central para as relações humanas.

  22. Abeer Alotaibi

    Performance tasks are specific tasks used to evaluate students' performance based on specified criteria. Performance tasks facilitate curriculum design that defines what to teach, what students will learn, what will happen in the future, and how it is applied to the world. Performance tasks are very important in curriculum planning because performance tasks, Essential Questions, and class activities help teachers and curriculum designers monitor student outcomes and then take them into account in curriculum design.

  23. Abeer Alotaibi

    The article demonstrates the importance of a leading teacher knowing about technology in education and encouraging other teachers to use it. Teacher leaders need to be more involved in learning about and using modern technology than other teachers. Educator leaders should help educators find opportunities for professional development around technology.

  24. Abeer Alotaibi

    This article explains the importance of educational philosophies in how students learn, the subject and materials to use, and the way teachers explain lessons to students. It also shows the impact and role of the teacher's philosophy in the classroom, school and society in achieving the goals of education.

  25. Abeer Alotaibi

    Cyberbullying leads to a negative school environment. It affects the students psychologically and academically performance. Reducing cyberbullying by using safety software and bullying reporting procedures improves the school environment and, consequently, students' academic and life success.

  26. Abeer Alotaibi

    A teacher leader is leader to students in the classroom as well as teachers in the school and in the society. A teacher leader I should be able to help identify problems in the school and work with others to solve the problems.

  27. Antonio D'Costa

    Although being one of the most populous countries, the public healthcare system in India operates at a dismal ratio of 0.08 doctors for every 1000 people. As of 2020, Data shows that only nine among India’s 28 states meet the World Health Organization (WHO) recommendation of a 1:1000 doctor-population ratio. With the country's present policies to tackle the issue receiving staunch opposition from Medical practitioners, out of the box ideas are the need of the hour to sustain the healthcare system. India possesses a strong rural healthcare infrastructure in the form of trained non-medical healthcare workers such as "dais" and "village health guides", and with the rise of cheap technology it would be apt to empower these workers with the same. In this article, we briefly describe a cheap, affordable, indigenously built Electrocardiography (ECG) machine and how the healthcare workers could be taught to use it to detect impending myocardial infarctions and to decide on timely higher centre referrals. We further provide plans to expand this system to detect and prevent dehydration in young children through the use of Artificial Intelligence; Thus assisting these healthcare workers to be more astute and also aid as a redundancy tool to detect and prevent clinician errors. It is high time a growing economy like India capitalise on the recent advancements in technology and medicine to rescue it's burdened healthcare system.

  28. Harmeet singh and Dr. Manila Jain

    Background: Obesity is chronic disease characterized by Body Mass Index (BMI) >30 and body fat percentage >20%. It is often associated with non-communicable diseases including cardiovascular diseases, Lung Diseases and is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. present study aims to assess association of anthropometric parameters of obesity including central obesity indicators and body fat percentage with Lung Function. Methods: Total 152 subjects were included for the study, 76 of them were of hypertensive and 76 were controls. All of the participants were subjected to evaluation of obesity parameters. Results: BMI, Waist Hip Ratio, Body Fat Percentage and Ponderal index were found to significantly associated with hypertension. Conclusion: BMI and body fat percentage and has the significant association with Reduction in lung function by reducing the forced vital capacity.

  29. Dr. John Ndikaru Wa Teresia, PhD,

    The Kenya police employment is one of the top-rated professions for job stress next to air traffic controllers and dentists. This study seeks to assess the homicide in Security Forces. Since the problem cuts across the forces, concentration shall be on the Kenya police who have been affected the most. The reports provided by the Kenya police service has key aspects that subjects have exhibited as the cause and the trend of such a vice. Social factors, psychological, policy and constitution have been seen to have been the source as well as the dangers of the problem today. The literature and the police department reports have been the case study. A descriptive survey was adopted because it involved collecting information by administering a questionnaire to a sample of individuals. Due to time factors and availability of senior officers, some of the questionnaires were distributed virtually using the survey monkey platform, which enabled the respondents to access and respond to the questions using their smartphones. The findings of the research show governmental and the non-governmental and especially the churches should be at the forefront in bringing solutions in the police force. The better living standards and working condition, increased personnel, offer training in stress and anger management as well as necessary counselling skills, and professional ethics can help solve such vices. The government's structure will positively embrace all the intervention measures in the force.

  30. Keshav Budhathoki, Shyam Raj Regmi, Sudhir Regmi, Bishnu Mani Dhital, Ananda GC., Sabina Sedhai, Shahid Murtuza, Puran Gurung and Amir Khan

    Background: Tread mill stress test (TMT) is the most commonly performed stress test for diagnosis of coronary artery disease (CAD) in outpatient setting. Tread mill test is often employed for an initial assessment in patients with suspected coronary artery disease serving as a gatekeeper for cardiac catheterization. Methods: We have included all the patients who had tread mill test positive and underwent coronary angiography and subsequently analyzed for the presence of coronary artery disease. TMT test was done using Bruce protocol and results were classified as positive and negative upon ECG changes. Results: Out of 122 participants, 72 (59%) participants were male and 50 (41%) participants were female. Mean age was 63.06±8.78 years and 56.52±9.66 years in male and female group respectively. Smoking (50%) was the number one risk factor in male group and overweight (72%) in female group. The coronary angiogram showed normal coronaries in 36% and 30.5% in female and male participants respectively. Significant coronary artery disease seen in male participants was 61% and in female participants was 54%. The most common coronary artery involved having significant disease during coronary angiogram was LAD 72.7% and 74.1% respectively in male and female group followed by RCA (59.1% and 44.4% ) and LCX ( 31.8% and 22.2%) in male and female participants respectively. Conclusion: There was significant correlation between positive TMT results and coronary angiogram findings in both male and female participants.

  31. L. Maghfour, M. Fadil, S. Janani, Z. Serheir, E. Bassa, H. Tantaoui, M. Belbayane and H. Falahi

    Background: The purpose of the study is to assess the short-term contribution of TENS-type electrotherapy in the event of non-operated rotator cuff lesions, in terms of pain, joints and muscles in order to confirm or deny the effectiveness of the technique. The results of the study will thus contribute to the increased use of physiotherapy techniques used in the conservative treatment of this type of lesion. Methods: This is a double-blind, randomized controlled clinical trial carried out at the level of the P43 rheumatology department of the Ibn Rochd University Hospital in Casablanca. The study population is 30 patients suffering from unoperated rotator cuff lesions divided into two series: Series A, group in which patients benefit from the application of TENS in addition to the physiotherapy treatment of reference and Series B, reference group; for a period of six sessions. The Constant Scapular Assessment score is the assessment tool used at the start and end of treatment. The sample size calculation was set based on Student's tests with an alpha cutoff of 0.05, a power of 0.90, a mean difference of 10, and a standard deviation of 8 for both groups. For comparison of the differences in scores between the two series, the Mann-Whitney nonparametric comparison test (One-tailed) was used. The size of the Cohen (1992) effect was also calculated for all conducted comparison results. Results: The study demonstrated a difference between the total measured scores using the SCM with a superiority of the TENS group (A) three times that of the reference group (B) (4.933 versus 18.933). The results of the Mann- Whitney test (Unilateral) show a statistically significant difference at the level of 1% (N Reference = 15, N TENS = 15, U = 25, Z = -4.157, P = 0.000). The magnitude of this difference is 0.724, which indicates the positive contribution of this technique on all the parameters measured.

  32. Dr. Bhuban Mohan Das, Dr. Suraj Ethiraj, Dr. Sujit Kumar Mohanty, Dr. Ramapada Mohapatra and Dr. Surya Mallick

    Intestinal malrotation is regarded as a pediatric disease with presentation in adulthood being rare leading to delay in diagnosis. A high index of clinical suspicion is required to consider this in patients presenting with recurrent colicky abdominal pain and vomiting. We present a case of a 22 year old lady with acute abdomen since 3 days with a history of recurrent symptoms for past 2 months. Contrast enhanced Computed Tomography revealed a typical whirlpool sign. Intraoperative finding revealed a midgut volvulus with small bowel loops situated in the right half of abdomen and cecum with ascending colon not fixed in the right lower quadrant. Surgery is the mainstay in the management with minimal long term complications.

  33. Jyoti Goyal, Vipul Mishra, Mradul Sharma and Ajay Bullagan

    This case is a rare case in terms of development of a serious and unpredictable complication: spinal subdural hematoma and paraparesis, in a patient of severe COVID 19 disease. Patient was being treated with prophylactic dose of anticoagulant therapy as standard care for moderate COVID 19 disease. This complication posed a challenging therapeutic decision for clinicians to decide on the timing of surgical intervention, inability to use anticoagulation despite the high risk of thromboembolic complications in this disease, and on the use of immune-modulators in cytokine release syndrome, as it causes increase in risk of secondary bacterial sepsis in such bedbound paraparetic patients.

  34. Dr. Anjana Chakkarambath

    Background: Infertility is one of the important and major problems in reproductive health. One of the major problems that concomitants with infertility is depression. Various factors play a role in causing depression. Infertility affects the emotional, mental, and physical aspects of the couples’ health . Apart from all these problems the couples trying to conceive also face many financial challenges, as the treatment may involve expensive drugs and procedures. Objectives: To assess the depression amongst the infertile women attending outpatient department of a tertiary care hospital. Methods: The current study is a Cross-sectional descriptive study and the prevalence of depression was assessed by Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) Scale. Results: In the present study majority of the participants i.e. 44% belonged to the age group of 31-35 years, followed by the age group of 26-30 years which was 32%, 14% of the participants belonged to the 18-25 years age group and 10% belonged to the age group of more than 35 years. In the present study, the mean age of study participants increased as the severity of the depression increased. Women with the higher age group had severe depression, although it was not statistically significant. As the duration of the married life increased the severity of the depression also increased, this was statistically significant with a p-value of less than 0. 001. As the Infertility duration in years increased the severity of the depression increased, this was statistically significant with a p-value of less than 0.001.

  35. Krishna Priya, B. and Thenmozhi, S.

    Background: The term ‘Mindfulness’ has been receiving increasing attention over the past few years. However, this global pandemic caused by COVID 19 has made it possible for the general public to gain a better understanding of mindfulness practice and its benefits through various mediums such as magazines, wellness apps, and other social media platforms. The COVID 19 pandemic has made this year the most stressful one, demanding people to seek help and improve their life satisfaction. Apps focusing on wellness and mindfulness generated more than two million downloads in the month of April 2020 compared to January 2020 (Kapoor,2020). This provides an insight into the exponential rise in the understanding and practice of mindfulness among people. “Mindfulness is paying attention on purpose, in the present moment, and nonjudgmentally.” (Kabat-Zinn,1994). A question that arises from this is whether mindfulness can only be effective when learned and practiced through interventions (state mindfulness) or is it a dispositional trait within an individual that allows a person to be aware of the present moment during their daily routine (dispositional mindfulness). Objective: This research aims to study the relationship between dispositional mindfulness and life satisfaction among 100 Indian young adults ranging from 18-25 years. Method: The levels of dispositional mindfulness will be measured using the Mindful Attention Awareness Scale (Brown & Ryan,2003) and life satisfaction will be measured using the Satisfaction with Life Scale (Diener et al.,1985). Results: The results of the study indicate that there is a significant positive relationship between dispositional mindfulness and life satisfaction among young adults.

  36. Dr. Gabriela Lăzăreanu

    The paper analyzes the issue of domestic violence, both from the perspective of evaluation and from the perspective of developing intervention strategies, violence is a phenomenon of great interest at present, even if in many cultural models, especially traditional, is or has been long hidden or ignored. Family violence, with complex forms of manifestation, is established today in a social problem that captures the interest of both the population and the social and political actors invoked in developing and implementing long-term strategies that, if they cannot stop, at leastthey can provide prevention and intervention programs, adequate to the consequences of the phenomenon. Social insecurity, poverty, job instability, the impact of the media intervene with an undoubted vocation for cultivating aggressive models of social behavior. All this is correlated with the significant inertia of traditional models of family coexistence that polarize male power and control, favoring a relaxed attitude towards alcohol abuse, common in certain areas and socio-cultural environments, to which is added the influence of new sources of attraction and disruption of gender relations, drug addiction, value confusion and deviations of sexual and relational behavior is a fertile matrix for physical, psychological, moral, relational and economic abuse of a significant part of the population.

  37. Dr. Simranjit Kaur Dhadiala and Dr. Abhijit Anil Whatkar

    Background: Small bowel perforations are widely considered as an emergency intervention for a general surgeon, of which, terminal ileum perforations are common are most tricky to be dealt with. Developing countries like India shows increased cases of enteric fever, which correspond to acute abdomen as ileum perforations. This study shows various causative factors, diagnostic modalities and management of small bowel perforation. Objectives: • To study various causative factors of small bowel perforation. • To study various surgical procedures for perforation. • To study post surgical complications and management. Materials and Methods: A total of 50 cases with small bowel perforation was assessed. A detailed clinical history, physical examination and investigations were done for all patients. All patients included in study were operated after stabilisation and adequate resuscitation and post operative complications, morbidity and mortality assessed. The data is subsequently analysed to assess the usefulness of clinical features and investigations for the diagnosis and prognosis. Results: Study shows etiological distribution with 63.5% cases of enteric fever and trauma. Trauma and enteric fever contribute to major causes for multiple number of perforations. 54% of perforation cases were managed with simple closure in two layers. Most common post operative complication was wound infection (63%). Conclusion: This study denotes the etiological distribution of small bowel perforations, with highest number of cases of enteric fever and trauma. Various surgical procedures for management of perforation, with simple closure in two layers most commonly used in the current study, and post operative complications commonest seen in the study was wound infection.

  38. Gaurdas Sarkar

    In the study of consumer’s behaviour we find that, starting from Marshall to Hicks, everybody assumes that the consumer will behave rationally. In other words behaviour of an individual consumer must satisfy a regularity which can be explained logically. They have based their logic in the form of utility maximization. That means an individual consumer is motivated to maximize his/her utility and his/her every purchase decision is based on the principle of utility maximization. Therefore utility maximizing behaviour is treated as rational behaviour to Marshall and Hicks. Such straight forward correspondence between rationality and utility maximization is regarded as core of the analysis of consumer’s behaviour. Even Samuelson’s Revealed Preference Theory implicitly considers that a commodity bundle is chosen by an individual consumer as it yields maximum utility to him/her. All the conventional approaches to the theory of consumer’s behaviour assume that consumer is synonymous to buyer. All of them identified consumer as a buyer and no consumer faces the problem of indivisibility in respect of their consumption. With this back ground in mind our present paper seeks to explore whether the concept of rationality is confined only within utility maximization or it has a wider connotation. . Section-I of this paper contains Introduction. Section-II deals with Analytical framework and Section-III contains Analysis of the problem. Section IV is devoted to Findings and Conclusion

  39. Dr. Amit Sharma Chest Specialist and Mr. Pankaj Dixit

    Doxycycline is a synthetic antibiotic of the Tetracycline family with probably the highest number of non-antibiotic properties. Clinically developed in the early 1960s, it was approved by the FDA in 1967 (1). As an antibiotic, its use in the treatment of bacterial pneumonia, acne, chlamydial infections, Lyme disease, cholera, typhus and syphilis is already well established. However, its use in the treatment of other infectious and non-infectious conditions is not very well known. It is amazing to realize that this rather conventional and simple salt is equipped with such a wide plethora of actions. In this review, we attempt to address the non-antibiotic properties of Doxycycline in a serial manner.

  40. BLALOGOE Parfait, Adéothy ADEGBINNI and AKOGNONGBE Arsène J. S.

    La température, l’humidité relative, les hauteurs de pluie, etc. sont autant de facteurs qui conditionnent la prévalence des infections respiratoires aiguës (IRA) au sein des communautés. Par ailleurs, l’environnement influence l’état de santé des populations de la commune de Natitingou. Cette étude vise à analyser les liens entre les paramètres climatiques et la prévalence des infections respiratoires aigües dans la commune de Natitingou. La méthode de recherche a consisté en la collecte des données, à leur traitement et à l'analyse des résultats. Les données collectées concernent la température, les hauteurs de pluie et l’humidité relative ainsi que les données épidémiologiques sur les IRA dans les DDSP Atacora-Donga sur la période 2005-2014. Les données socio-économiques ont été collectées sur un échantillon de 255 personnes. Le traitement des données a consisté en l'analyse des données épidémiologiques dans leur relation avec les paramètres climatiques (corrélation de Pearson) et les composantes environnementales. Le profil épidémiologique de Natitingou place les IRA à 9 955 cas d’IRA au moment de l’enquête. Il s’établit également une différenciation nette entre saison pluvieuse et saison sèche : 718 cas en novembre, contre 389 cas en avril en fin de saison sèche. A 43 % d’humidité relative en mars, on enregistre 525 cas d’IRA qui évoluent jusqu’à plus de 718 cas en octobre où le taux d’humidité relative est d’environ 73 %. La corrélation de Pearson entre IRA et les paramètres climatologiques révèle une corrélation positive mais faible des IRA avec la pluie (r = 0,12) ce qui traduit que le rythme saisonnier des IRA n’est pas forcément lié à la pluviométrie. Par ailleurs, la corrélation IRA et humidité (r = 0,07), IRA et température (r = 0,15) et une forte corrélation (r = 0,73) avec la vitesse du vent. Ces valeurs montrent que les paramètres climatiques ne sont pas les seuls facteurs responsables des IRA. D'autres facteurs comme la poussière, un environnement mal aéré, l'absence d'arrosage de la cours des maisons avant le balayage contribuent aussi à la prévalence des IRA dans le secteur d'étude. Pour réduire leur exposition aux IRA, 25 % de la population de la commune de Natitingou utilisent les méthodes préventives telles que l'aération des maisons, le port des vêtements pour lutter contre le froid, l'arrosage de la cours des maisons, etc, et quand la maladie est déjà présente, elles ont recours aux soins de santé et à la phytothérapie traditionnelle.

  41. Rahil Mittal

    In this paper, the possible long-term impact of the emerging global crisis on different forms of crime is discussed. The insight provided by the regional data of Uttar Pradesh analyzed in this research brief shows that the unprecedented changes related to the pandemic differ by type of crime over time. The new era of criminal activities in cyberspace is being committed worldwide, irrespective of geographical boundaries. These cybercrime acts may be financially driven actions related to computer content or against computer systems' confidentiality, integrity, and accessibility. Machine learning and data modeling have been used to achieve this analysis.

  42. Renu, G. and Srividhya, N.

    COVID-19 pandemic is widely affected all world. The education system was too badly affected. A descriptive survey was conducted among 208 conveniently selected samples to explore the students’ perception on online education. The average age of samples were 20 years. More samples (50.5%) were studying 4 to 6 hours a day. Midday was the most (59.1%) acceptable time for the classes. Majority of samples used mobile (94.2%) for accessing the classes. Self-paced learning and metacognition were the more rated advantages of online classes. The highest rated barrier for online classes was network related issues. Many students reported health issues after attending online classes and most important health concern was headache (62). This study put forth the need of having capacity building sessions for faculty, developing infrastructure and open source for computerized learning for future online sessions.

  43. Nirmal Patel

    Objective: To evaluate the occurrence, clinical course & outcome of olfactory & taste dysfunction in patients with laboratory confirmed positive patients. Method: This is prospective cross sectional study of patients diagnosed with coronavirus disease infection by real time polymerase chain reaction over 6 months. The clinical outcomes studied were: age, sex, general symptoms, olfactory & taste dysfunction. Result: A total of 500 COVID 19 positive patients were included in study, with 300 males & 200 females. 200 patients were reported chemosensory dysfunction, of which 150 patients reported both olfactory & taste dysfunction. Olfactory & taste dysfunction proportionally more common in females than males.

  44. Dr. Disha, Dr. Gagandeep Kour Raina, Dr. A.S. Dhillon and Dr. Mansi Kumar

    Tuberculosis, especially in developing countries is a major health problem, and causes significant morbidity and mortality. It is estimated that Genital Tb affects about 12% of women with pulmonary Tuberculosis (PTB) and 15 to 20% of women with Extra-Pulmonary T.B(1). The commonest sites involved in the cases of genital T.B. are the fallopian tubes (90–100%), followed by endometrium (50–80%) and the ovaries (20–30%) (3). The classical presentation is a triad of infertility, menstrual irregularity & chronic pelvic pain. Isolated ovarian tuberculosis presenting as an adnexal mass can mimick ovarian tumor and is extremely rare condition. Because of its uncharacteristic presentation, TB should also be considered in the differential diagnosis of a patient with an abdominal/pelvic mass and ascites (7). It should be kept in mind that diagnostic imaging tests are also non-specific and both USG and CT/MRI scan appearances are similar in ovarian tuberculous abscess and other neoplastic ovarian masses (4).In genital Tb, the clinical presentation mimic malignancy which was also evident in our case, where provisional diagnosis of ovarian tumor was made on the basis of history given by the patient, clinical examination, radiographic findings and elevated CA-125 serum levels. An elevated CA-125 level is also found in some of the patients with ovarian tuberculosis which further increases the diagnostic dilemma (1, 4, 10). Thus, diagnosis of TB is no easy task, as the symptoms are non-specific and mimicks gynaecological malignancy.

  45. Dr. Favas K., Dr. Fysal N. and Dr. Naveen, K.

    The COVID-19 pandemic outbreak has affected the global health system with an urgent need for more sophisticated studies. The global data showed that the proportion of children among the total number of COVID-19 affected patients was small and most children developed mild illness. A case series of patients confirmed with RT-PCR nasopharyngeal sampling and typical clinical features were assessed.All our patients did not have any underlying disease and were discharged after recovery from the disease. These patients were aged 1 month-15 years old. COVID-19 affects pediatric population while the outcome might be better if there is no underlying condition. Young infants and those with comorbidity were found to be at risk of severe illness.

  46. M. Alqahtani and N. Khan

    Quality in general is classified as a high level in any organization to maintain the vision and mission of the organization. Quality in healthcare is used to sustain the perfect level of the patient care to be a high level in safe, reasonable and effective manner. Moreover, Quality Management System (QMS) is a system which adopts and practices different quality techniques, tools, philosophy and theories strategies in healthcare to achieve the target quality performance. Therefore, the research will develop a simulation model using the system dynamics technique to frame, understanding, and discuss the success factors that improve the implementation of QMS at the healthcare organizations.

  47. Abha Pandey and Shweta Dwivedi Mishra

    Introduction: Type-2 Diabetes mellitus is the most rapidly growing chronic disease in the world. β-cell dysfunction is required to develop T2DM. Many with T2DM have relative insulin deficiency and early in the disease, absolute insulin levels increase with resistance to the action of insulin. Alteration of some trace elements (Mg & Cu) has been reported in Diabetes mellitus. Lipid profile abnormalities were seen in diabetic patients. They were responsible for risk of several complications. Aim: Study of trace elements (Magnesium & Copper) and Lipid profile in newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus patients and control subjects. Materials and Methods: The study was done in the Department of Biochemistry and Central Research Lab in United Institute of Medical Sciences Prayagraj, UP. The present study included total 78 subjects, divided into two groups in which group 1 (healthy control) having 39 subjects and group 2 (Diabetes mellitus) having 39 patients. Serum Mg was estimated by Calmagite method and serum Cu was estimated by DI-BR-PAESA method of semi-autoanalyzer. Lipid profile was estimated by enzymatic method of semi-autoanalyzer. Observations and results: Magnesium level was found significantly (p<0.001) decreased in diabetic patients as compare to control subjects and copper level was found significantly (p<0.001) increased in diabetic patients as compare to control subjects. Levels of cholesterol and LDL was found significantly (p<0.001) increased, and levels of TG was found significantly (p=0.0125) increased, and level of VLDL was also found significantly (p=0.001) increased, whereas level of HDL was found significantly (p<0.001) decreased in diabetic patients as compare to control subjects. Discussion and conclusion: Study was showed decreased level of Mg and increased level of Cu concentration in diabetic patients, and this alteration also affect lipoprotein metabolism and caused several abnormalities.

  48. Professor (Dr) Adebisi Adewole

    As supply chain management (SCM) concept has become more relevant to contemporary business, and its application to the industry grown rapidly since the start of year 2000, quite a large number of academic studies (both qualitative and quantitative methods) had been conducted in the field. The use of qualitative research methodology has been well established for data generation withing the field of business and management generally, and particularly, in supply chain management research. In social research, there have been the age long contending positions between both quantitative and qualitative approaches. Whereas the positivists’ school argued that the social world exists through objective research methods, the naturalists believe that reality exists inside the minds of the people, and qualitative method is the useful technique to explore their minds in other to understand them in their own real cultural and natural contexts. This paper reflects on how qualitative method was applied in a supply chain management research. Extensive literature on qualitative research approaches were reviewed and a detailed explanation of how the techniques were applied in a multiple case studies context was presented. The paper concludes with a view that the qualitative research approach, is a rigorous and reliable methodology that is compatible with the study of supply chain management which can lead to reliable and credible data that can produce a robust research outcome.

  49. Konan Lopez KOUAME, Ossey Clovis SEKA, Diarrassouba BEH, Enika KOUADIO and Antoinette YOBOUE

    In a context of continuous improvement and sustainable development, industries are part of a dynamic of recycling the waste they produce. This study was carried out on the establishment of a composting and organic fertilizer production center from the waste (mud and ash) produced by the oil mills of a palm oil production company. The first step consisted in quantifying the waste produced. This quantification gave an average ash production of 2.41 tonnes/day and a quantity of sludge of approximately 54.474 tonnes/day. The second step was the choice of composting technology and the process set up for the production of organic fertilizers. The last step was the description of the site, the infrastructure and equipment necessary to guarantee better production and the placing of the organic fertilizers produced at the disposal of the farmers of the region. This study has shown that there is an opportunity to set up a composting unit in the said plant. In addition, the nominal compost production of this center is estimated at 20,000 tonnes per year and that of organic fertilizer is 6,174.34 tonnes per year. The financial indicators including the NPV (net present value or discounted profit), the IRR (the internal rate of return) and the capital recovery time, respectively 20,176,567,240 FCFA, 128.6% and 0.83 years are excellent. The invested capital is recovered after 0.83 years or 8 months 3 days. The project is therefore profitable. In addition, the great flexibility of the supply and delivery of compost and organic fertilizer to the center will secure the production of organic amendment from the region's plantations.

  50. Mona E. Elkafrawy and Doaa M. Effat

    Background: Cell phones have become an integral part of our daily lives. Several studies have shown that non-thermal electromagnetic radiation, such as that generated by mobile phones, may have a physical effect on target cells or tissues, including the embryo. Objective: This study aimed to evaluate the impact of mobile phone use on FHR trace and umbilical artery Doppler as an indicators for fetal surveillance. Patients and methods: This study was conducted in Alzahraa university hospital from May 2019 to December 2019, one hundred seventy five low risk pregnant women, 32-40 weeks in gestation. First all participants were instructed not to use their mobile phone for 24 hours prior to the initial CTG trace and Doppler ultrasound. They were then assessed twice for both the CTG non-stress test and umbiliical artery Doppler. First measure was performed for the subjects prior to use their cellular phone, and the second measure was repeated 5 min after hanging up their mobile phones which lasting in dialing modes for 10 min. The recorded fetal heart rate (FHR) strips and umbilical artery Doppler findings, before and after mobile phone use collected and statistically analyzed. With concerns and comments on CTG parameters in terms of, baseline fetal FHR, acceleration, deceleration and beat to beat variability with using score for each of them. Results: There was insignificant decrease in mean score of basal FHR in women after mobile phone, 3.13±0.76 compared to before mobile phone use, 3.25±0.63, with p,>0.05..Howover, there was statistically significant decrease in mean acceleration and variability score in women after mobile phone, versus before mobile use, 1.37±0.51versus 1.64±0.61, p value <0.001and 2.30±0.66 compared to 2.51±0.54, p-value<0.05) respectively. There was no deceleration found in both occasions. Regarding umbilical artery blood flow findings, there was no statistically significant difference of PI in women after and before mobile phone use, p-value (>0.05).While there was statistically significant increase mean of RI and S/D ratio in women after mobile phone, (0.57±0.08 and 2.39±0.28 respectively) compared to those before mobile phone use, (0.55±0.14 and 2.29±0.53 respectively) with p-value (<0.05). Conclusion: Evident from the current study, we concluded that the electromagnetic fields emitted from mobile phone influence the FHR patterns and fetal perfusion.

  51. Dr. Ashish Gupta

    Chetan Bhagat’s novels are deep-rooted in the contemporary society. They take up the lives, incidents and psyche of the new generation. In his debut novel Five Point Someone, Chetan Bhagat raised the issues related to education system like lack of disciples, ragging, mindless mugging. Bhagat shows the behavior of students in campus and college. Lack of disciplines and Rowdiness of student is very big problem in contemporary education system. He shows students’ problem they face in institution and their personal, family and social problems. The present paper deals with the dilemma and inner conflict of the youth and present education system.

  52. Dr. Divakara Naik, K.S.

    As curricula are transformed throughout the world in response to the need for modern teacher education, much attention is given to curriculum content and associated teaching, learning and assessment methodologies. However, an important component of any curriculum is its organisational management, how it is all held together, the way the process is conducted and what mechanisms are applied to ensure quality. Curriculum is the essential ingredient of any education system regardless of the education level. All other aspects whether teaching, learning and evaluation or research and development, infrastructure and learning resources, student activities and support system revolve around it. Therefore, curricular-aspects and the best practices connected to curriculum design and development play a very significant dimension of the quality of teacher education since the curriculum has a decisive role in steering the other elements of quality.Reviewing and updating of the curriculum is the essential ingredient of any vibrant academic system. There aught to be a dynamic curriculum with necessary additions and changes introduced in it from time to time by the respective university with a prime objective to maintain updated curriculum and also providing their inputs to take care of fast paced development in the knowledge of the subject concerned. Designing of the curriculum to suit the clientele is important. Revising the curriculum should be a continuous process to provide an updated education to the students at large. The present research falls under the purview of quantitative research and hence quantitative methods, such as data collection, analysis, comparison, tabulation and illustration, are used. Among 48 randomly selected colleges of education, I received replies from 19 colleges of education only, and the same data are taken for granted for analysis.

  53. Abdulrahman K. Alghamdi, PT, MPT and Dr. Hani H. Al-Nakhli, PT, MPT, DPT, PhD

    Purpose: Knee joint injuries may affect the function of the adjacent ankle joint. The strength of ankle dorsiflexion and plantarflexion of the affected leg, was compared to the unaffected leg, to assess the influence of different knee injuries on ankle movement strength. Methods: Sixteen healthy, young adult males with a mean age of 34 years, and a unilateral knee injury (either the menisci, the ligaments, or both) were examined To measure the dorsiflexion strength, the Elgin ankle exercise machine was used, and for measuring the plantarflexion strength, heel raise exercises with full body weight was performed by the participants. The one repetition maximum (1RM) of both the injured and non-injured legs, was calculated through the Epley equation using the repetition until fatigue method. Results: There was no evident difference found in the strength of dorsiflexion between the injured and non-injured legs. However, there was a significant difference among the plantar flexion strength of the injured and non-injured legs. Conclusion: Injury at the knee joint affects the strength of the muscles at the adjacent ankle joint, especially the plantarflexion. Therapists treating these types of patients, must attend to the ankle deficits caused as a result of knee.

  54. Mrs . Aruna J. and Dr. Sridevi, K.

    Assessment and evaluation are key aspects of teaching and instruction, which serve to promote learning through better planning. Writing as an integral component of literacy, deals with convention and purpose – essentials that need to be incorporated in children to develop them into quality writers. writing evaluation has been catered on holistic grounds for much of the time however, for novice and challenged writers some analytical criterion has been proposed in literature. The present study was designed to find out the impact of Activity based instructions in improving the prewriting skills among children with profound hearing loss at pre-primary level. The present study will address the impact of activity-based instructions by using Auditory, visual and Motor activities. Learning effectiveness was evaluated by comparing its results with traditional methods. The hypothesis was raised and field validated questionnaire was used as data collection instrument. The study was conducted in five sessions by using activity-based instruction. The pre and post test results appears to be a favorable progress in learning. Significance difference was found in the mean scores in achievements in literacy skills between pre and posttests. The main scores of post test scores are higher than the pretest. The activity-based instructions are more effective than the conventional method. It was recommended that teachers should use this method effectively at preschool level.

  55. Malama Sidiropoulou

    ‘Literature highlights the importance of effective communication as well as the impact of a positive school climate. The objectives of this research are to investigate principals’ communication skills and their effect in shaping school climate. A sample of 321 teachers of secondary schools in Greece was selected using proportionate stratified rand om sampling technique. Communication skills were assessed by a section of Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire when School Climate evaluated by a new questionnaire structured for this study and tested for its reliability and its validity. Descriptive statistics and Pearson correlation were used to check the two hypotheses of the study. The results revealed that principals in Greek schools, in Secondary education, have “a lot of” communication skills and that skills have significant, moderate positive correlation (r=0,338) with school climate. Findings could be used in principal’s training programs to practice effective communication techniques.

  56. Dr. Anuradha Kishor, MBBS, M Ch

    This review gives an updated overview on keratinocyte transplantation in burn wounds concentrating on application methods and future therapeutic cell delivery options with a special interest in hydrogels and spray devices for cell delivery. To achieve faster re-epithelialization of burn wounds, the original autologous keratinocyte culture and transplantation technique was introduced over 3 decades ago. Application types of keratinocytes transplantation have improved from cell sheets to single-cell solutions delivered with a spray system. However, further enhancement of cell culture, cell viability and function in vivo, cell carrier and cell delivery systems remain themes of interest. Hydrogels such as chitosan, alginate, fibrin and collagen are frequently used in burn wound care and have advantageous characteristics as cell carriers. Future approaches of keratinocyte transplantation involve spray devices, but optimization of application technique and carrier type is necessary.

  57. Dr. Mini, K.

    Changampuzha Krishna Pillai's Vazhakkulam and EdasseryGovindan Nair's Puthenkalam and Arivalum are two poems written during the heyday of Malayalam. These are two poems that have always been relevant. These poems were able to convey to the reader the shortcomings and hardships of the Ji-Tenant relationship. The Koman of Edassery and the Malayappulayan of Changampuzha are representatives of a period. But when we come from the Malayappulayan of Changampuzha to the Koman of Edassery, we can see a strong level of responsiveness here. Koman is very different from the Malayapulayan who took everything and blamed the caste system inside. There he sends trumpets against the cruelty of the regime. Here, Edassery is sowing the seeds of revolution in the peasantry.






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Saudi Arabia
Eric Randy Reyes Politud
Elsadig Gasoom FadelAlla Elbashir
Eapen, Asha Sarah
United State
Dr.Arun Kumar A
Dr. Zafar Iqbal
Dr. Ruchika Khanna
Dr. Recep TAS
Dr. Rasha Ali Eldeeb
Dr. Pralhad Kanhaiyalal Rahangdale
Dr. Nicolas Padilla- Raygoza
Dr. Mustafa Y. G. Younis
Dr. Muhammad shoaib Ahmedani
Saudi Arabia
United State
Dr. Lim Gee Nee
Dr. Jatinder Pal Singh Chawla
Dr. Devendra kumar Gupta
Dr. Ali Seidi
Dr. Achmad Choerudin
Dr Ashok Kumar Verma
Thi Mong Diep NGUYEN
Dr. Muhammad Akram
Dr. Imran Azad
Dr. Meenakshi Malik
Aseel Hadi Hamzah
Anam Bhatti
Md. Amir Hossain
Mirzadi Gohari