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April 2023

  1. Eng. George MB Kaggiah, PhD.

    Biblical scholars date the six-day creation at 6,025years, while research find modern human evolved 45,000 years ago. The Universe is 14Billion years old, the earth 4.55 billion years old, and life started 3.8 billion years ago and became multicellular 600million years ago. Modern human evolved from homo erectus in Africa, through a 1.9million years process, concluded 45,000 to 35,000years ago. Man migrated to other continents and reached Americas 15,000 years ago. Five environmental mass extinction events have occurred at random intervals of between 50 50million to 134million years. The earliest was 440 million and the latest 60 million years ago. Man came to be 40,000 years ago. Rules of probability predict the 6thenvironmental extinction event as due. The first civilization was in Mesopotamia, Ancient Egypt, Ancient India and Ancient China. Man had significant environmental impacts on earth and Hammurabi, the 6th King of the Babylonian dynasty enacted the first laws on degradation in1750BC. Developed countries industrialised in 1700AD and record highest Green House Gas (GHG) emissions, driving climate change, but are reluctant to take mitigation measures which could reduce their economic production. This results in difficulties in implementation of international protocols, towards accomplishing the SDGs, Carbon trading, ‘polluter pays’ and ‘common but differentiated responsibility’ in the Kyoto protocol. Space exploration, travel and exploitation started in1957, but the reserve of an exclusive few with the capacity. This paper supplements George Kaggiah (2023) “Formation of Earth, Negative Environmental Impacts on Earth and Projection of Extinction of Life on Earth” to provide detailed base line data to facilitate rational integration of the three pillars of sustainable development; economic growth, social development and environmental protection in developing countries.

  2. Dr. Pradnya V. Bansode, Dr. Seema D. Pathak , Dr. M. B. Wavdhane and Dr. Apurva Satpute

    Maxillary anterior spacing is a common aesthetic complaint of patients visiting to dental clinic. Common causes are microdontia, mesiodens, peg-shaped lateral incisors, agenesis, dental malformations. Various treatment modalities are available for space closure. Excellent aesthetics are possible with indirect restorations but there may be unnecessary tooth structure removal in order to achieve the desired results. When a larger space closure is needed, orthodontics may be indicated to allow for a more aesthetic outcome. When a space is less, no preparation of the tooth structure is necessary and direct composite bonding may yield the desired result.It gives the dentist and patient entire control over the construction of a natural smile. The following case reports shows direct and indirect putty index technique for space closure in maxillary anterior teeth.

  3. Baljeet Kour Wasan and Dr. Ravikant Sune

    In the year 1959, Richard Feynman Nobel Prize winner and an American physicist introduced the concept of nanoscience. It is the study of manipulating substance or matter on an atomic and molecular scale used across a variety of areas such as science, surgery, engineering, robotics, medicines and in almost every field for sake of increasing knowledge and improving efficiency in work. It allows development of new materials with enhanced properties. It can be used in the diagnosis of tumors along with all the imaging techniques used such as tomography. It provides surplus lead in both diagnosis and treatment of cancer.

  4. Adan Iqbal, M R Attri, Aarif Hussain, Sartaj Ahmad Bhat and Aamir H Hela

    Breast abscess is an acute inflammatory condition of the breast. Once an abscess is established, management involves incision and drainage. Where an abscess has formed, aspiration of the pus, preferably under ultrasound guidance, has now supplanted open surgery as the first line of treatment.1Aims and objectives: To study ultrasound guided percutaneous needle aspiration v/s incision drainage in breast abscess in terms of: Operative time, Post-operative pain, Hospital stay , Healing time and Cosmetic outcome. Material and methods: Patients with clinical features suggestive of breast abscess were divided in two groups. The patients in Group A underwent needle aspiration using 18 gauge needle attached with 10cc syringe. Patients in Group B underwent Incision and drainage. Patients in both the groups were put on broad spectrum antibiotics till reports of culture and sensitivity were collected. All patients were followed up regularly. Patient satisfaction with treatment was also recorded. Results: The mean age of patients in our study was 27.90 years. The mean age in incision and drainage group was 27.35yrs with a std. deviation of 7.788 and in needle aspiration group, it was 28.15yrs with standard deviation of 8.437.Group A patients (USG guided needle aspiration) procedure was completed in a mean operative time of 12.5 while group B patients (incision and drainage) were done in a mean operative time of 28.0. Mean pain score in I & D group was 3.95 and Needle aspiration group was 1.35. Patients who underwent needle aspiration were not admitted. However those who underwent incision drainage had to be kept for a duration ranging from 12-24hours. Most of the patients from I&D had a mean healing time of 2.7 weeks and std. deviation of 0.979 while as the patients from usg guided aspiration group had mean healing time of 2.45 weeks and std. deviation of 0.826. Conclusion: USG guided aspiration is simple, painless, day care procedure and effective alternative treatment to incision and drainage in properly selected patient.

  5. Condrada .H. Ngonyani MD, Amana RRH, Philip D. Nyaga MD, Milka M. Mafwiri MD, Susan Mosenene MD, and Celina Mhina MD

    Objective: To determine the magnitude of amblyopia among children attending the pediatric eye clinic at Muhimbili National Hospital. Materials and Methods: consecutive samplingof children fulfilling the case definition of amblyopia was done to recruit 140 children. Anterior and posterior segment examination, cycloplegic refraction and ocular alignment were done to determine the causes of amblyopia. Data was transferred into a computer program and analyzed with the help of the Statistical Package for Social Sciences version 20.0software.Frequencies, means and standard deviations were used to summarize data. A P-value of <0.05 was considered statistically significant for associations. Ethical approval was granted by the Ethics committee of Muhimbili University of Health and Allied Sciences. Results: A total of 1953 children attended the paediatric clinic during the study period. There were140/1953 (7.18%) children with amblyopia, where 78 (55.7%) were males and 62 (44.3%)were females. The mean age was 6.4(5.6-7.2) years. Sixty nine (49.3%) children presented early in the age group of ≤5 years. Refractive amblyopia was the most common type which affected 59/140 (42.2%) patients. Severe amblyopia was found in all types of amblyopia. However sensory deprivation was the leading cause of severe depth of amblyopia (78%). Esotropia was the commonest cause of strabismic amblyopia that occurred in 29/37 (78.4%) while Anisohyperopia was found in 15/59 (25.4%) patients and was the commonest cause of refractive amblyopia. Cataract was the main cause of sensory deprivation amblyopia which was found in 12/15 (80%) patients. Combined Strabismic and Refractive 18/29(65.5%) was the commonest cause of combined amblyopia. Conclusions: The magnitude of amblyopia in children attending the paediatric ophthalmology clinic at MNH is high where majority of affected patients present with severe depth of amblyopia. Refractive amblyopia was the most common type of amblyopia. Esotropia, cataract, anisohyperopia and combined strabismic and refractive were the commonest causes of amblyopia. Pre-school screening of children to enable early recognition and referral for appropriate management of children with refractive errors and cataract need be established to reduce the magnitude and severity of amblyopia.

  6. Asmaa Maulidi Thena, Prof. Ester Mwaikambo, Dr. Theresa Kaijage, Dr. Mikaly Peter Msangi, Dr. Erica Janarius Mrema and Dr. Patience Mtagi Kibatala

    Background: There is insufficient correct knowledge of childhood convulsions since many parents do not know the fact that febrile convulsions can occur due to fever. Many parents do not know the long term effects of febrile convulsions. Moreover, parents also do not know how to attend a convulsing child at home. Not knowing how to manage a convulsing child at home results into parents going into panic and confusion necessitating the use of various unpleasant home remedies when confronted with such a situation. Objective: The Main objective of this study was to assess the parents’ knowledge, attitude and practices concerning children with febrile convulsions in Mwananyamala hospital and Kambangwa dispensary, Kinondoni District, Dar es salaam, Tanzania. Methodology: This was a cross-sectional descriptive hospital-based study, comprising 152 parents with children affected with febrile convulsions and/or have had a history of febrile convulsions aged less than six years. The participants were interviewed using a structured questionnaire and purposive sampling method was used. Results: Majority of participants, 127 (83.6%), knew that febrile convulsions were associated with fever while other parents, 14 (9.2%) and 4 (2.6%), attributed febrile convulsions to demonic possession and bewitchment respectively. Amongst the participants, 123 (80.3%) parents had concerns for long term effect of febrile convulsions that can progress to epilepsy. The commonest immediate effect was fear of death as expressed by 96 (63.2%) study participants. Majority of the parents, 129 (84.9%), took their children to hospital during febrile convulsions while 106 (69.7%) applied home treatment. Garlic was the most commonly used item to treat convulsions at home 81(53.3%). Among the unpleasant items used were sewage mud and feces, direct urination, elephant dung and garlic. Conclusion: Majority of the parents knows how to describe febrile convulsions but there are some who still believe in other causes of febrile convulsions. Due to lack of adequate education, parent’s fear of febrile convulsions has resulted into negative attitude and improper management at home. Recommendation: Creating awareness among parents and caregivers by providing adequate health education on febrile convulsions can reduce their fear. This should be done in the clinics during vaccination visits and in the pediatric ward.

  7. Mikaly P Msangi Md, MMEDP Ediatrics Amana RRH, Kulsoom S Kassam Md. Amana RRH, Dr. Robert Muindi Hkmu, Mtagi P Kibatala Md, Mmed Pediatrics Amana RRH and Asmaa M Thena Md, Mmed Pediatrics Amana RRH

    Preterm birth is one of the causes of neonatal morbidity and mortality, which makes it a very important topic for discussion and research. This study was conducted in Amana Regional Referral Hospital to determine the prevalence and risk factors of preterm admissions in the neonatal unit from July to December 2021. It was a retrospective study that involved data from 151 mothers of the preterm babies. The Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (Version 22) was used for data analysis. The statistical relationship between independent variables and PTB was studied by the Chi-square test in bivariate analysis and logistic regression in multivariate analysis. The prevalence of the preterm admissions was seen to be 23.2% which is higher compared to similar studies that were previously conducted. Several risk factors were also studied, the commonest risk factor found were multiple pregnancy 27.2%, hypertensive disorder 17.2 %, maternal infection 13.9% and premature rapture of membrane in 13.3%.Multiple pregnancy has shown a probability of 0.005 which is less than 0.05 which showed significant association between multiple pregnancy and prematurity. It is very important to know how information of PTB and its risk factors contributes to the scientific world. The results provide useful information to guide health professionals for monitoring preterm birth. According to the study, it has become well known that an improvement in facilities for premature care is required. Establishment of neonatal wards at level of district hospitals to ensure proper management of premature babies and higher rates of survival of the preterm babies.Address the preventable risk factor of preterm births in women who are in child bearing age, during ante natal visits in order to reduce percent of preterm births.

  8. Dr. Prof. P. Genesta Mary Gysel

    Background: Stress is defined as the physiological or psychological tension that threatens homeostasis or a person ‘s psychological equilibrium. Objectives: (1) To assess the pre-test level of stress among elderly in both control and experimental group. (2) To assess the effectiveness of laughter therapy reduction of stress among elderly in experimental group and compare with control group. (3) To find out the association between on pre-test level of stress among elderly with their selected socio demographic variables in experimental group. Methodology: A Total 40 elderly people were selected by using simple random sampling technique and true experimental (one group pretest and posttest control group design) was adopted for the study. The data collection was divided into two sections in which section (a) contains socio demographic variables and section (b) contains perceive stress scale. Pretest was conducted in both control group and experimental group using perceived stress scale. Laughter therapy intervention was given to experimental group for 20 minutes twice in a day for 6 days. And post test was conducted in both control group and experimental group using perceived stress scale. Data analysis was done using descriptive and inferential statistics. Results: The study findings revealed that, posttest of experimental group mean score was 14,500 with standard deviation 4.88284 was higher when compared to pretest mean score of 23.2000 with the standard deviation 5.69025 and it was statistically significant at the value of p<0.0001 and the posttest level of stress score was associated with history of alcoholism and it was significant at the level of p<0.001. The study concluded that laughing therapy was effective in reduction the stress among elderly in experimental group when compared to control group. Conclusion: In this study concludes that laughter therapy was effective and helped to reduce the level of stress among the elderly people.

  9. Swamy, K.R.M.

    Potato (Solanum tuberosum), also known as white or Irish potato, is the most important and useful member of the family Solanaceae. The cultivated potato is an autotetraploid with 2n=2x= 48. It has been recognized as a wholesome food and one of the richest sources of energy in most countries of the world where it forms important part of the human diet. It is one of the efficient starch producing plants and yields more carbohydrates per unit area and time, is rich in protein, minerals, vitamins and high quality dietary fiber. Potatoes are also used as feed for livestock and in the industry for the manufacture of starch and alcohol. An insight into the magnitude of variability present in the gene pool of a crop species is of utmost importance to a plant breeder for starting a judicious plant breeding program and selection of parents for a hybridization program as the development of an efficient plant breeding program is dependent upon the existence of genetic variability. It is native to the Andes Mountains in South America and have been grown for thousands of years. Potatoes are a staple food in many countries around the world and are used in a wide variety of dishes. They are high in carbohydrates, fiber, and vitamins C and B6. The potato is a herbaceous perennial plant grown for its edible tubers. The plant has a branched stem and leaves consisting of leaflets that are both unequal in size and shape and can be oval to oblong in shape. The leaves can reach up to 10–30 cm in length. Tubers grow about 25 cm underground in the soil and can be yellow, red, or purple depending on the variety. The potato plant produces white or blue flowers and yellow-green berries. The plants can go up to 1m in height. The crop can be propagated from seed potatoes, which are small tubers that are planted in the soil. They can also be propagated from potato seed, which is a less common method. Once the seed potato or seed is planted, the plant will grow leaves and flowers, and then it will produce tubers underground. Potato is the most important food crop of the world in terms of human consumption after rice, wheat and maize. The cultivated potato of world commerce, Solanum tuberosum L., is a primary food crop grown and consumed worldwide, forming a basic food and source of primary income for many societies. Till 16th century it was unknown to the people of Europe, Asia, Africa and North America. Today, potato is the world’s major non-cereal food crop grown in nearly 161 countries in a wide variety of soils and climate. There are close to 4,000 varieties of potatoes, each of which has specific agricultural or culinary attributes. Around 80 varieties are commercially available in the UK. In general, varieties are categorized into a few main groups based on common characteristics, such as russet potatoes (rough brown skin), red potatoes, white potatoes, yellow potatoes (also called Yukon potatoes) and purple potatoes. Potato tubers are a staple food source in temperate regions and are eaten after cooking. They may be cut or sliced and made into potato chips or fries. Potatoes can also be processed into starch, alcohol or flour. Potatoes are a good source of carbohydrates, potassium, and vitamin C; they are also a source of fiber, vitamin B6, and folate. They are low in fat, calories, and sodium. The values shown in the following table are approximate and may vary depending on the variety, growing conditions, and preparation method of the potatoes. Additionally, cooking and processing methods such as frying or mashing can change the nutritional value of potatoes and increase their calorie and fat content. Even though potatoes are commonly used for diabetes, heart disease, high blood pressure, indigestion (dyspepsia), and other conditions, there is no good scientific evidence to back up these claims. In addition to treating stomach disorders, raw potato juice is also used to treat water retention (oedema). Weight loss is achieved by mixing potato protein powder with water and controlling appetite. People apply raw potatoes directly to sore eyes, boils, burns, arthritis, and infections. Potatoes are used as sources of starch as well as fermented into alcohol . During the late 19th century, numerous images of potato harvesting appeared in European art. An American toy that consists of a plastic potato and attachable plastic parts, such as ears and eyes, to make a face. It was the first toy ever advertised on television. In this review article on Origin, Domestication, Taxonomy, Botanical Description, Genetics and Cytogenetics, Genetic Diversity, Breeding, Uses, Nutritional Value and Health Benefits of Potato are discussed.

  10. Monika Gairola and Dr. A.K. Swami

    The two most common vector control techniques for motor drives are field-oriented control (FOC) and direct torque control (DTC). Pulse-width modulation (PWM) and a linear controller are used by FOC to regulate the main load voltage component. DTC, on the other hand, is a nonlinear technique that produces a voltage vector directly without a modulator. A comparative analysis of both control techniques is presented in this work. The benefits and drawbacks of both vector scheme are covered here for permanent magnet synchronous (PMSM) drives. The discussion is supported with the result using MATLAB/Simulink to draw a fair comparison between the performance of two schemes.

  11. Dr. Nagesh, N.V.

    This research aims to uncover the motivating factors behind individuals practising Raja Yoga meditation at Brahma Kumaris Mount Abu World Headquarters, an international non-governmental organisation established in India in 1937. The study hypothesizes that various demographic factors such as respondent distribution, gender, age group, educational qualification, religious background, professional background, daily meditation time, and a vegetarian diet free of onions and garlic have a significant impact on people's motivation to practice Raja Yoga meditation. The study utilizes both qualitative and quantitative research methods, including semi-structured interviews and personal observations, to gather data from 500 Raja Yogis aged between 20-45 years. The findings reveal that middle-aged Hindu men, who devote several hours per day to Raja Yoga practise, comprise the majority of practitioners. Their adherence to a vegetarian diet that excludes onion and garlic underscores their commitment to spiritual purity and discipline by Raja Yoga principles. The study provides valuable insights into the factors that influence participation and dedication to Raja Yoga and offers recommendations for enhancing the effectiveness of meditation.

  12. Jinyang Bai and Yingying Wen

    The effect of coconut shell biochar (CSB) amount on adsorption of 4-chlorophenoxyacetic acid (4-CPA) was investigated. The optimum amount of CSB was 40 mg. Therefore, CSB can be applied to the adsorption of contaminants in environment.

  13. Dr. Harishankar Meena, Dr. Sachin Kumar Pachori, Dr. Rupendra Singh and Dr. Saksham Sharma

    Elderly neck femur fractures are usually managed by hemiarthroplastyaround the globe, the question arises about the implant to be used. The general consensus is in favor of bipolar prosthesis, the conventional prosthesis are to be used with bone cement and bone cement insertion is met with a lot of intra operative complications and difficulties. This prospective study was done to ascertain the outcomes of elderly fracture neck femur managed using hydroxy appetite coated uncemented bipolar prosthesis in terms of pain, mobility and intra operative complications encountered

  14. Dr. Prof. P. Genesta Mary Gysel

    Background: Breast cancer is the most common cancer amongst women in India. Breast cancer occurs when some breast cells begin to grow abnormally. These cells divide more rapidly than healthy cells and continue to gather, forming a lump or mass. The cells may spread (metastasize) to the lymph nodes or other parts of the body. Objectives: 1. To assess the level of knowledge on breast cancer among college girl. 2. To assess the level of practice on prevention of breast cancer and breast self examination among college girls. 3 To correlate the knowledge and practice on breast cancer and its prevention among college girls. 4. To associate level of knowledge on breast cancer with selected demographic variable of college girls. 5. To associate practice on prevention of breast cancer with selected demographic variable of college girls. Methodology: A cross sectional design was used to conduct the study and 50 nursing college girls have been selected by using simple random sampling technique. The study was conducted in Sabari College of Nursing, Kirumampakkam, Puducherry. The structured knowledge questionnaire and practice questionnaire was used to collect the data to assess the knowledge about breast cancer and practice regarding breast self examination. The content validity was done by experts in nursing and research. The collected data was analyzed by descriptive statistics (frequency, percentage, mean and standard deviation) and inferential statistics (chi square). Result: The study result has been proved that majority (82%) of college girls had moderate knowledge about breast cancer. But none of the participants had adequate knowledge about it. 68% of college girls had moderate practice of self breast examination. Our research had revealed that only marital status and religion had significant association with levels of knowledge. Conclusion: Early detection for breast cancer plays the leading role in reducing mortality rates and improving the patient’s prognosis. The recommended screening method for early detection of this fatal disease is mammography, clinical breast examination and breast self examination.It is recommended that each and every woman above 20years of age should perform self breast examination at least once in a month

  15. Gilbert E Kwesi, Naboth A Mbembati and Larry O Akoko

    Background: The present study aimed to determine the indications and short-term complications of major limb amputations as well as early functional outcomes. Methods: This was a prospective, Descriptive Hospital based study conducted among 52 patients at Muhimbili Hospital complex between January 2022 and January 2023. Main Outcome Measures were patient survival, complications and early functional outcome following amputation. Results: A total of 52 patients were eligible for the study. The most common indication for major limb amputation was peripheral vascular disease with or without diabetes in 48% of patients. Trauma was the second most common cause of amputations in 40.4% of patients. Stump revision was common accounting for 29.6% of participants significantly contributed by stump infections. The mortality rate was 17.3%; septicaemia accounting for most of the observed deaths (44.4%). Of the 52 participants, 46.2% were independent in carrying out activities of daily living at final assessment with 61.5% of amputees acquiring prostheses at the end of study. Majority of participants failed to acquire prostheses because of poor stump qualities. Conclusion: Major lower limb amputation continues to result in significant perioperative morbidity and mortality. Preventive measures such education of diabetic patients on foot care and, public enlightenment on accident and trauma prevention strategies will go a long way in reducing the burden of amputation. Making prosthesis available and affordable to amputees is also suggested as a way of improving on the quality of life and functionality of amputees.

  16. Deshmukh, A. G. and Koche, D. K.

    The Mungbean [Vigna radiata (L.) Welczek] is one of the most important pulse grain crops of the Indian subcontinent having a high amount of protein. In the present study seeds of two varieties of mungbean were with gamma rays (100Gy, 200 Gy, 300Gy and 400Gy), EMS, and SA (0.1%, 0.2%, 0.3%, and 0.4%) respectively. In the M1 generation, it was noted that physical mutagen gamma rays showed a comparatively higher percentage of germination than chemical mutagens EMS and SA. It also showed a higher rate of survival and plant fertility. The rate of germination in gamma-ray treated seeds AKM- 8802 ranged from 82 to 93.65%, and in the case of AKM-4 it was 87.30 to 88.88%, which was very close to respective controls. However, the trends observed that increase in the dose or concentration of mutagen there is a decrease in the rate of germination, rate of plant survival, and rate of plant fertility in all mutagens. These mutagens also showed a significant effect on the sterility of plants and thereby affecting fertility of the plants.

  17. Benjamin Ampomah Asiedu, Reuben Ofori and Yvette Dwomoh-Okudzeto

    The study examined the Influence of Indiscipline on Academic Performance of Students in Techiman North District. The study was descriptive in nature. The sample size was 82 since the sampling technique employed was census. The main data used was primary and secondary data.Questionnaires were the main instrument for data collection. The variables recorded a reliability test of 78%. Inferential statistic was employed with the aid of SPSS Version 23 to analysed the data. The study found that there were major acts of indiscipline in schools. Some of them were cheating, exams malpractices, alcohol, drug abuse truancy, classroom disrupted behaviour, absenteeism etc. The major act of indiscipline when dealt with increase academic performance but when left unattended to decrease academic performance. It was recommended that any student found with such behaviour should be given to the disciplinary committee for appropriate disciplinary actions. It was found that cheating/exams malpractice influenced academic performance, therefore it was recommended that instead of restricting students not to cheat they should be allowed to do open book exams with the school being time conscious.

  18. Dr. Pradnya V. Bansode, Dr. Seema D. Pathak, Dr. M. B. Wavdhane and Dr. Nisha Dalal

    The loss of anterior tooth structure affects patient’s esthetics and hampers his psychological and social well being. The reconstruction of structurally compromised anterior teeth is rather a challenging procedure for a Dentist. A conventional build up technique using composite resin restoration alone can fulfill the esthetic requirement, but the strength is still compromised. This has drawn the attention of the researchers to design a biomimetic material which can replace dentin and reconstruct the tooth to its utmost natural appearance and strength. The following case report presents a technique of reinforcing a traumatized vital anterior tooth (representing Ellis Class II fracture) with a fibre reinforced composite resin.

  19. Ritika Mehra, Dr. Parmjeet Kaur and GKU, Talwandi Sabo

    Guru Hargobind Sahib was a devoted preacher, as an originator, a visionary political leader and he was the first national military hero of the Punjab in 600years. Guru Hargobind Sahib was the Sixth Guru of the Sikhs. He was born on 9 June 1595, at Wadali, a village near Amritsar in the house of fifth Guru Arjan Dev ji and mother Ganga Devi was blessed by Baba Buddha ji before his birth. Bal Hargobind gained his primary education and training at the hands of two idolized Sikhs of that time Baba Buddha ji and Bhai Gurdas ji. Guru Hargobind Sahib had three wives Damodari, Nanaki and Marvahi. He had five sons Baba Gurditta, Ani Rai, Suraj Mal, Atal Rai and Tegh Bahadur and one daughter Bibi Viro. After the martyrdom of Guru Arjan Dev ji he carry two swords Miri and Piri. Guru ji manufactured Akal Takht was a stunning building in the front of Harmandar Sahib. Here, he took over the social and military affairs of the Sikhs. Guru Hargobind sahib started a solitary type of Dhad singing on the time of Naval. Guru ji Like Guru Nanak his preaching utility pre-owned to be in concise and apprehend which had a supernatural effect on the sangat. He raised a planning up above the torch of Sikhs, he established Dhuanas symbol of his ascertain. Guru Hargobind built many Gurudwaras, Sikh shrines and forts in the Punjab and other places.

  20. Edward M. Kiunisala

    In this paper, we investigate the inverse closed domination in the corona of graphs. Some interesting relationships are known between closed domination, independent domination and inverse closed domination.

  21. Dr. Yusra Mushtaq Shah, Dr. Omer Khurshid, Dr. Aijaz Ahmad and Dr. Tabasum Rashid

    Background: Gestational hypertension, also referred to as pregnancy-induced hypertension, is a condition where pregnant women develop high blood pressure after the 20th week of pregnancy without showing proteinuria. During pregnancy, a high need for calcium can reduce calcium secretion in breast milk, leading to decreased bone mineralization for both the mother and the baby. Pregnancy-specific multisystem disorder (PIH) is characterized by edema, high blood pressure, and is a component of preeclampsia and eclampsia. Preeclampsia is a more severe form of PIH that also involves proteinuria and can cause organ damage. Eclampsia is a rare but serious complication of preeclampsia that involves seizures. Regular prenatal care is important to monitor and manage any potential pregnancy-related complications. Methods: We conducted a one-year prospective observational study involving 100 pregnant women who were admitted to the antenatal ward at the Government Medical College in Srinagar, Jammu and Kashmir. To be included in the study group, women had to be over the age of 20 with a singleton pregnancy and more than 20 weeks pregnant. They also had to have been diagnosed with pre-eclampsia, which was defined as having a blood pressure of ≥140/90mmHg on two separate occasions six hours apart, proteinuria of more than 300mg in 24-hour urine or 1+ dipstick in 2 midstream urine samples collected four hours apart, with or without edema, and at more than 20 weeks of gestational age. The control group consisted of women between the ages of 20 and 40 with a singleton pregnancy, more than 20 weeks of gestational age, a blood pressure of ≤130/80 mmHg, and who were either primi- or multigravidas. Results: The study compared the characteristics of cases and controls. The mean age of cases was 26.015 years with a standard deviation of 4.51 years, while the mean age of controls was 26.450 years with a standard deviation of 4.82 years. The mean gestational age of cases was 34.230 weeks with a standard deviation of 3.02 weeks, and the mean gestational age of controls was 33.120 weeks with a standard deviation of 3.59 weeks. Among cases, 60% were primiparous and 40% were multiparous, while among controls, 55% were primiparous and 45% were multiparous. The mean systolic blood pressure of cases was 150 mm/Hg with a standard deviation of 7.124 mm/Hg, and the range was between 135 mm/Hg and 165 mm/Hg. The median systolic blood pressure of cases was 151 mm/Hg. The mean systolic blood pressure of controls was 120 mm/Hg with a standard deviation of 10.20 mm/Hg, and the range was between 115 mm/Hg and 130 mm/Hg. The median systolic blood pressure of controls was 120 mm/Hg. The mean diastolic blood pressure of cases was 98.9 mm/Hg with a standard deviation of 6.03 mm/Hg, and the range was between 90 mm/Hg and 110 mm/Hg. The median diastolic blood pressure of cases was 100 mm/Hg. The mean diastolic blood pressure of controls was 75.90 mm/Hg with a standard deviation of 4.45 mm/Hg, and the range was between 60 mm/Hg and 80 mm/Hg. The median diastolic blood pressure of controls was 76 mm/Hg. The mean serum calcium level of cases was 8.53 mg/dL with a standard deviation of 0.450 mg/dL, and it ranged between 8-9.6 mg/dL. The median serum calcium level of cases was 8.550 mg/dL. The mean serum calcium level of controls was 9.30 mg/dL with a standard deviation of 0.5350 mg/dL, and it ranged between 8.4-10.6 mg/dL. The median serum calcium level of controls was 9.050 mg/dL. The study showed that cases had lower mean serum calcium levels compared to controls. Conclusion: The study did not explicitly state a conclusion. However, based on the data presented, regular monitoring of serum calcium levels in pregnant women may be beneficial in diagnosing and managing any issues that arise. This could potentially help to prevent maternal morbidity and mortality and lead to better outcomes in pregnancy.

  22. Jean-François Mboumba, Norbert Ondo Zue Abaga et Nicola Anthony

    La diversité de petits mammifères forestiers des zones humides du Complexe de Gamba a été largement documentée, malheureusement ces données sont incomplètes. L’étude vise donc à évaluer la répartition des espèces de petits mammifères des zones humides érigées en sites Ramsar dans le Complexe de Gamba et particulièrement dans le secteur de Setté-Cama. Elle repose essentiellement sur l’analyse comparative de la diversité locale et structurelle des communautés de petits rongeurs, entre les sites forestiers côtiers et intérieurs de la région de Setté Cama. Par la suite, les données ont été comparées à ceux de littérature sur les études menées dans le complexe et ailleurs. L’échantillonnage par transect linéaire a été effectué à l’aide de pièges Sherman. Au total, 64 petits mammifères appartenant à 5 espèces des Muridés ont été recensés dans les deux forêts au cours d’un effort de piégeage de 1200 nuits-pièges. Le succès de capture global est de 5,3%, et varie d’une forêt à l’autre (2 à 8,7 %). La richesse spécifique varie de 2 à 4 espèces entre les deux forêts : forêt côtière (2 espèces) et dans la forêt continentale (4 espèces). Cependant, Hylomyscus walterverheyeni s’est avérée l’espèce la plus abondante à l’intérieur des peuplements (73,4%), suivie par Praomys misonnei (7,8 %), Heimyscus fumosus et Malacomys longipes (6,2 %). Quant à la diversité locale en espèces, la valeur la plus élevée a été obtenue dans la forêt continentale (H' = 3.5). A l’inverse, l’abondance relative globale est plus élevée dans la forêt côtière (81.25 % du total des individus capturés). La structure de peuplement des communautés de petits rongeurs côtiers est dominée par une seule espèce (Hylomyscus walterverheyeni), tant disque celle de la forêt continentale, est codominée par trois espèces (Heimyscus fumosus, Hylomyscus walterverheyeni et Malacomys longipes). Les résultats ont montré qu’il existe une différence de pattern de diversité locale et de structure de peuplement des communautés de petits rongeurs dans cette zone protégée. Nos resultats ont confirmé également que la biodiversité de petits rongeurs est faible dans les forêts littorales, avec une seule espèce dominant le peuplement. En outre, nos analyses mettent en évidence une influence des facteurs écologiques locaux sur la diversité de petits rongeurs des sites classés Ramsar. Ces nouvelles informations fournissent un aperçu important de la biogéographie des petits rongeurs au niveau local et régional des zones humides du Gabon.

  23. Dr. Abdulrahman Alballa Dr. Feras Alsanna, Dr. Ahmad Alshihri and Dr. Anfal Alhumoud

    Background: Bladder injury is a rare complication of laparoscopic surgery, but it can have severe consequences. Therefore, timely and efficient management of such iatrogenic bladder injuries is important. The present case report describes the occurrence, diagnosis, and management of an iatrogenic bladder injury that was diagnosed after laparoscopic appendectomy. Case Report: a 17-year-old girl, presented to emergency department with lower abdominal pain shifted to right iliac fossa. After full investigation she was diagnosed as acute appendicitis. Then was taken to operating theatre and underwent laparoscopic appendectomy. Post-operative course was uneventful and she was discharged home in good condition. Patient presented again to the emergency department complaining of severe lower abdominal pain and peritoneal signs. After investagtions she was diagnosed to have bladder injury right below suprapubic trocar insertion site. Diagnoses of iatrogenic bladder injury was made and patient was treated accordingly. Conclusion: Iatrogenic injury to the bladder during laparascpic procedure is a known complication, especially when inserting a suprapubic trocar. It is important that during a procedure such as laparascopic appendectomy to decompress the urinary bladder prior to procedure. Insertion should always be under direct visualization. And to know alternative ports insertion site to avoid bladder injury. Intraoperative identification of bladder injury is critical to achieve best outcomes, but if injury was occult then patient can present delayed with non-specific symptoms. Once a diagnosis is reached then treatment will depend on size of defect and symptoms of the patient.

  24. Dr. Jameela, T.

    Open Educational Resources (OER), is a term adopted at a UNESCO meeting in 2002. It implies the provision of educational resources, without any charge, for consultation, use, and adaptation by users for non-commercial purposes. The introduction of the internet combined with digitalized multimedia and its applications in education and industry have bought many changes to the educational landscape. In this context, the investigator conducted a survey to seek teachers of teacher students’ intention to use Open Educational Resources, when the resources were used as a supplementary teaching-learning tool within a traditional class. Through user–reported self-assessment questionnaires of 35 training college teachers teaching at B.Ed courses offered by various institutes located in the Malappuram District of Kerala, required data was collected. The study reveals that though open educational resources can enhance the quality and standard of teaching-learning processes to a greater extent, due to the absence of proper awareness about Open Educational Resources, they are not properly used by teachers.

  25. Prof Dr. P. Genesta Mary Gysel and Mrs. P. Sivaranjani

    Background: The burden of diabetes is high and increasing globally, and in developing countries like India, mainly fueled by the increasing prevalence of overweight/obesity and unhealthy lifestyles. Major complications of chronic diabetes mellitus were Lower extremity disease, including peripheral neuropathy, foot ulceration, peripheral artery disease, or lower extremity amputation was twice as common in diabetic person when compared with non diabetic patients. Screening and early identification of neuropathy offers a crucial opportunity for the patient. For these many diagnostic tools were available, particularly screening by Semmes- Weinstein Monofilament and tuning fork were cheaper and easier to detect diabetic peripheral Neuropathy. Objectives: 1) To compare the Semmes Weinstein monofilament and tuning fork among chronic diabetic mellitus patients. 2) To find out the association of Semmes Weinstein monofilament and tuning fork among chronic diabetic mellitus patients with selected socio demographic variables. Methodology: A Comparative study was conducted to assess effectiveness of Semmes–Weinstein monofilament and tuning fork for peripheral neuropathy screening at selected outpatient department, Puducherry. A Convenient sampling technique was adapted by the examiners and 40 samples with chronic diabetes mellitus patient were selected. A structured questionnaire was used to collect the data. The risk was identified by modified American diabetic association risk category scoring to rule out the diabetic peripheral neuropathy. The content validity was done by experts in nursing and research. The collected data was analyzed by descriptive statistics (frequency, percentage, mean and standard deviation) and inferential statistics (chi square). Results: The study is to correlate the effectiveness of Semmes-Weinstein Monofilament and tuning fork for diabetic peripheral neuropathy screening at selected outpatient department, Puducherry. The results of this study concluded that there is a highly significant correlation between the Semmes -Weinstein Monofilament and tuning fork for diabetic peripheral neuropathy screening. Conclusion: Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathy is a complication of chronic diabetes mellitus that can lead to problems throughout the extremities. If a person with chronic diabetes mellitus, can develop nerve problems at any time.. Neuropathy can affect nerves that control movement, sensation and other functions. To prevent these complications, screening and early identification is an essential component. Hence Monofilament and tuning fork testing is an inexpensive, easy-to-use, and portable for assessing the loss of protective sensation, and it is recommended by several practice guidelines to detect peripheral neuropathy.

  26. Hithesh Sai Nadh, G., Girish, K., Bhargav Teja, P., Dinesh, P., Subrahmanyam, M.R.S. and Kumar Babu, P.

    Nowadays energy and power are the one of the basic necessities regarding this modern world. In this project we are generating electrical power as a non-conventional method by walking on the footsteps. Non-conventional energy system is very essential at this time to developing nations like India, China etc. Non-conventional energy using footsteps needs no fuel input power to generate the output. In this project we are generating electrical power as non-conventional method by simply walking or running on the footsteps. Non-conventional energy system is very essential at this time to our nation. Nonconventional energy using foot step needs no fuel input power to generate the electrical power. In this project the simple drive mechanism such as rack and pinion assembly and chain drive mechanism is used for generating power by utilization of force which is obtained during the walking on steps is converted in to electrical energy with the help of mechanical systems. The generated power is stored by means of battery and this is used for activating the connected loads. This is one of the compact and efficient systems for generating electricity which can be easily installed in many regions.

  27. Sharada V. Bhat and Shrinath M. Bijjargi

    Some estimators are suggested for slope coefficient in simple linear regression model using nonparametric approach. The estimators are based on various kinds of distances among ordered predictor variables. The mean and variance of the suggested estimators are obtained. Their efficiencies are established by carrying out comparisons among them and with their competitors including least square estimate given in the literature. The estimators and their relative efficiencies are computed for datasets for illustration.

  28. Okonji, C.U. and Ufelle, S. A.

    The controlled proliferation and differentiation of blood cells occurs in a highly organized system Haemopoiesis results in the formation of the cellular components of blood. Hibiscus sabdariffa is a common garden plant found in the tropics. Hibiscus tea is generally consumed by the general population as a pro-health drink. This research investigated the haemopoietic activity of fractionated Hibiscus sabdariffa calyx and identified chemical compounds present. The study adopted the experimental research design. Thin-layer and column chromatograph was used to purify and separate the extracts into fractions while LC-MS was used to identify the chemical constituents of the fractions. Male albino rats (64) aged 16-18weeks was used for the study. The extracts yielded seven fractions. Anaemia was induced by oral administration of 10mg/kg body weight phenylhydrazine for 3 days and 1ml of 0.5mg/kg body weight of each fraction was given to treatment groups. Blood sample (2.0ml) was collected on days 8, 15 and 22 from the retro-orbital plexus. Interleukin 3 (IL-3) and erythropoetin (EPO) were assayed were using the ELISA technique and haematological parameters by the electrical impedance method. Phytochemical screening revealed that the aqueous extracts is rich in flavonoids, terpenoids and anthocyanins. On day 8, there was a significant increase (P<0.05) in IL-3 EPO and Retics within the groups of rats treated with fractions 6 (36.55±18.74) and 7(68.50±2.26) when compared with positive control group (52.70±1.13) On day 15, there was a significant increase (P<0.05) in IL-3 and EPO within the groups of rats treated with fraction 1(54.85±1.91; 16.50±0.99), fraction 5(43.95±2.05; 13.25±0.35), fraction 6(42.40±0.85; 52.80±1.98) and fraction 7(62.85±3.32; 77.50±4.10) when compared with positive control group (54.00±1.98; 12.75±0.07). On day 22, there was no significant difference (P>0.05) in IL-3, EPO and Retics within the groups of rats. Also there was no significant difference in the mean body weight (P>0.05). The red cells, white cells and platelets values were not significantly altered on day 22. The Bone marrow was normocellular with normal myeloid/erythroid ratio. The study revealed that fractions 6 and 7 promotes haemopoietic activity in anaemic rats however the haemopoietic activity induced by fraction 7 was fastest.

  29. Dr. Amrita Majumdar

    Research is a vital part of higher education and has a big impact on society, but technology changes its process and usage. Research always need data. Due to many companies investing in digital technology, data production and interchange have attracted national attention. Research Data Management is a novel way to organise data from input to the research cycle to distribution and archiving of significant results. Research requires data management. Libraries organise data their way. The article gives a general overview of the role libraries play in the management of research data.

  30. Rabia kashfi and Aysha Raza

    Background: Dysfunctional uterine bleeding (DUB) is a common debilitating problem amongst women in all age groups and accounts for 20% of gynaecology visits. The term ‘dysfunctional uterine bleeding’ was specifically used when menorrhagia was not associated with any genital tract abnormalities, general or endocrinological diseases. In this case, hormonal imbalance is considered the root cause of hyperplasia of the endometrium it results menorrhagia.1,2,3,4 Objectives: The aim of the study was to evaluate the efficacy of Unani formulations in the management of dysfunctional uterine bleeding. With an objective to evaluate the efficacy of unani drugs in the management of Dysfunctional Uterine Bleeding (Usr-e-Wazifi Nazf-ur-Reham). Methods: Standard controlled randomized single blind study was carried out at department of Amraz-e-Niswanwa Qabalat, Karol Bagh, New Delhi by registering 80 clinically diagnosed cases of DUB were enrolled in both test group (40 patients) and control group (40 patients) after getting their consent to participate in the study. Treatment was given for every 15 days or as per assessment of the patient for 90 days and evaluation of treatment was done by the assessment of menstrual blood loss (MBL) using the Pictorial Bleeding Assessment Chart before and after the treatment, relief of the associated symptoms and regularity of menstrualcycles. Subjective and objective parameter were assessed by Z-test. Results: There was a significant reduction of menstrual blood loss (MBL) in both test group and control group (P < 0.01). The irregularity of menstrual cycles was rectified and menstrual cycles were regular with duration of 25-30 days. Of the 40 patients in the test group, 29 (72.5%) were cured, 9 (22.5%) were relieved, and 2 (5%) were partially relieved. Conclusion: The Unani drugs in the test group were found to be effective as they are having haemostatic, styptic, analgesic, and anti-inflammatory, anti-spasmodic, blood purifier and uterine tonic properties. The formulation is rich in oxides of iron, tannin, and phosphorus, hence found to be beneficial in replenishing the lost minerals in excessive menstrual flow.

  31. Anush Rangarajan, S., Shreyashi Jha, Ganaraja, V. H., Taallapalli, A.V.R., Vikas Vazhayil and Girish B Kulkarni

    Cerebral venous sinus thrombosis (CVT) is a potentially curable cause of stroke in young. Though primary pathology is related to tissue damage resulting from the obliteration of venous outflow from functioning brain tissue, secondary damage resulting from mass effect and midline shift is a life-threatening complication wherein Decompressive craniectomy (DC) can be lifesaving. We aim to highlight the indication, appropriate timing and outcome of DC in CVT. Our patient, a middle-aged woman, had recurrent CVT, after an interval of three years, the only cause evident was anaemia secondary to abnormal uterine bleeding (AUB). She needed combined neurological and neurosurgical care during both the episodes and she recovered significantly even after having bilateral lesions and after undergoing decompressive craniectomy twice on separate occasions which is first of its kind in the literature to our knowledge.

  32. Maryia Shafiki, Umera Ikram, Imran Jan and Ruby Reshi

    Background: Ovarian tumors are one of the leading cancers in females with variable pathological types. This study describes the distribution, clinical and pathological details of various histopathological types of ovarian tumors in a tertiary care hospital. Aim: To study the histopathological pattern of ovarian tumors. To determine the stage and grade of the ovarian tumors. Material and method: An observational study of 2 years from Aug 2019 to July 2021, for ovarian tumors submitted to the pathology department of a tertiary care hospital. Data were classified according to the latest World Health Organization (WHO) Classification into epithelial tumors, germ cell tumors, sex cord–stromal tumors, and others. Result: A total of 260 cases of ovarian tumors were studied, 243 were unilateral and 17were bilateral. Epithelial tumors formed the majority in 75% of cases followed by germ celltumors 21.15%, sex cord–stromal tumors (3.08%). Maximum number of casesin the respective groups occurred in the age groups 20–39 years. Overall, benign tumors were 80.76%, malignant tumors were 17.69%, and borderline were. 1.54%. The most common histopathological type of benign and malignant tumor was benign serous cystadenoma (27.30%), serous borderline tumor (0.38%) and serous carcinoma (9.23%), respectively. Conclusion: In the present study, ovarian tumors were classified according to the WHO classification, epithelial and germ cell tumors were the major types of ovarian tumors. Benign epithelial tumor formed the majority with 46.2% cases. Serous cystadenoma and mature cystic teratoma were the predominant type of epithelial and germ cell tumors, respectively.

  33. Ednei Fernando dos Santos, Thatiana Carolina Schulze Goni, Marcelo Donizeti Silva, Myrna Marques Lopes and Mark Dixon

    Introduction: Worldwide, more than 1.35 million lives are lost annually to road traffic accidents. Care is provided on scene to prevent the occurrence of secondary neurological injuries, forming the cornerstone of emergency medical service (EMS) interventions. Controlled extrication for stable patients is common with attempts to limit the range of spinal column movement using techniques such as self-extrication, in line extrication and/or by utilising short extrication jackets (KED or similar). Recently, bio mechanical studies have challenged the use of indoctrinated EMS techniques. This study intends to add to the body of evidence comparing controlled inline extrication technique, zero angle (AZ) versus the short extrication jacket (KED).Method: This is a randomised comparative cohort study analysing the biomechanics of spinal movement during 2 extrication techniques. The study compares a cohort of 74 healthy volunteers of varying sex, height and weight. Volunteers were removed from the simulated vehicle twice using both AZ and KED techniques. Height and weight demographics matched general population attribution. Extrications were undertaken by 12 teams of 3 EMS professionals with more than 5 years experience.Cervical spine motion was measured using a human motion tracker through wireless kinemetry sensors, six infra-red cameras for 3D motion analysis (Spica) and reflective anatomical markers. Wireless inertia sensors were also used to measure the acceleration (accelerometers) and angular velocity (gyroscopes) of the spine during different phases. Primary analysis end points were: head movement, extraction time and patient comfort. Results: The extrication time was significantly shorter with the AZ technique. Head movement was greater when using the KED.The perceived comfort during extrication showed greater comfort in the AZ technique. Conclusion: Extrication technique will vary based on each victim and must be derived upon injury severity. The habitual use of the KED rescue technique needs review especially for taller and obese patients.

  34. Dr. Aanchal Kakkar, Dr . Namita Saraswat, Dr. Sarita Prasad and Dr. Mohandeep Kaur

    Introduction: Coronavirus has emerged as a global health threat creating havoc worldwide. The Government of India started COVID-19 vaccination on 16th January 2021. General community knowledge, perception and disposition towards the COVID-19 vaccine must be understood to make it a success. Thus, this study was aimed to investigate community knowledge, perspective and disposition towards the COVID-19 vaccine which can help to strengthen the vaccination drive in our country. Methodology: After obtaining institutional ethical clearance, a cross-sectional study was conducted in Delhi, India over two months. A questionnaire-based e-survey was conducted among individuals above 45 years of age, coming for 1st dose of vaccination. Results: There was almost equal participation of both genders for COVID-19 vaccination. Most were married (94%) and all were educated with a minimum qualification of 10+2. 61.9% were self-motivated to get vaccination shows that the urban population is aware of the importance and benefits of vaccination against coronavirus. 75% were concerned about safety profile andside effects/allergic reactions, and20% had doubts about vaccine efficacy, yet they participated. Conclusion: There is self-motivation for vaccination in the population with equal participation of sexes. People are concerned about side effects and efficacy, yet they have taken the vaccination, suggesting the fear of COVID and also the faith in India’s own vaccine. It is hereby important to educate people about the safety profile of vaccination and not to be worried about its side effects.

  35. Ms. JincyJoseph, Ms. Saly Suseel, Ms. Soniya Susan Varghese and Ms. Poonam Mulye

    Objectives • To assess the knowledge of antenatal mothers regarding breast feeding. • To assess the practices of antenatal mothers regarding breast feeding techniques Research Method: In this study one group pre-test and post-test design was used .Non- probability convenient sampling technique was used for the study. A structured questionnaire was used to collect the data. To assess the practices a LATCH scale was used. Result: Breastfeeding is a very integral part of building a child’s immunity. The pre-test knowledge of the mother’s was found to be 45.1 whereas post test knowledge was 50. The practice of the mothers before the teaching was 35.3 and post teaching the practice improved to 48.4. P value was found to be zero. There was significant increase in the knowledge and practice too of the antenatal mothers. The mothers who breastfed their infants had a low risk of developing breast cancer, ovarian cancer, Type 2 Diabetes and High blood pressure. Conclusion: Breast milk is composed of many essential substances for optimal growth and development, including carbohydrates, fats, proteins in breast milk are especially important during critical development of brain, gut and immune development (http://www.who.int> health-topics). Despite these overwhelming benefits for both mother and baby, the rates of breastfeeding are still not optimal. We should effectively counsel and educate the mothers regarding the properties and the way it nourishes and protects the infants from endangering diseases.

  36. Mitrajit Saha, Sayantani Banerjee, Sayak Chakraborty and Debasmita Biswas

    It is a well-known fact that ‘Digital India’ is the outcome of many innovations and technological advancements. It has transformed the lives of people in many ways and will empower society for the better. The motive behind this program is to build participative, transparent, and responsive systems. It is the dream project of the Government of India, aimed at remodeling India into a flourishing economy and a digitally empowered society, with good governance for its citizens by bringing synchronization and coordination in public accountability, while digitally connecting and delivering government programmes and services to mobilize the capability of information technology across government departments. Hence, an attempt has been made in this paper to understand Digital India – as a campaign where technologies and connectivity have been coming together to make an impact on all aspects of governance and improve the quality of life of citizens. Technology plays an important role in the development of rural areas. Through the use of technology, rural inhabitants become aware of schemes and benefits being provided to them by the government and other organizations, resulting in growth and an increase in productivity. Increased productivity leads to economic growth. The present study was conducted at Mautala village, South 24 parganas district of West Bengal, in India. The study aimed to understand how the Digital India initiative has affected the rural landscape with a focus on a particular village. The findings of the study indicate that even though villagers of Mautala are aware of the various schemes under the Digital India initiative, only a minimal percentage of them have availed of the facilities and benefitted from them. This indicates a lack of proper infrastructure in the implementation of these schemes, something that the Government of India needs to look into.

  37. Efstathios K. Metaxas, Eudokia Tzatzadakis, Nikolaos Tzatzadakis, Antonios Katsipoulakis and Nikolaos Anastasiou

    Background: Elastofibroma dorsi considered a rare benign soft-tissue tumor localized infrascapular. Could be localized also bilateral. Aim of the study to present, strategy for treatment, operative technique, complications and literature review. Methods: During a 10year period a retrospective study took place. Twenty nine (29) patients treated for Elastofibroma dorsi, at Thoracic Surgery Department at General Hospital of Nicaea-Piraeus Agios Panteleimon –and Department of Thoracic Surgery, Oncological Hospital of Kifisia-Agioi Anargyroi, Athens Greece. Results: Ten (25) female (86,206%) and two (4) male (13,793 %), aged 43-82 years mean age 70 years. Six female patients had bilateral tumor. All tumors were located infrascapular. Conclusion: Elastofibroma dorsi is a rare benign tumor seen in elderly female patients. Could be unilateral or bilateral. Biopsy usually performed exclude soft tissue sarcoma. CT Scan and MRI may help in diagnosis especially if it is located bilateral. Surgical excision, marginal excision of the tumor can be performed when patient in pain with minimal morbidity. Minimal drainage required for almost two days. In case of seroma a needle aspiration by a syringe and anti-inflammatory oral medication seems that is really helpful. Also a few sutures below the incision may be very helpful to minimize the free space. The radical surgical excision is the gold standard.

  38. Pooja C. Durge, Urvashi P. Manik and Paritosh L. Mishra

    Glucose and Vitamin C both are important for human body as well as plants and all living creature. The value of velocity, density of glucose at different concentration 0.02-0.2 M in the solution aqueous vitamin C solution of 0.2M concentration at different temperature 283.15K-298.15K has been measured. By using the velocity and density other acoustical, thermodynamical and volumetric parameter also calculated like free length (Lf), Wada’s constant(W), Rao’s constant(R), internal pressure(πi), Viscosity(η), apparent molar volume (Vψ), adiabatic compressibility(β), acoustic impedance(Z), relative association(RA) and Relaxation Strength(r). Variation in this all parameter with respect to change in molality and temperature exhibit the existence of intermolecular interaction. And this all parameter shows the solute-solvent interaction.

  39. Dr. Sonali Gupta, Dr. Poonam Singh, Dr. Garima Goel, Dr. Shreya, K., Dr. Dinesh P Asati and Dr. Kapil Baheti

    Background: Psoriasis involves vasculature in the very early stages of the disease leading to impaired capillary permeability, decreased density of capillaries and loss of adhesion between endothelial cell and the matrix of papillary dermis. It is hypothesized that early endothelial dysfunction can be detected at the level of dermal capillary microvasculature. If these changes can be detected and quantified early they would help in the early diagnosis of psoriasis, course of the disease and response to the treatment. Methods: Single centred prospective controlled study was conducted on 100 patients with psoriasis attending the outpatient department of dermatology between March 2021 and August 2022. Inclusion criteria involved patients above 10 years of age and less than 80 years of age with moderate to severe psoriasis with or without psoriatic arthritis and PASI≥10 or BSA >10% and off systemic treatment for a minimum of 4 weeks. Controls were selected from individuals who had never been diagnosed with psoriasis. Data recorded was statistically analysed by using Chi-square (for ordinal data) or by t-test (for continuous data) and by non-parametric test. A p value<0.05 was considered as statistically significant for this purpose. Results: The mean age of cases was 39.00 ± 13.93 years and mean age of the control group was 40.31 ± 17.40. Most of the patients affected with psoriasis were in the age group of 30-60 years with a male predominance (M:F -1.5:1). 5% of the cases had bizarre morphology with a relatively lower MCD 6.6/mm than in the controls 8.41/mm. 20.0% and 17% of the cases had dilated Capillaries, tortuous capillaries respectively, while 13% and 11% cases showed haemorrhages and avascular areas respectively. Micro vessel density of psoriatic plaques quantified by IHC showed no significant correlation with any of the capillaroscopic findings. Conclusion: Evidences gathered support the role of NVC in the assessment of peripheral microcirculatory changes associated with systemic diseases. They provide a window for the visualisation of dermal capillaries, their morphological alterations and structural abnormalities, along with real time assessment of their functional dynamics.

  40. Dr. Bartosz Nieścior

    The study presents the problem related to the misconduct of State Police officers during the Second Polish Republic. Personnel in the police corps undoubtedly had to have an impeccable character of service. In order to ensure such a state, appropriate legal regulations were introduced, to which each officer had to adapt. Unfortunately, there were frequent cases of insubordination, which resulted in adequate disciplinary or criminal liability. Such situations have been shown in the work. The research analysis of the indicated examples is a kind of novelty in science. Dogmatic-legal and historical methods were used to better illustrate the title issue. The work mainly uses archival sources, which is undoubtedly an indisputable research core.

  41. Monika Gupta, Deepshikha, Anjali Sindhu and Sunita Singh

    Primary cutaneous mucinous carcinoma or Primary cutaneous colloid carcinoma is a rare malignant tumor of the eccrine glands. The tumor may be asymptomatic overall several years but generally it presents as a single hard swelling with a smooth surface, sometimes ulcerated or crusted. The tumor mainly affects middle aged man more than females. The tumor is resistant to radiotherapy and chemotherapy, so the treatment of choice is wide local excision. Here we present a case of primary mucinous carcinoma of anterior chest wall which is a very rare site of presentation.

  42. Dr. Umapathy Thimmegowda, Dr. Susan Kattimani, Dr. Praveen Malavalli Nagarajashetty and Dr. Ashwini Chikkanayakanahalli Prabhakar

    Introduction: A potential problem in inpatient management in pediatric dentistry is dental anxiety (DA) among children. It is of paramount importance for pediatric dentists to identify an anxious child and review potential management options specific to every child. Aim: This study aims to validate a newly devised Chota-Bheem-Chutki (CBC) animated scale and to compare this with Raghavendra, Madhuri, Sujata Pictorial Scale (RMS-PS) and Facial Image Scale (FIS) to measure dental anxiety in young children during their first dental visit before and after treatment. Materials and Methods: One hundred children aged 6–15 years were randomly selected who visited our department. The child's anxiety levels were measured using three different scales, the FIS, RMS-PS, and the CBC animated scale. To check the validity of the CBC scale it was compared with the other two scales. The scores were recorded by asking the children to choose the figure they identified with at that instant. Spearman’s correlation test will be used to obtain a correlation among the scales. Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test is used to compare the mean anxiety scores between different scales before treatment and after treatment. Results: A statistically significant correlation was found among FIS, RMS-PS, and CBC Scale however CBS scale when compared with other scales the results obtained were found to have a higher correlation which was statistically significant. Conclusion: The findings of this study suggest that the CBC scale can be used as a new tool for dental anxiety assessment in children among younger age groups as they are more fascinated by cartoon characters.

  43. BSN, MHA, RN Rowan Bakhdlg and Prof Omar Ahsharqi

    This study aims to shed a light on the correlation between psychological safety and the retention of nurses in a Saudi Arabia-Jeddah hospital and set counter ideas to prevent nurses from feeling undervalued or treated differently from their co-workers. Linking their behaviors with how they are treated by their supervisors. The current study applied a quantitative method and descriptive research design using survey created on Google form for nurses in Jeddah province. The current study has population 7344 and sample size is 396 nurses. Data analysis by BMI, SPSS program version 21 applying Chi-Square Tests to study the relation between two type of variables which are independent as (Career development, Job satisfaction, Employees Involvement) and dependent which is employees Retention to find the result. The study reached to following results. Many participants were female nurses, their age in-between 20-30 years most of them have graduated with 10 years of experience. Study found a significant relationship between the psychological safety in nurses and their retention, through addressing the three factors related to nurse’s retention which is organization, direct managers and the unit level then based on result the study reject null hypothesis and accept the hypothesis because p value was less than 0.05. The p value for factor one related to organization is less than 0.05 as well as factor related to organization and Unit level that’s mean those tree attributes highly affect the psychological safety in nursing staff. This study ask hospital administrators to give nurses the recognition they really deserve, and that credit will be based on the department's workload because the degree of psychological insecurity varies in different departments. Therefore, further investigation is needed to determine the level of psychological safety impact in nurses in different departments.

  44. Umera Ikram, Lateef Ahmad Wani, Sheikh Bilal and Sami ullah Mujoo

    Background Aim: To determine the pattern of Sweat and sebaceous gland tumours of Skin Adnexa histologically. Material and Method: The study was conducted in the department of Pathology, Government Medical College Srinagar for a period of 24 months. It was an observational cross sectional study. Formalin fixed, paraffin embedded tissue sections were stained with hematoxylin and eosin stain for histopathological analysis. Result: A total of 64 cases of sweat and sebaceous gland tumors were studied.59 were benign and 5 were malignant with male to female ratio of 0.93:1. Tumors with sweat differentiation are more common then sebaceous differentiation. The maximum number of benign cases were observed in 31-40 years of age group. The malignant tumours were found in the age group of 61 -70 years. Head and neckwas the most common site. Conclusion: Skin appendageal tumors are arelatively rare neoplasms. Cutaneous adnexal tumors are complex due to their diverse origin and varied histological appearance. Many of these have morphological overlap. In our study, sweat gland tumors were more common group. Although majorities of adnexal tumors are benign, malignant counterparts are rarely encountered, causing further diagnostic difficulties. By far the commonest variant in the present study was of eccrine sweat gland origin.

  45. Dr. Sumit Jain and Dr. Nitin Pise

    Background: The global burden of Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is on a rise.It is an endrocrine disorder characterised by hyperglycaemia. Cardiac morbidity in patients of long standing type 2 diabetes mellitus is said to occur due to dyslipidaemia seconadary to hyperglycaemia. Good glycaemic control may prevent such a mobidity to occur by intake of efficacious antidiabetic drugs either alone or in combination. Thus, our aim was to analyse the effect of metformin-vildagliptin vs metformin-glimepride on lipid profile of patients of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Methods: Our study was an observational comparative study where 200 patients of type 2 diabetes mellitus attending medicine department OPD at Shri Shankaracharya Institute of Medical Sciences (SSIMS), Bhillai were included. They were divided in two equal groups of 100 each, where group A were using Metformin-vildagliptin combination, whereas Group B were using Metformin- glimepride combination. All blood investigations were done to decipher glycaemic control and lipid profile status. The results of the two groups were compared and statiscally analysed. Results: Better glycaemic control was seen in patients of group A as compared to those in Group B after treatment, which was statistically significant. A reduction in triglyceride (TGL), low density lipoprotein (LDL) levels and improvement in high density lipoprotein (HDL) levels was seen in patients of Group Aas compared to those in Group B, which was statistically significant. Conclusions: Patients on combination of met formin-vildagliptin (Group A) had greater reduction in lipid profile parameters as compared to metformin- glimepride (Group B).

  46. Ashwini Kumar

    Background: Ovarian tumors are one of the leading cancers in females with variable pathological types. This study describes the distribution, clinical and pathological details of various histopathological types of ovarian tumors in a tertiary care hospital. Aim: To study the histopathological pattern of ovarian tumors. To determine the stage and grade of the ovarian tumors. Material and method: An observational study of 2 years from Aug 2019 to July 2021, for ovarian tumors submitted to the pathology department of a tertiary care hospital. Data were classified according to the latest World Health Organization (WHO) Classification into epithelial tumors, germ cell tumors, sex cord–stromal tumors, and others. Result: A total of 260 cases of ovarian tumors were studied, 243 were unilateral and 17were bilateral. Epithelial tumors formed the majority in 75% of cases followed by germ celltumors 21.15%, sex cord–stromal tumors (3.08%). Maximum number of casesin the respective groups occurred in the age groups 20–39 years. Overall, benign tumors were 80.76%, malignant tumors were 17.69%, and borderline were. 1.54%. The most common histopathological type of benign and malignant tumor was benign serous cystadenoma (27.30%), serous borderline tumor (0.38%) and serous carcinoma (9.23%), respectively. Conclusion: In the present study, ovarian tumors were classified according to the WHO classification, epithelial and germ cell tumors were the major types of ovarian tumors. Benign epithelial tumor formed the majority with 46.2% cases. Serous cystadenoma and mature cystic teratoma were the predominant type of epithelial and germ cell tumors, respectively.

  47. 1Pandey, J. D., Tripathi, S. B., Soni, N. K., Vinod Kumar Singh and Charu Kandpal

    The force constant, lattice frequency and the Debye temperature of the ionic crystals have been computed for twenty alkali halides. These molecules are halides of Li, Na, K, Rb and Cs. The two forms of potential energy functions have been employed labeled as Woodcock model and L5 Model. A new relation for the estimation of force constant of diatomic crystals by using molecular constants data has also been developed. The variations of each property have been plotted and the comparative study has been done.

  48. Dr. Anita Ann Simon, Dr. Dsouza Fulton, Dr. Jiss Thomas and Dr. Deni Joseph

    Introduction: Asthma is a heterogeneous disease characterised by chronic airway inflammation. It is considered as one among the most common chronic disease in childhood in the first world countries. WHO estimates shows that some 235 million people currently suffer from asthma. In the last 10 years, the proportion of Indian school children suffering from bronchial asthma has increased to more than double and has reached its highest level ever. Parent education programmes form an integral component of asthma management. Identification of the factors, associated with the parental knowledge regarding asthma, will help to facilitate the effectiveness of educational programmes. Objectives: To assess the level of understanding and beliefs held by parents of asthmatic children regarding the causation, prognosis and treatment of asthma. Methodology: A cross sectional descriptive study, data was collected using a semi-structured questionnaire from parents of asthmatic children between 3-18 years during the study period of two years. Normally distributed continuous variables were expressed as mean (SD), non-normally distributed continuous variables as median and range. Categorical data were presented using numbers and percentages. The Chi-square or Fisher exact test was used for discrete variables. Parametric or non –parametric test of independent t-test was used to explore relationship between the variables. All analytical procedures were done by using Stata13.1 (College Station, Texas, USA) and a 5% significance level was considered. Results: When compared to the previous studies, parental awareness of childhood asthma has increased significantly.Those parents who were more literate were more aware of the disease.There was statistically significant association between the literacy of parents and their acceptance of the disease asthma (p-0.002). Significant number of the parents (64%) knew about genetic etiology of asthma. Among the parents who accepted that their child has asthma majority were from urban area, and this number was statistically significant (p-0.03). When the child developed acute exacerbation, more than half of the parents were able to initiate management at home. Significant percentage of parents raised concerns on the long term use of aerosol treatment. Statistically significant association was found between the educational status of parents and the increasing concerns on inhaler medications( p-0.03, p-0.04). Conclusion: Comprehensive parental education targeting on importance of long term treatment, remarkable safety profile of medications would help in achieving better asthma control in children.

  49. Shari Kumbalath Raju, Peter P Vazhayil, Jiss Thomas and Anju Mary Jose

    Introduction: World Health Organization (WHO) defines Low birth as weight at birth of less than 2,500 grams (5.5 pounds)(1).The birth weight of an infant is the single most important determinant of its chance for survival, healthy growth and development(2). Epidemiological observations show that infants weighing less than 2,500 g have approximately 20 times greater risk of neonatal mortality compared to heavier babies. Low birth weight contributes to a range of poor health outcome .Fetal and neonatal mortality and morbidity, inhibition of growth and cognitive development, and chronic diseases later in life are closely associated with low birth weight(3–6).Low birth weight also has public health significance as its outcome is influenced by consumption of reproductive health care(7). One of the key measures of child health is that of birth weight(8). Many studies had found out low maternal pre-delivery weight, poor weight gain during pregnancy and low socio-economic status as significant risk factors for LBW. Being modifiable factors, detection of any such association among Kerala babies is useful to plan preventive measures for reduction of the number of LBW babies. In this context this study is aimed at studying the maternal factors as a determinant of low birth weight in newborns. Objectives: To find out the association of maternal weight, height and BMI with low birth weight in term Newborns. Methodology: A hospital based case control study was conducted during the period of January 2015 to June 2016 in the neonatology department of Govt. Medical College Ernakulam to try to examine the determinants of low birth weight with emphasis on the maternal anthropometric determinants namely weight, height and BMI. Other factors were studied were socio demographic characteristics, obstetric history and antenatal care. Results: The results with respect to the maternal anthropometry were clearly indicative of associations. All the anthropometric measurements of the cases were significantly different among cases compared to control. There was significant association of LBW with maternal socioeconomic status, gestational weight gain and inadequate antenatal care. Conclusion: Maternal height, weight and body mass index strongly determines LBW.

  50. Gurdeep Kaur, Manoj Mahera, Archana Gokhroo, Gangoda Rahul, Vinod Kumar Meghwal, Aastha Kalra, Rajesh Kumar Meena and Ranjana Veerwal

    Introduction: Diabetes is a multifaceted metabolic disorder affecting the glucose status of the human body. Pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes mellitus is an inflammatory process. Chronic inflammation plays a central role in the development and progression of diabetes, and in the pathogenesis of its complications. The neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and platelet-lymphocyte ratio (PLR) are indicators of subclinical inflammation. This study was planned to find the association of platelet to lymphocyte ratio with diabetes as well as HbA1c in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Material and Methods: The study was a hospital based descriptive cross-sectional study. The study population comprised of Prediabetic & Diabetes Mellitus Patients attending General Medicine OPD as well as admitted in these wards after approval from Institutional Ethical Committee and written informed consent was obtained from the participating patients. Similar age and sex matched healthy control were enrolled in the study. The sample size was calculated using open epi info software v. 3.0. Detailed history, examination and a group of tests CBC, DLC, ESR, CRP, Hb1Ac, Urine Routine was done. Calculation of Platelet lymphocyte ratio (PLR) in each study group. Results: In our study, 100 diabetic cases and 100 controls were evaluated. Out of 100 subjects, 17 were prediabetic and 83 were diabetics. Majority of study subjects had diabetes between 1-5 years (59%) followed by 6-10 years (19.3%) and 11-15years (12%). 08 (9.6%) subjects were having diabetes since >15 years. ESR, marker of inflammation was found to be raised in diabetic group with a mean value of 26.75±14.54 when compared to control (12.40±4.83) with a p value of <0.001. The PLR was calculated to be 122.43±12.89 in diabetic group and 106.81±10.12 in the control group, e.g., PLR was higher in patients with hyperglycemia and the result was statistically significant (p value <0.001). Mean NLR among diabetic cases was 2.24±0.77, while that in controls was lower (1.24±0.17). This difference was found to be statistically significant (p<0.001). There was moderate positive correlation between HbA1c and PLR (r value = 0.45; p value <0.001) & HbA1c and NLR (r value = 0.36; p value <0.001). There was moderate positive significant correlation between duration of diabetes and PLR (r value = 0.40; p value <0.001) & duration of diabetes and NLR (r value = 0.34; p value <0.001). Conclusion: In conclusion, increased PLR were found to be useful predictors of diabetes. As in earlier studies, NLR and PLR were found to be indicators of chronic inflammation in prediabetes and diabetes. A significant finding of this study is that the NLR and PLR values were significantly different between the cases and controls. If this finding is confirmed by future studies with larger series and different patient groups, NLR and PLR values can be used for the diagnosis of diabetes as a simpler and cost-effective alternative to HbA1c. In diabetic patients, NLR and PLR deterioration is associated with uncontrolled glycemic status, thereby increasing the importance of hemogram in during follow up of diabetic patients.

  51. Binal Dave, Mantosh Kumar Singh and Kesavan Naidu

    Background: Healthcare professionals involved in the care of men diagnosed with prostate cancer know the importance of providing a holistic plan of care for post prostatectomy patients. There are several case studies that have found it beneficial for adding pelvic floor muscle rehabilitation to post surgery protocols along with other treatments including biofeedback and electrotherapeutic modalities. Few other studies differ their opinion that rehabilitation should begin pre-surgery and continue post-surgery with no therapeutic modalities. Currently, there are limited studies in recommendation for pre and post screening and in addition of the treatment approaches used by healthcare professionals to ensure to improve the quality of life and return of function to the pelvic floor in men who have undergone prostatectomy. Objective: To measure the effectiveness of pelvic floor muscle rehabilitation in male patients with urinary incontinence post prostatectomy. Design: A review of literature of before-after studies, reviews, prospective and qualitative studies and case series on the effect of pelvic floor muscle rehabilitation for urinary incontinence after prostatectomy. Results: A total of 5 patients were identified for the study. The validity of the trials was moderate to high for a reduction in incontinence from 6 months to 1 year from date of surgery. There was a trend in the reviews for pre-operative and post-operative management using pelvic floor muscle rehabilitation to improve incontinence. The qualitative study showed evidence of the use of behavioral therapy to overcome intrinsic and extrinsic barriers during pelvic floor muscle rehabilitation for improving the outcomes of male urinary incontinence after prostatectomy surgery. Conclusion: More research is needed for the cases to further show the significance of holistic care utilizing physiotherapy interventions. There is some evidence that both post-operative and early pre- operative pelvic floor rehabilitation is beneficial for better outcomes of the level of male incontinence after prostatectomy. Limitations: A literature review on the efficacy of physiotherapy on the treatment of post prostatectomy urinary incontinence reveals that physiotherapists have an integrated role as a part of the healthcare team for improving the quality of life of men after prostatectomy. Further research is necessary to validate the efficacy of physiotherapy interventions.

  52. Shreya K., Poonam Singh, Sonali Gupta and Kapil Baheti

    Dermatoscope is a non-invasive diagnostic imaging tool with inbuilt illumination and magnifying systems that enables for visualization of superficial and deeper structures, and various pigmentary and vascular patterns of the skin, nail, hair and mucosa. Dermatoscopy of mucosa is known as mucoscopy. Here is an attempt to describe clinical and mucoscopic features of various mucosal physiological conditions attending dermatology OPD. Single center, cross sectional, observational study was conducted in outpatient department of dermatology, at central India and sample size is based on convenience purposive method. Any physiological mucosal more than 18 years were included. After proper informed consent using Dermlite DL4 dermatoscope. Mucoscopic features of Fordyce spots, pearly penile papules, vestibular papillomatosis, lingual varicosities, pigmented fungi form papillae of tongue were described.

  53. Saroja Kondaveeti, Padma Gunda, Mamata Manne, Sundaresh Peri, Ravi Kumar Allum and Suman Jain

    Background: Iron overload is a serious complication in patients with beta thalassemia major (β-TM) resulting in cardiomyopathy, liver cirrhosis and arrhythmias. Assessing iron overload regularly in these patients is imperative for initiating effective chelation therapy. Serum ferritin measurements and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) offer reliable methods for evaluating iron overload. Objective: In the present study, iron overload was assessed by serum ferritin levels and MRI and the findings were correlated in order to propose serum ferritin as an easy and inexpensive method for evaluating iron overload in thalassemia patients. Methods: A total of 100 β-TM patients aged 8 to 30 years of both sexes who were on regular blood transfusions and chelation therapy were evaluated for various demographic parameters. Complete blood count (CBC) measurements were done using cell counter. Serum ferritin levels were determined using chemiluminescence method and MRI. Results: A moderate negative correlation (r=-0.6037) was observed between the average serum ferritin and T2* Liver and was statistically significant (P<0.0001) which implies that as the average ferritin recorded for thalassemia patients increases, the T2* MRI value reduces which means that severity of iron overload in the liver increases. A weak negative correlation (r=-0.3342) was also seen for average ferritin levels and T2* MRI Heart which was also statistically significant (P=0.0007). Conclusion: A significant negative correlation between serum ferritin levels and MRI T2*liver and heart suggests that serum ferritin levels can be used to diagnose iron over load in patients with thalassemia as an alternative where T2* MRI is not available.

  54. Mrs. Laxmi Agnihotri and Mrs. Rajeshwari Kambi

    The word “Lotus Birth” mean that the practice of not cutting the umbilical cord and placenta attached to the baby after baby come out up to it detached spontaneously, which generally occurs 3-10 days after birth. Between April 2014 and January 2017, six lotus births occurred in Australia. Lotus birth practice is leave the umblical cord not to cut upto separation occurs naturally, this article reveals about neonatal care, mother care perineal immunization, and desire for future lotus birth concern.

  55. Zilefac Brian NGOKWE, TAMOH FOKAM Stive, NOKAM KAMDEM Gimel Stephane and NTEP NTEP David Bienvenue

    There is a frangible balance between skin health and disease. Fomite interaction is a source of microbiome heterogeneity, in regions which have a relatively stable commensal microbiome, and in communion with skin fragility can sway the balance between the commensal and pathogenic microorganisms in favour of the pathogenic microbes. With the prolonged use of alcohol-based hand sanitizers in the current context of COVID 19, causing skin irritation and increasing the chances of transient pathogenic microbes colonizing the hand/palmar surfaces. Also given that the face is on average the most touched region among the hair, face, neck and shoulders (HFNS) regions both in terms of frequency and duration. This could facilitate the increase of facial dermatological lesions specifically and dermatological and mucosal infections generally. More worryingly, this increase microbial transmission could include SARS-COV2 and hence increase COVID 19 infections even though the fomite route of transmission of COVID 19 is reported to be low.

  56. Zilefac Brian NGOKWE,Tamoh Stive Fokam, Ntep Ntep David Bienvenue, Nokam Kamdem Stephane, Cheboh Cho Fon, Kouamou Tchiekou Audrey, Elage Epie Macbrain, Noubissie Audrey Sandra and Tamgnoue Guillaume Arthur

    SARS COV2 pandemic is almost 3 years old and remains a case for concern. An overwhelming production of pro-inflammatory cytokines in the context of COVID 19, not only impairs viral clearance but also promotes paradoxically hyper inflammation including cytokine storm; an unfortunate event leading to organ failure following long term damage due to inflammation and even death. With the advent of new variants, the interaction between vaccinated and unvaccinated people and also the interaction between persons with different variants or between the healthy and the asymptomatic; all of these possibly leading to the formation of new variants. CAR T therapy has achieved remarkable clinical results treatment of relapsed/refractory B-cell-derived malignancies. CAR T and SARS COV 2 share one thing in common; the cytokine storm even though the former is a treatment associated complication and the latter is an exaggerated host response. Hence, we propose using Immunopharmacology (which targets amongst others, pathologies in which inflammation is the main component), by using anti-CAR-engineered T to target the cytokine storm in COVID 19 with objective to help alleviate these symptoms or as a possible solution. Specifically, by using T lymphocytes as living drugs equipped with a CAR construct directed against TH2 or viral epitopes. We hope to curb the severe complications and the poor outcomes(mortalities) associated with this pathology.

  57. Nizza L. Villahermosa, Ivy Mabanto, Alona S. Menil, Crislyn C. Abergas and Alvic A. Arnado

    Libraries are essential to civilization as they serve as entryways to knowledge and culture. They provide resources and services that foster learning opportunities, encourage literacy, and education. The study was conducted at Surigao del Norte State University using the standardized library users satisfaction survey questionnaire from Surigao Del Norte State University librarians. The questionnaire consisted of five parts: library facilities, library services, library collections, library staff, and additional comments/ suggestions. The participants are 375 undergraduate students of Surigao del Norte State University. Based on the findings, the library facilities and staff have a Very good rating, while the library services and collections have a Good rating. The conclusion was drawn that the users’ satisfaction with library facilities, collection/resources, and services was moderately satisfied. The results can be a helpful tool for improving all library operations. Lastly, recommendations are offered that Surigao del Norte State University library should make provision of adequate funds for the acquisition and improvement of library facilities and more research to understand what makes a library service “high quality,





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Dr. Swamy KRM
Dr. Abdul Hannan A.M.S
Saudi Arabia.
Luai Farhan Zghair
Hasan Ali Abed Al-Zu’bi
Fredrick OJIJA
Firuza M. Tursunkhodjaeva
Faraz Ahmed Farooqi
Saudi Arabia
Eric Randy Reyes Politud
Elsadig Gasoom FadelAlla Elbashir
Eapen, Asha Sarah
United State
Dr.Arun Kumar A
Dr. Zafar Iqbal
Dr. Ruchika Khanna
Dr. Recep TAS
Dr. Rasha Ali Eldeeb
Dr. Pralhad Kanhaiyalal Rahangdale
Dr. Nicolas Padilla- Raygoza
Dr. Mustafa Y. G. Younis
Dr. Muhammad shoaib Ahmedani
Saudi Arabia
United State
Dr. Lim Gee Nee
Dr. Jatinder Pal Singh Chawla
Dr. Devendra kumar Gupta
Dr. Ali Seidi
Dr. Achmad Choerudin
Dr Ashok Kumar Verma
Thi Mong Diep NGUYEN
Dr. Muhammad Akram
Dr. Imran Azad
Dr. Meenakshi Malik
Aseel Hadi Hamzah
Anam Bhatti
Md. Amir Hossain
Mirzadi Gohari