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Table of Contents: Volume 16; Issue 04; April 2024

Life Sciences

  1. Dr. Ujwala Bhanarkar and Dr. Biswabina Ray

    Background: The anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) provides stability and facilitates proper joint movement. Understanding the morphology of the ACL is essential for improving surgical techniques, developing effective rehabilitation protocols, and enhancing overall knowledge of knee biomechanics. Aim of the study was to observe the normal morphology of ACL in human cadavers, shedding light on the anatomical intricacies that influence clinical outcomes. Material and Methods: A total of 30 knees from 15 cadavers were dissected in the present study. After exposing the ACL, the morphometric parameters were measured using digital Vernier calliper. The angle between the bundles of ACL in horizontal plane and direction of bundles of ACL were measured using goniometer. The collected data was subjected to statistical analysis. Results: The mean length, width at the proximal attachment, width at the distal attachment, and thickness of the right knee ACL were 28.35–32.4 mm, 9.2–10.3mm, 10.3–9.46 mm, 4.16–3.84 mmrespectively. All the morphometric parameters of the ACL in males were higher than the females, but there was no significant statistical difference. On the left and right sides, the length and width of the tibial footprints, mean cross-sectional surface areas at the middle, tibial insertion area, and at femoral insertion area of the ACL were statistically not significant. The direction of the ACL of both the sides was upward, backward, and laterally.ACL showed synovial sheath and blood vessels. Conclusion: During surgical procedures, it is imperative to be aware of the average morphometric distinctions when individually reconstructing ACL.

  2. Akash Saha, Dr. Sujitha Mukkiri, Dr. Santham Sweet Rose, D., Tapabrata Biswas, Munish Mehdi, Lallenmawii and Prakruthi Jyoti

    Background: This research paper investigates the effectiveness of relaxation therapy in reducing perceived stress among the elderly population residing at selected old age homes in Bengaluru. In this study, a pretest-posttest experimental design is employed to assess the impact of relaxation therapy on their perceived stress levels. Materials and Methods: A single group pretest posttest design as a type of quasi experimental study was conducted on 30 elderly living at old age home in Bengaluru. The research instruments included the Percieved Stress Scale Results: After the intervention, the Mean (Standard Deviation] of stress were 8.2 (4.85). The mean score of stress among the elderly after the intervention was significantly lower compared to the before intervention (t = 2.02, p < 0.05). Conclusions: The findings of this study contribute to understanding the efficacy of relaxation therapy as a potential intervention for managing stress among the elderly population, thereby enhancing their psychological well-being and quality of life.

  3. Shashikant Sahu, Harish Sharma, Anjali, Prerana Sahu, Rajesh Kumar Nema and Dr. Gyanesh Kumar Sahu

    The herbal face wash planned by hydro alcoholic concentrate of turmeric, orange strips, espresso is exceptionally useful and gives no side effect. The plants have been taken in this article having better antioxidant, antimicrobial and furthermore mitigating properties. All home grown fixing utilized in this definition effectively accessible in market of encompassing area. Skinis the piece of body and face skin is the more touchy and furthermore significant for person to show up attractive. The home grown plant use in detailing gives corrective properties as well as therapeutic properties . The plant utilized in face wash like aloe vera, turmeric and so on having properties for mellowing of skin, eliminate skin break out as well as advance healing. The natural plan was assessed by various sort of boundary like-appearance, colour, pH, viscosity, odour, solvency and so on: after plan assessment of definition is fundamental for to measure the wellbeing and viability of planned item any other way it might cause different unsafe effect .

  4. Hiralal Jana

    India is a global agricultural powerhouse. The country has some 195 m ha under cultivation of which some 63 percent are rainfed (roughly 125m ha) while 37 percent are irrigated (70m ha). While agriculture’s share in India’s economy has progressively declined to less than 15% due to the high growth rates of the industrial and services sectors, the sector’s importance in India’s economic and social fabric goes well beyond this indicator. India’s food security depends on producing cereal crops, as well as increasing its production of fruits, vegetables and milk to meet the demands of a growing population with rising incomes. To do so, a productive, competitive, diversified and sustainable agricultural sector will need to emerge at an accelerated pace. Labour is the most important input in increasing production in traditional agriculture. Agricultural labourers are socially and economically poorest section of the society. They are the poorest of the poor in rural India. The poverty syndrome among agricultural labourers needs to be read against such a background of prolonged rural underdevelopment, assetlessness, unemployment, low wages, under-nutrition, illiteracy and social backwardness constitute the poverty syndrome among agricultural labourers. The agricultural labourers are one of the most exploited and oppressed classes in rural hierarchy. It is one of the primary objects of the Five Year Plan to ensure fuller opportunities for work and better living to all the sections of the rural community and, in particular, to assist agricultural labourers and backward classes to come to the level of the rest.

  5. K.R.M. Swamy

    Muskmelon (Cucumis melo L.) belongs to the family Cucurbitaceae, genus Cucumis and species Cucumis melo L. Based on the theory of continental drift, the occurrence of feral and semi-feral melons in certain parts of the world, and the Mosaic, Biblic and Koranic theories, the watermelon is supposed to have originated in Central Africa and the muskmelon in south-eastern Africa and peninsular India. The present day occurrence of these plants in different parts of the world may be the result of dispersal by birds, animals and man. Melons (C. melo L.) are diploid, with 12 pairs of chromosomes (2n = 24). Native to Asia, melons spread to Africa some millennia ago. Apparently, the first culinary use of melons by man was of the nonsweet, bland, and crisp immature fruits, similar to cucumbers. The origin of the sweet melons has been traced to early medieval Khorasan, i.e., modern Turkmenistan and parts of neighboring countries. Melons vary greatly in fruit sizes, shapes, and colors. Among Cucurbitaceae, Cucumis melo is one of the most important cultivated cucurbits. They are grown primarily for their fruit, which generally have a sweet aromatic flavor, with great diversity and size (50 g to 15 kg), flesh color (orange, green, white, and pink), rind color (green, yellow, white, orange, red, and gray), form (round, flat, and elongated), and dimension (4 to 200 cm). C. melo can be broken down into seven distinct types based on the previously discussed variations in the species. Melons of the Cucurbitaceous family are known to mankind from time immemorial and are crops of both economic and nutritional importance. Melons can be broadly classified as those which can be consumed as fresh fruits (chandalak, momordica, indicus, ameri, cantalupensis, reticulates, inodorus, casaba, ibericus, makuwa and chinensis), used as vegetables for cooking (kachri, agrestis and acidulous), or for salad/pickling (conomon, flexuosus and chate). Melons exhibit the highest genetic diversity of phenotypic and biochemical traits, depending on the climatic zone and local preferences of the Cucurbitaceae family, allowing plant breeders to develop superior cultivars. Melon is a crucial eudicot diploid with a genome size of 454 Mb. It is extensively cultivated all over the globe, in temperate, subtropical and tropical areas. Melon crop grown on approximately 1.5 million hectares worldwide. The total production of melons exceeds 30 million metric tons on a commercial scale in over 100 countries. Melon fruit yields have been documented to vary between 6101 and 25,173 kg per hectare. In a study of 85 diverse melon varieties, the average yield per plant was found to range from 2.47 to 6.76 kg. In this review article on Origin, Domestication, Taxonomy, Botanical Description, Genetics and Cytogenetics, Genetic Diversity, Breeding, Uses, Nutritional Value and Health Benefits of Barnyard Millet are discussed.

  6. Jayasree Thilak, Ranjana Bhaskar, Praveen, K., Neethu, K.P. and Revathy Venu

    The present paper comprises of 56 species of butterflies belonging to 40 genera under 4 families viz... Papilionidae, Pieridae, Nymphalidae, and Lycaenidaewhich were collected, photographed and identified by the authors during a fifteen days faunistic survey tour to Sathyamangalam Tiger Reserve, Tamil Nadu, from 27- 07-2023 to 10-08-2023.The family Nymphalidae was predominant in terms of species richness (23 species) followed by Pieridae (16 species), Lycaenidae (9 species) and Papilionidae(8 species) in the present observation. This study provides an understanding of butterfly diversity in Sathyamangalam Tiger Reserve and further studies will reveal a greater number of species from this protected area and also provide an insight for the restoration of the forest habitat.

  7. K.R.M. Swamy

    Garlic belongs to the family Amaryllidaceae, Subfamily Allioideae, Genus Allium, Subgenus A. subg. Allium and Species Allium sativum L. Common Names in India are Assamese: Naharu, English: Garlic, Hindi: Lahsan, Lahsun, Lassan, Kannada: Belluli, Malayalam: Vellulli, Manipuri: Chanam, Mizo: Purunvar, Purun-var, Tamil: Acanam, Tangkhul: Hanam, Telugu: Velluli and Urdu: Lehsan. Garlic (Allium sativum L.) belongs to the genus Allium. In this genus more than 750 species are identified and divided in 60 taxonomic groups. It is a bulbous plant whose domestication is very old. Its primary center is in Central Asia while the Mediterranean and Caucasian regions are recognized as the secondary center of garlic. Three ways to propagate garlic: From cloves, from bulbils and from seed. The first and most common is to remove cloves from an existing bulb and plant them individually. The second, and less common way to propagate, is by using bulbils. “Bulbil” is the darling and utterly fitting name for the tiny mini-cloves that develop in amongst the flowers of hardneck garlic. So if you grow hardneck garlic in the garden and allow just one of your plants to grow scapes, flower, and go to seed, you can harvest the bulbils in the late summer and plant them that fall. Propagating garlic from seed is technically possible, although it’s very difficult to do so – and it’s almost impossible to get hold of seeds unless you collect your own. Garlic is used worldwide in cooking and industry, including pharmacology/medicine and cosmetics, for its interesting properties. Garlic has a long history of cultivation by asexual propagation. Due to its asexual nature, improvement of garlic has been limited as compared to onion. With the impending climate change, it is predicted that like all other crops, garlic cultivation will also suffer the consequences. Ninety percent of garlic is grown in Asia and increase in temperature will expose garlic to various biotic and abiotic stresses. The constant increase in garlic production and the demand for garlic products with specific characteristics require breeding and selection of this crop and its adaptation to different climatic conditions. Commercial garlic varieties are completely sterile and are propagated vegetatively. While often known for its addition to Italian foods, garlic seems to be used in virtually all cuisines as a strong flavoring agent. The bulbs are also sometimes used for medicinal purposes, to ease health conditions while preventing chronic health problems. Historically, garlic was used primarily for its medicinal components. In ancient civilizations, people used it in hopes of increasing their strength. About one million hectares (2.5 million acres) of garlic produce about 10 million metric tons of garlic globally each year, according to the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization. There are about 300 varieties of garlic cultivated worldwide, particularly in hot, dry places. Today, garlic is one of the twenty most important vegetables in the world, with an annual production of about three million metric tons. Major growing areas are USA, China, Egypt, Korea, Russia and India. Yield, propagation, pests and diseases, cultivation, harvesting, peeling garlic cloves, roasting garlic, raw garlic products, primary product, curing and storing are also briefly covered. In this review article on Origin, Domestication, Taxonomy, Botanical Description, Genetics and Cytogenetics, Genetic Diversity, Breeding, Uses, Nutritional Value and Health Benefits of Garlic are discussed.

  8. K.R.M. Swamy

    Turnip belogs to the Family Brassicaceae, Genus Brassica , Species Brassica rapa and Variety Brassica rapa var. rapa L. Turnip (Brassica rapa syn. B. campestris L. ssp. rapifera Matzg), belonging to the Brassica genus, has been an important global crop for centuries, first being cultivated in China in 2500 B.C. In England around 1700, Charles "Turnip" Townshend promoted the use of turnips in a four-year crop-rotation system that enabled year-round livestock feeding. In most of England, the smaller white vegetables are called turnips, while the larger yellow ones are referred to as swedes. In the United States, turnips are the same, but swedes are usually called rutabagas. The turnip, Brassica rapa var. rapa, is a root vegetable commonly grown in temperate climates worldwide for its white, bulbous taproot. Small, tender varieties are grown for human consumption, while larger varieties are grown as feed for livestock. The turnip is also known as white turnip, neeps, tourn, rapes. In France it is navet, also known as rave, bulbe de racine ; du grec ραπυς, ραπυος : rave. Human selection has shaped wild Brassica rapa into diverse turnip, leafy, and oilseed crops. The turnip or white turnip is a root vegetable. Some smaller varieties are grown for human consumption while others are used as fodder. The leaves are sometimes eaten as “turnip greens”. Turnip grows in temperate climates. This species (Brassica rapa) has also been bred to produce the widely-cultivated seed-oil crop known as rape or canola. This oil is used for cooking, but also lubricating oils, plastics manufacturing and biodiesel. The byproducts (seed solids) are used in animal feeds. The term turnip also is used for two other vegetables, Brassica napus var. napobrassica (or B. napobrassica) and Pachyrhizus. Brassica napus var. napobrassica (a cross between Brassica rapa rapa and cabbage) is commonly known as rutabaga or yellow turnip in the United States and as swede in Southern England and most Commonwealth countries. The fully developed tender roots of turnip are uprooted on attaining the marketable size. Normally the roots are harvested when they are 5–10cm in diameter depending upon the variety. On an average it yields 200–400q/ha. Whip tail is caused due to deficiency of Molebdinum. This is more common in acidic soils. However, it is controlled by the application of 1.2kg/ha of sodium or ammonium molybdate. In this review article on Origin, Domestication, Taxonomy, Botanical Description, Genetics and Cytogenetics, Genetic Diversity, Breeding, Uses, Nutritional Value and Health Benefits of Turnip are discussed.

  9. Sudhakar S., Dr. Ajay Kumar Kaurav, Dr. G. Sivakumar and Dr. Bharath Singh

    The complex including entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs) of the genera Steinernema sp and Heterorhabditis sp and their mutualistic partner, i.e., Xenorhabdus and Photorhabdus bacteria, respectively possesses many attributes of ideal biological control agents against numerous insect pests as a third partner. Despite authenic opportunities for their practical use as bio-control agents globally, they are challenged by major impediments especially their cost and reliability. This review article presents major attributes of EPNs to familiarize growers and stakeholders with their careful application. Novel Entomopathogenic nematode (EPN) formulation for the biological control of insect pests the wettable powder formulation of the EPN, Heterorhabditis indica (strain NBAII Hi1) has been developed and found effective for the management of white grubs in arecanut, banana, sugarcane, potato and corn. The novel formulation has improved shelf-life wherein at least 90% of the juveniles are viable even after eight to twelve months of storage at a temperature of between 25 and 37°C and exempted from CIB registration. Field demonstrations of the formulation were carried out in Kerala and Around 13000 Ha small cardamom fields were applied with WP formulations of H. indica @ 4-5 kg/acre respectively. The technology could reduce the small cardamom root grub incidence by 62-78%. ICAR-KVK, IDUKKI has distributed, more than 11000 Kg of WP EPN formulation to the farmers for the management of root grubs in small cardamom. The conditions and practices that affected the use of EPNs for integrated pest management (IPM) are identified. Besides, efforts have been made to address such practices in various ways that grasp their effective approaches, identify research priority areas, and allow refined techniques. Additionally, sampling factors responsible for obtaining more EPN isolates with differential pathogenicity and better adaptation to control specific pest(s) are discussed. Specific improvements of EPN production, formulation, and application technology are reviewed which help in their broader may use. Other diverse factors that optimize EPNs to constitute a cost-effective, value added approach to IPM are also demonstrated.

  10. Sharma Anirudh, Lata Pushap, Bisht Alpna and Thakur Deepak

    Regulatory bodies throughout the world have ensured that formulations must be manufactured to the highest quality levels. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has a large-scale development program that is currently testing continuous production processes. Powder mixing is an important operation routinely used in many industries, including herbal medicine industry. The PAT (Process Analytical Technology) initiative requires the implementation of process validation, including in-process monitoring systems and controls, in the blending or mixing process. The quality of products depends on certain operating conditions, such as equipment, technical parameters, and formulation. In this work, an operational qualification for the blending process in the manufacturing of Stresomix Premix™ during large-scale production was performed. Blender operation was tested to illustrate the effect of mixing time on the homogeneity of the phytoconstituents in the herbal formulation, demonstrating that this parameter can be used as a secure parameter to control this process. A simple and practical operational qualification procedure has been proposed to investigate the blending operation on a large-scale production of Stresomix Premix™. Using an authentic analytical method that reliably profiles the phytoactives helped in validating the manufacturing process. The effects of mixing time have been quantified, and the behaviour of the dry powder mass was evaluated. A relation between theoretical concepts and real conditions that are applied in routine industrial production allowed the association of the critical operational aspects with the practical effects. The observed results illustrate that the homogeneity of powder in the blender depends on mixing time; it is important to consider this parameter to avoid segregation, mainly in formulations with a more complex composition and elevated powder mass. Additionally, results of this study demonstrates that the manufacturing process stands validated as it met acceptance criteria.

  11. Pardeep Kaur, Dr. Ghanshyam Tak and Dr. Mrs. Suman Bala Sharma and Mrs. Anjali Singh

    Background: Stress is recognized as a significant risk factor for drug addiction development and relapse. Raj Yoga meditation is a simple yet scientifically validated method known to induce calmness and improve cognitive functions. This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of Raj Yoga meditation in reducing stress among individuals with substance abuse in Punjab's selected rehabilitation centers. Methods: A pre-experimental research design was employed on 40 individuals (aged 21-40) with substance abuse, attending 60-minute Raj Yoga Meditation sessions for seven days. Participants were selected using non-probability purposive sampling from rehabilitation centers in Bathinda, Punjab. The Perceived Stress Scale was used to assess stress levels. Descriptive and inferential statistics were utilized for data analysis. Results: Pre-test results showed 80.0% of the experimental group had high stress levels, which reduced to 10.0% post-test. Comparison of pre-test and post-test stress levels revealed a significant decrease in mean stress scores (pre-test: 30.90 ± 6.617; post-test: 20.28 ± 6.064), with a paired 't' value of 2.02 and df = 39, indicating statistical significance (p < 0.05). Thus, the hypothesis that Raj Yoga Meditation reduces stress among individuals with substance abuse was accepted. Conclusion: Raj Yoga Meditation demonstrated efficacy in reducing stress levels among individuals with substance abuse in the experimental group. These findings suggest the potential of incorporating Raj Yoga Meditation as an adjunct therapy in substance abuse rehabilitation programs.

  12. Ram Bharose, Umesh Babu, Dohare, A.P.S., Suman Verma, Sanjeev Kumar and Vinay Kumar

    The present study was conducted during 2021-22 to evaluate the organic and Bio-fertilizers at the technology Farmer field of district Shravasti with nine treatment viz., control (T1), 100% RDF (T2), 100% RDF+Azotobactor+PSB (T3), 75% RDF+5 t FYM ha-1 (T4), 75% RDF+5 t FYM ha-1 + Azotobacter + PSB+10 kg ZnSO4+2 % urea spraying (T5), 75 % RDF+Azotobactor + PSB (T6), 50% RDF+5 t FYM ha-1 (T7), 50% RDF+5 t FYM ha-1 + 10kg ZnSo4+2% Urea Spraying (T8), 50% RDF+5 t FYM ha-1+Azotobacter + PSB+10 kg ZnSO4+2 % urea spraying (T9).The findings indicated that application of FYM, Azotobactor and PSB provide higher growth and yield attributes of wheat. The maximum grain yield (39.82 q ha-1) recorded with treatment (T5) 75% RDF+5 t FYM ha-1 + 10kg ZnSo4+2% Urea Spraying closely followed 100% RDF+Azotobactor seed Treatment + PSB Seed treatment (T3) with 39.00 qha-1 grain yield. Application of organic manure 75% RDF+5 t FYM ha-1 + 10kg ZnSo4+2% higher as protein content and yield as compared to control (T1) alone treatment. The results of experiment showed higher grain yield obtained through yield contributing characters. Thus combination of organic, inorganic and Bio-fertilizer not only sustains the yield and increases the soil fertility in long term, but it also enhances the nutrient use efficiency. Therefore to maintain the soil sustainability and increase wheat productivity in long term, a balanced and integrated use of organic and inorganic fertilizer is the best option.

  13. Aiman Muneer, Irshad Ahmad Ahanger and Cimona Lyn Saldanha

    Background of the Study: Hypertension or high blood pressure is a complex public health problem. It refers to the Persistent elevation of Arterial blood pressure as hypertension gradually increases the pressure of blood flowing through the arteries thus can cause damaged and narrowed arteries. There occurs stiffness of arteries because the space in the arteries is narrower, the same amount of blood passing through them increases the blood pressure. Veins can constrict to reduce their capacity to hold blood, forcing more blood into the arteries. As a result, blood pressure increases. The higher the blood pressure in a community the higher is the risk of other health complications. Blood pressure elevations are associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular diseases such as cardiac arrest or coronary heart diseases. Starting at a blood pressure of 115/ 75 mmHg, every increase of 20mmHg in systolic blood pressure (SBP) and/or increase of 10mmHg in diastolic blood pressure (DBP) is associated with the doubling of the risk of death (Lewington,2002). Aims and Objectives: This research work was aimed to provide Pregnancy Induced Hypertension (PIH), a common complication affecting maternal and fetal health. This hospital-based study at SKIMS Soura Srinagar was aimed to investigate the prevalence of PIH and its associated maternal and fetal outcomes in a cohort of 150 patients. Methods: Data was collected from the medical records of pregnant women diagnosed with PIH between June 2023 and November 2023. Demographic information, clinical characteristics and neonatal outcomes were analyzed. The prevalence of PIH was found to be 40%. Maternal complications such as Preeclampsia, Eclampsia, Chronic hypertension, Gestational hypertension and Preeclampsia Superimposed on Chronic Hypertension were observed in 67%, 10.99%, 3.33%, 13.33%, 7% of cases respectively. Adverse fetal outcomes including preterm birth, low birth weight and IUGR were noted in less than 10% of pregnancies complicated by PIH. Gravidity shows the strong relation with PIH with multigravida at higher risk of mortality and morbidity due to PIH (about 39 out of 60 hypertensive pregnant ladies which accounts for 65% of total patients). A study was conducted to investigate the impact of secondhand smoking exposure on patients diagnosed with various pregnancy-related conditions, including low fetal weight, transient eclampsia, eclampsia, preeclampsia, and gestational hypertension. Results: The study observed a total of 32 patients with 4 diagnosed with transient eclampsia, 5 with eclampsia, 15 with pre-eclampsia, and 8 with gestational hypertension. Through meticulous analysis, researchers sought to elucidate the potential correlation between exposure to secondhand smoke and the severity or incidence of these conditions among pregnant individuals. The findings of this research endeavor hold significant implications for public health policies and interventions aimed at mitigating the adverse effects of secondhand smoking on vulnerable populations, particularly pregnant women and their unborn children. In the observed cohort, it was noted that the most administered drug among patients was Gravidol, prescribed at a dosage range of 50-100mg per day. Gravidol, known for its efficacy in managing various pregnancy-related conditions, was carefully administered under the supervision of healthcare professionals to ensure optimal maternal and fetal outcomes. Conclusion: The conclusions drawn from this study emphasize the critical importance of early detection, vigilant monitoring, and proactive management of Pregnancy-Induced Hypertension (PIH) to mitigate adverse maternal and fetal outcomes. Through comprehensive management protocols, including pharmacotherapy, dietary modifications, and lifestyle interventions, healthcare teams can effectively control PIH and minimize its detrimental effects on maternal and fetal health. Overall, the study underscores the imperative for proactive and integrated care approaches to PIH, emphasizing the importance of early intervention and ongoing monitoring to optimize pregnancy outcomes and ensure the well-being of both mother and baby.

Physical Sciences and Engineering

  1. Abemitran, S.K., Rahul Karthik, S. and Brintha Therese, A.

    The general outlook that is presented below in this paper describes the model of basic communication, types of fibers, and loss mechanisms in single-mode fibers. The performance of digital fiber optic communication systems will be considered for wavelengths of 1310, 1550 nm, transmission channels: copper wires, radio frequency (RF), and optical fibers. The paper looks into attenuation causes, which are absorption, scattering, and bending losses, and the possible impact these might have on signal quality along long distances. It also states what advantages lie in using optical fibers in data transmission at large bandwidths, and their dielectric nature. Finally, it discusses the challenges in fiber optic communication and promising developments in this field, including the development of integrated optics and modern optical fibers.

  2. Deepika Ratnawat and Pankaj Raghuvanshi

    Wireless networks are inherently distinct from wired networks in numerous ways; TCP congestion control algorithms are not directly applicable to wireless networks due to these differences (e.g., higher error rates, prolonged delays, reduced bandwidth, frequent mobility, etc.). Therefore, several improved techniques for controlling TCP congestion have been introduced. The primary objectives of those methods were to efficiently manage congestion, withstand loss with dependability, and reduce gearbox errors. Unique congestion management and avoidance techniques for the TCP/IP protocols Tahoe, Reno, New-Reno, Lite, TCP Vegas, and SACK are investigated and assessed in this study.

  3. Rupa Chandrika, A., Mr. Subrahmanyam, S., Likhitha Mani, G., Vanaja, G., Pavan Kumar, D. and Vijaya Rama Raju, N.

    Power and voltage characteristic curves (P-VCC) for PV array modules under Partial Shading Conditions (PSC) will have multiple peaks. The output power of the PV array modules will be extraordinarily decreased if the maximum power point (MPP) is not occurred. To solve this problem, Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) control methods have been designed. By using Metaheuristic Approach (MHA) to observe the Global Maximum Power Point (GMPP) is one substitute. The Bat Algorithm (BA), a novel MHA, has newly shown promising results in the MPPT. However, when there are some Local Maximum Power Point (LMPP) around the GMPP, BA might not be able to track the GMPP. In addition, a further improvement in tracking time by reducing it, is required to account for the rapidly changing irradiance. Hence, it is suggested to combine BA with Cuckoo Search's (CS) abandoning mechanism to enhance BA's tracking capabilities. The suggested technique, when compared to BA, offers higher accuracy, and can enhance convergence speed by roughly 35% according to simulation data.

  4. S. Sangeetha, S. Saiteja, P. Laxmi Prasanna, P. Meghana, M. Abhilash and Dr. Nellutla Sasikala

    Kidney stone detection is crucial for timely diagnosis and treatment of urological disorders. Thisstudy presents a detailed approach combining Region of Interest (ROI) segmentation and morphological analysis to enhance the accuracy and efficiency of kidney stone detection. The first stage of our method involves ROI segmentation, where advanced image processing techniques such as convolutional neural networks (CNNs) or watershed algorithms are employed to isolate the kidney region within medical images, typically obtained through computed tomography (CT) scans. This step ensures focused analysis on the relevant anatomical area, minimizing computational complexity and false positives. Following ROI segmentation, morphological analysis is conducted to characterize the detected kidney stones. Morphological features such as shape, size, volume, and spatial distribution are extracted to provide comprehensive information about the stones. Mathematical morphology operations, including erosion, dilation, and skeletonization, are applied to accurately delineate the boundaries and internal structure of the stones. Furthermore, statistical analysis and machine learning techniques may be employed to quantify and classify the morphological characteristics of kidney stones, facilitating their classification into different types (e.g., calcium oxalate, uric acid) and aiding in treatment planning. Experimental evaluation of the proposed approach is conducted using a dataset comprising CT scans of patients with confirmed kidney stones. Performance metrics such as sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy are computed to assess the method's effectiveness in detecting and characterizing kidney stones compared to existing approaches. Results demonstrate the superior performance of the proposed method in terms of both detection accuracy and computational efficiency. The comprehensive analysis provided by the combined ROI segmentation and morphological analysis enables clinicians to make informed decisions regarding the diagnosis and management of kidney stone-related conditions. In conclusion, the proposed approach offers a valuable tool for improving the diagnosis and treatment of kidney stones, ultimately enhancing patient care in the field of urology.

  5. Mansoor Farooq, Mubashir Hassan Khan and Rafi A Khan

    The rapid growth of the Internet of Things (IoT) has brought numerous benefits to various domains, but it has also introduced new security challenges and vulnerabilities. Intrusion Detection and Prevention Systems (IDPS) play a crucial role in safeguarding IoT environments from malicious activities. This research paper presents a novel approach to anomaly detection in IoT using Generative Adversarial Networks (GANs). The proposed system leverages the power of GANs to capture normal behaviour patterns and identify anomalies in real-time. The methodology section discusses data collecting and analysing the dataset. GAN-based anomaly detection system architecture, comprising discriminator and generator networks, is shown. GAN model training and optimisation are also discussed. The research shows GAN-based system accurately detects abnormalities and typical behaviour patterns. The results of the experiments are presented, and a comparative analysis is performed with traditional IDPS methods, demonstrating the superiority of the proposed system.

Health Sciences

  1. Raghavendra Sangarsu

    The integration of counterfeit insights (AI) strategies has revolutionized numerous ranges of drug disclosure and item advancement. This article talks about the worldview move caused by AI and illustrates the capacity of AI to optimize molecular structures and items. AI-powered frameworks use the control of machine learning, quantum mechanics, and data-driven procedures, permitting researchers to reveal connections between molecular properties and results. The combination of counterfeit insights and molecular testing quickens the distinguishing proof of successful candidates, diminishes labor-intensive work and blunders, and uncovers modern pathways for molecular alteration. Furthermore, this article clears the way for distant better; a higher understanding of the past by highlighting the moral and administrative measurements of the application of AI in the drug revelation and information era. As insights evolve into an imperative device, its advancement from molecular advancement is obvious, pushing us towards a period of revelation and development.

  2. Prof. Dr. Genesta Mary Gysel, P. and Mrs. Uma, R.

    Background: Labour is a dynamic phenomenon. Active management of shortens the duration of labour, lowers surgical interventions, improves behavioural outcome during second stage of labour. The expectant mothers, especially primi mothers are not able to adjust themselves during painful labour. Lamaze breathing is a technique used to help and relax during labour . Although the method was initially pioneered in breathing techniques to reduce labour pains and the techniques utilize several breathing patterns in order to encourage relaxation. Objectives:1. To evaluate the effectiveness of modified Lamaze breathing technique on labour and neonatal outcome among primi parturient mothers in both experimental and control groups 2.To determine association between modified Lamaze breathing on labour and neonatal outcome among primi parturient mothers in both experimental and control groups with the selected demographic variable. Methodology: A quantitative research approach, post-test only design with random sampling techniques was adopted for the study. 30 samples each in experimental and control group were selected in Rajiv Gandhi Government Women‟s and Children Hospital, Puducherry and the data were analysed using descriptive and inferential statistics. Result The results depicts that the maternal outcome score in the experimental group was 36.05±0.13 and in the control group was 35.65±0.26. The mean difference score was 0.40. The calculated unpaired ‘t’ value of t = 9.677 was found to be statistically highly significant at p<0.001 level. The result reveals that the neonatal outcome score in the experimental group was 37.17±0.21 and in the control group was 36.26±0.14. The mean difference score was 0.91. The calculated unpaired ‘t’ value of t = 25.166 was found to be statistically highly significant at p<0.001 level. This clearly indicates that the modified lamaze breathing technique was effective in experimental group than the control group. Conclusion: Lamaze breathing technique was found to be effective labour and neonatal outcome among primi parturient mothers. This can be given as an adjunct therapy in labour room for the primi parturient mothers by midwives. Modified Lamaze breathing technique is a non invasive procedure and has no adverse effects on the primi parturient mothers.

  3. Dr. Subhra Kumar Paul, Dr. Ajay Kumar Goutam and Deepa Verma

    Background: Body packing is a frequent technique used to aid the international trade of illicit drugs. When Delhi Police arrested a person, they found 28 cylindrical capsules weighing a total of 292 grams inside their rectum, all of which were knotted with thread. This was reported as an illicit drug material case. Methods: There were 66 exhibits, with two different types of colored materials. Of these, 31 had powdery materials with an off-white color and granules, and 35 had semisolid materials with a light brownish color. Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC) and Gas chromatography-mass spectrometric (GC-MS) analysis were utilized to enable simultaneous analysis of illegal chemicals using routine methods in the Forensic Science Laboratory, Delhi. Results: The GC-MS report indicated a specific peak at a retention time of approximately and a concentration of 1 mg/ml for the standard drug ISTD. The specific peak observed at retention times of 16.61 and 9.61 for diacetylmorphine and caffeine, respectively, was recorded and considered a positive confirmation of heroin use. The major concentrations of drug components in the off-white powder material for diacetylmorphine and caffeine were observed in the range of 46.3–65.1 mg/ml and 0.008–0.019 mg/ml, respectively. However, the concentrations of diacetylmorphine and caffeine in light brownish-colored pasty material were observed in the range of 20.2–61.4 mg/ml and 0.011–0.036 mg/ml, respectively. The identity of the analyte was confirmed by matching its MS spectrum with that of the derivatized standards. Conclusions: We present a case of heroin body-packing. Illegal narcotics can enter the human body through body packing, pushing, and stuffing. The evaluation of the illicit drugs concluded that the off-white powder material had a high concentration of diacetylmorphine and a low concentration of caffeine compared with the light brown powder material.

  4. Dr. Rajita Ghosh, Dr. Sohini Banerjee and Dr. Pradip Kr. Giri

    Aim: The aim of this cross-sectional study is to assess the general periodontal health status of smokers as well as of smokeless tobacco users. Materials and Methods: The study population consists of patients aged between 22-50 years and are divided randomly into 4 groups i.e. Group-I consists of all current smokers as far CDC (Centre for disease control and Prevention Classification) , Group-II – includes use of smokeless tobacco in any forms more than 1 packet of any form of smokeless tobacco, Group III- consists of both smokers and smokeless tobacco users and Group-IV-includes use of different types of smokless tobacco products for brushing teeth . The periodontal status are evaluated for all of these groups by Oral hygiene index-Simplified( OHI-S ) using 23 explorer and Community Periodontal index criteria (CPI) using 621 WHO probe. Results: The results are statistically compiled and mean of oral hygiene index of Group I- is (4.1±1.28), Group- II-(4.3±1.23), Group-III-(4.8±1.02), Group- IV-(4.4±1.36) which is quite similar in all groups and statistically insignificant . The percentage of CPI codes are as follows for code -0, code-1, code-2,code-3 and code-4 are 24, 31.9, 34.4, 28.75, 8.125 percent respectively for all groups which shows that prevalence of code-2 is more common among this study population. Conclusion: It is found that the tobacco in any forms whether smoking or smokeless tobacco has detrimental effects on the health of periodontium. The deleterious influence of tobacco depends upon the type, frequency and duration of the tobacco use.

  5. Dr. Rosaline Tina Paul, Dr. Ligil, A.R., Dr. Roshna Mandayapurath, Dr. Joseph K. Thanikunnel and Dr. Parson Paul

    Clear Aligner Therapy is an orthodontic treatment in which the patient wears a series of clear, removable aligners that gradually move the teeth to improve bite function and/or esthetic appearance. These are thermoformed plastic aligners made from semi elastic polyurethane or copolyester covering buccal, lingual and occlusal surfaces of teeth. As with other treatments of the body, much of its success depends on the understanding and cooperation of the patient. Whether clear aligner therapy or traditional braces—has some limitations, inconveniences and potential hazards. This article describes in detail the advantages, disadvantages, indications and contraindications also.

  6. Dr. Rosaline Tina Paul, Dr. Ligil, A.R., Dr. Roshna Mandayapurath, Dr. Joseph K. Thanikunnel and Dr Parson Paul

    The integration of counterfeit insights (AI) strategies has revolutionized numerous ranges of drug disclosure and item advancement. This article talks about the worldview move caused by AI and illustrates the capacity of AI to optimize molecular structures and items. AI-powered frameworks use the control of machine learning, quantum mechanics, and data-driven procedures, permitting researchers to reveal connections between molecular properties and results. The combination of counterfeit insights and molecular testing quickens the distinguishing proof of successful candidates, diminishes labor-intensive work and blunders, and uncovers modern pathways for molecular alteration. Furthermore, this article clears the way for distant better; a higher understanding of the past by highlighting the moral and administrative measurements of the application of AI in the drug revelation and information era. As insights evolve into an imperative device, its advancement from molecular advancement is obvious, pushing us towards a period of revelation and development.

  7. Manisha S. Gajjela, UrvashiP. Manik and Paritosh L. Mishra

    The effect of ultrasonic characterization on the behavior of interaction between amino acetic acid and inorganic salt (Like: sodium chloride and potassium chloride solutions) at four district temperature was studied.The impact ultrasonic characterization on different systems such as : 1) Amino acetic acid +Distilled Water , 2) Amino acetic acid +Distilled Water + Sodium Chloride and 3) Amino acetic acid +Distilled Water +Potassium Chloride , under distinct temperature and concentration were studied. The various Volumetric and sound parameter is calculated by using literature formulae. Trends of the different properties provide the information about the ilk and geometry of the system. Measurement of apparent molal volume for all the three system, Showed that dependency of concentration and temperature, with negative trends. Decreasing the apparent molal volume upon aggregation can result from the contribution of three different processes: (i) liberation of structured water. (ii) the electrostatics attraction between the ions of solute and solvent. And (iii) the release of water molecule from the counter, ions upon binding to component of solute and solvents. The difference for the systems investigated follows the order: Amino Acetic Acid+Distilled Water+Potassium Chloride>Amino Acetic Acid +Distilled Water+Sodium Chloride >Amino Acetic Acid+Distilled Water.

  8. GAKE Bouba, DANG’NE MADOUE Denis, DIDIERO ZOTI Elie, TCHUENGA KOM Yannick and OKOMO Marie Claire

    Background: Brucellosis is one of the most common zoonoses worldwide and is considered as an re-emerging infectious disease in many parts of the world.In Africa, it remains unknown for a long time, especially in humans compared to animals. Objectives: To assess the prevalence of human brucellosis and the associated risk factors. Methods: This study was conducted in the northern region, which is a strong pastoral livestock area. It was a descriptive study. Consenting subjects, at least five years old, with unknown fever, were included in the study. Rose Bengal and Human IgG Indirect ELISA tests were used. Results: A total of 231 subjects were selected and their blood drawn for diagnosis was taken from each patient. Seroprevalence of 7.8% of cases was identified. The most common symptoms were fevers, headache, nausea / vomiting, sometimes combined with sweating and asthenia. It appears that factors such as the consumption of both raw milk and skewers / grilled meat by the same subjects increase the chances of occurrence of the disease. Conclusions: Human brucellosis is present in North Cameroon. The clinical signs and epidemiological data should lead clinicians to suspect the disease in humans. diagnosis is possible in district hospitals with ELISA equipment.

  9. Dr. Mushtaq Chalkoo, Dr. Yaser Hussain Wani, Dr. Mohd Yaqoob Bhat, Dr. Gulam Nabi Guroo, Dr. Suhaib Bashir and Dr. Naeem Ahmad

    Laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy is the most common bariatric surgery procedure performed worldwide. Laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy is simple and effective procedure for weight reduction and comorbidity resolution, however complications can occur with this procedure which can be very serious.We present a case of a 45 year old male with hypertension and OSA as comorbidity who underwent an uneventful laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy, but presented with delayed leak after four weeks which was managed by endo-laparoscopy.

  10. Jassim U. Ali, Mutee A. Al Rahman and Zainab A. Taraif

    Background: Emergency physicians (EPs) are at risk of developing mental and physical conditions due to the nature of their stressful work. There is limited data on the general health of EPs, thus this study aims to study the health status of EPs at Salmaniya Medical Complex (SMC) which provides emergency services in the Kingdom of Bahrain. Methods: A cross-sectional study investigating a total of 78 EPs working at SMC using an electronic survey, which included physicians’demographic data, medical characteristics, and conditions within the last 5 years. Results: The survey had a response percentage of 96.7% (n = 58). Forty-eight (48.3%) percent of EPs considered themselves in good health. Also,72.4% of EPs have had at least one medical condition, and 43.1%, had more than one medical condition. In the past five years, EPs suffered mostly from burnout (43.1%), anxiety (24.1%), and depression (17.2%). With regards to physical medical conditions, the prevalence of dyslipidemia (13.8%), obesity (13.8%), diabetes (12.1%), and hypertension (12.1%) were the highest. More than half of EPs (77.6%) did not have a family physician or GP for themselves. Only 15.5% and 10.3% have consulted their family physician/GP, and psychiatrist respectively in the past 12 months. Conclusion: In summary though most EPs deemed themselves to be in a state of good health, a substantial proportion suffered from at least one medical condition, mostly psychiatric.

  11. Biswabina Ray

    The integration of counterfeit insights (AI) strategies has revolutionized numerous ranges of drug disclosure and item advancement. This article talks about the worldview move caused by AI and illustrates the capacity of AI to optimize molecular structures and items. AI-powered frameworks use the control of machine learning, quantum mechanics, and data-driven procedures, permitting researchers to reveal connections between molecular properties and results. The combination of counterfeit insights and molecular testing quickens the distinguishing proof of successful candidates, diminishes labor-intensive work and blunders, and uncovers modern pathways for molecular alteration. Furthermore, this article clears the way for distant better; a higher understanding of the past by highlighting the moral and administrative measurements of the application of AI in the drug revelation and information era. As insights evolve into an imperative device, its advancement from molecular advancement is obvious, pushing us towards a period of revelation and development.

  12. Dr. Kalyani, P., Dr. Hemalatha, P., Dr. Yashoda Lakshmi, A.V. and Dr. Ramu, P.

    Background: India is the second most populous country of the world. Though the Government of India was the first to launch family welfare program in 1952, there still exists a great challenge for unmet needs of family planning and especially there is a need for the desired attitudinal & behavior changes among women for the use of spacing methods. Objective: To assess the knowledge regarding family planning, and the current practice of spacing methods among the participants of the study and to identify the factors predicting the use of spacing methods using health belief model. Materials and Methods: This study was carried out over a period of 2months (September-October) using a pre-structured questionnaire based on health belief model among reproductive women aged 15-45y in rural field practice area of pyalakurthy and urban area Gayathri estates with a total of 100 respondents. Statistical Analysis: Data were entered in MS Excel and analyzed in SPSS version 22 using Mann Whitney test with P value <0.05 considered as statistically significant. Results: Majority of the respondents were within the age group of 20-24 years. Though most of the women have heard about spacing methods, a greater proportion of the respondents were not using any contraceptive. However, a handful of the respondents who used contraceptive methods were using only IUD (16% in rural area &12% in urban area).Self efficacy for practicing spacing methods was found to be significantly higher for urban women compared to rural women.

  13. Shuvasree Payra, Rajesh Kumar, Vikas Maharshi, Pramod Kumar Manjhi, Shruti Singh, Sunil Kumar Singh and Alok Kumar

    Aducanumab is a novel humanized monoclonal antibody that targets mainly Aβ amyloid plaque and hyperphosphorylated tau proteins. Recently, this drug gets accelerated FDA approval for mild to moderate Alzheimer’s disease but it did not get EMA approval. There have been numerous discussions surrounding the approval of this medicine without a confirmed clinically meaningful benefit.Aducanumab's pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamic properties, data from the drug's efficacy and safety trials, the consequences of the drug's controversial approval, and the future paths in the therapy of AD patients are all outlined in this narrative review.In this narrative review, total 10 clinical trials are included and these studies show high doses of Aducanumab infusion show modest improvement in delaying the disease process but can’t reverse it. Despite the criticism, Aducanumab had an impact on downstream tau pathology, which may pave the way for an AD combination therapy strategy (anti-tau and anti-amyloid drug).

  14. Leticia Lamping, MPH, Carol Hoban, MPH, Ph.D., Samer Koutoubi, Ph.D. , MD, Bria Jarrell, MPH2 and Tamara Hoxworth, MPH, Ph.D.

    Background: Individuals receiving hemodialysis are at an increased risk of infection including bloodstream infections (BSIs). Numerous factors may impact a patient’s risk of having a BSI including vascular access type and geographic location. The End Stage Renal Disease Quality Incentive Program (ESRD QIP) was established by the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) and utilizes a network of 18 geographically defined ESRD agencies that serve all U.S. and territories. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the regional/geographical impact on risk of dialysis patients’ BSI rates and the BSI Standardized Infection Ratio (SIR) performance of facilities in each of the 18 ESRD Network regions across a four-year span (2019-2022). Methods: Datasets were created using original data obtained from the National Healthcare Safety Network from each of the performance years (2019-2022). A mean SIR was calculated for each of the 18 ESRD Network regions per performance year and then ranked from lowest to highest SIR to evaluate performance. Yearly changes in rank were also identified for each region across the four performance years. Each of the 18 ESRD network locations were anonymized to remove identifiable information using a letter of the alphabet to identify individual ESRD network regions. Results: More than 7,000 outpatient hemodialysis facilities were analyzed with a total of 24,415 BSI SIRs analyzed. Geographically, the analysis found that Network region B remained among the top six networks all four years, whereas Network regions O and R remained in the bottom six networks for those same four years. Thisstudy’s results provide geographic specificity in BSI prevalence for further examination on regional disparities. Future evaluation of infection prevention measures among the 18 ESRD networks would be beneficial.

  15. Somya Ranjan, Surabhi Gautam, Bushra Siddiqui, Shahbaz Habib Faridi and Mahboob Hasan

    Intestinal amoebiasis is caused by Entamoeba histolytica and is the second leading cause of death from parasitic infection worldwide1. It is mostly asymptomatic but rarely, it can develop into amoebic colitis and ameboma formation closely resembling colorectal carcinoma. Here we present a case of a 65year old male presenting to the emergency ward with complaints of pain in abdomen for past 6 days and inability to pass stools for past 2 days. Provisionally it was diagnosed to be a case of Subacute Intestinal Obstruction (SAIO) and patient was operated in the emergency for the same. The caecum was resected and sent to histopathology lab of Department of Pathology, JNMC, AMU. Gross examination and CT scan findings were suggestive of Subacute Intestinal Obstruction with carcinoma caecum but histopathological findings were consistent with Amoebic colitis.

  16. Ali Zaratou, Adamou Issa Ali, Ali Hadiza, Attinine Soumana Aissa and Daouda Saley

    Context: The prevalence of anemia among children aged 6 to 59 months in 2020 in Niger was 63.3%, well above the critical threshold of 40% defined by the World Health Organization. The aim of the study wasto identify risk factors for anemia in children aged 6-59 months in Niger in 2022. Methods: This was a descriptive and analytical cross-sectional study. Data collected from August 20 to September 27, 2022 on children aged 6 to 59 months whose hemoglobin levels were measured constituted the study population. Risk factors for the occurrence of anemia were identified by binary logistic regression. A p-value of less than 0.05 was considered significant. Results: A total of 3969 children aged 6-59 months were included in the study. The prevalence of global anemia was estimated at 57%. After logistic regression, the risk factors for the occurrence of anemia were: age group 6-23 months (OR: 2.38; 95% CI: 2.05 - 2.72), fever in the 14 days preceding the survey (OR: 1.43; 95% CI: 1.06 -1. 92), stunting (OR: 1.52; 95% CI: 1.10-2.11) and weaning from breastfeeding before 23 months (OR: 2.19; 95% CI: 1.56-3.06); while the absence of underweight with an OR: 0.68 ˂1 protected children from anemia. Conclusion: This work identified the factors that influenced the occurrence of anemia in children aged 6-59 months. Prevention involves interventions on identified factors that are modifiable.

  17. Ms. Adity Saha, Prof. Purnima Kundu and Ms. Suvra Roy

    Background: Nursing is an honorable and respectful profession. Because of poor perception towards nursing profession the student nurses often show undesirable behavior and want to escape from their assigned responsibility. Students confront stress and suffer from various health problems. Despite suffering they use certain coping strategy to themselves stable to continue the study. This triggers the researchers to undertake a study on those problems. Objectives: To assess perception towards nursing profession, problem faced by the student nurses, their resilience and clinical performance. Methods: A descriptive correlational study was conducted among randomly selected 90 3rd year B.Sc. Nursing students at selected Government Colleges of Nursing, Kolkata. Data were collected by using researcher developed demographic questionnaire, perception rating scale, structured problem questionnaire, resilience and clinical performance rating scale by self-reporting and observation. Results: The result revealed that 78% of the students had high perception towards nursing profession, 52% faced moderate problem and 53% used high resilience. Significant weak positive correlation found between perception towards nursing profession and resilience of (p = 0.04); perception towards nursing profession and clinical performance (p= 0.0004); problem faced and resilience (p= 0.0004); resilience and clinical performance (p = 0.006). Significant association was also found between the variables and few personal characteristics. Conclusion: Though perception towards nursing profession was positive but, nursing students faced various problems during their study period and they use positive behavior of adjustment to overcome those problems which help for good clinical performance.

  18. Dr. Sarita Yadav, Ms. Kajol Verma, Dr. Sanjeet, Dr. Surinder Kumar, Dr. Sumit Kumar and Dr. Seema Garg

    Background: The introduction of research oriented programmes into medical colleges fosters favourable attitude towards academically focused careers among undergraduate medical students. Early acquaintance with knowledge, perception and practice is associated with better critical thinking and lifelong learning. The present study was carried out to assess knowledge, attitude and practice of medical research among undergraduate students at a medical college in Haryana, India. Materials and Methods: This cross sectional study was conducted among undergraduate students of second, pre-final, final MBBS professional year and interns. A pre-designed, semi-structured, self-designed questionnaire in google form was used for data collection. Results: A total of 300 undergraduate students participated in the study. There was overall positive attitude (95.66%) of the undergraduate medical students towards scientific research. 37% of study subjects had satisfactory knowledge, 44.66% had fair knowledge and 18.33% had poor knowledge about the research. A small proportion (23%) of students had participated in workshops. Lack of time, inadequate research training, limited access to laboratory equipments and insufficient mentorship were the major obstacles faced by students in conducting medical research. Conclusion: Undergraduate students have positive attitude towards medical research and have adequate knowledge. Workshops and research facilities at the institution need to undergo major transfiguration in order to encourage meaningful research by medical students at undergraduate level.

  19. Ms. Maggie Renjith, Dr. Mohanasundari S.K., Dr. Suvashis Dash, Mr. Guru, P. and Ms. Divya, R.

    Ensuring patient safety and quality improvement are critical aspects of providing effective healthcare. They form the foundation of delivering high-quality care that minimizes risks to patients. However, statistics reveal alarming rates of patient harm globally, with a significant portion attributed to preventable adverse events. Medication errors, in particular, account for approximately 50% of these preventable adverse events. Beyond medication errors, numerous other adverse events contribute to avoidable harm in healthcare settings.This article seeks to delve into the extent of this problem, identifying contributing factors and proposing strategies to mitigate preventable adverse events. By understanding the scope of the issue and implementing effective interventions, healthcare providers can enhance patient safety throughout the continuum of care delivery.

  20. Aditi Sakhalkar and Dr. Sambhaji Gunjal

    Background: Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disorder (COPD), a prevalent condition marked by enduring respiratory symptoms and airflow restrictions. Obstructions prevent the flow of expiratory air, which results in air being trapped causing hyperinflation. Since hyperinflation restricts the range of motion of the muscles, which leads to fatigue and stiffness, it raises stress in the respiratory muscles. Chest mobilization exercises are any exercises that combine active movements of the trunk or extremities with deep breathing. They are designed to maintain or improve mobility of the chest wall, trunk, and shoulder girdles when it affects ventilation or postural alignment. However, till date, the relationship between chest mobility and functional capacity remains unknown for COPD patients. Therefore this study focus on the effect of Chest mobility exercises on functional capacity and Rate of perceived exertion in COPD patients. Objective-To examine the effect of chest mobility exercises on RPE and functional capacity in COPD patients. Method: The study design was Pre and Post-test experimental study which consists of 40 participants with COPD was selected by convenient sampling. Chest mobility exercises were given for 1 week. Outcome Measures were six minute walk test and Modified Borg scale. Result: Pre-Intervention Value of 6MWD was 309.18±50.36 meters and Post Intervention 6MWD was 314.15±50.74 meters which shows significant improvement in 6MWD with p-value <0.0001. Pre-intervention Value of the Modified Borg scale was 4.22±1.52 and post-intervention was 3.22±1.59.this shows significant improvement in the rate of perceived exertion with p value <0.0001. Conclusion: This study concluded that chest mobility exercises improve 6MWD and the rate of perceived exertion in COPD patients.

  21. Dr. Priya Deshmukh

    Background of the study: Muscle strength measurement is a key component of physiotherapist’s assessment and is frequently used as an outcome measure. The core muscle grading is generally done using a pressure biofeedback unit (PBU). However, the high cost of the device limits its availability in poorly resourced healthcare settings. The use of alternate measures such as the aneroid sphygmomanometer cuff (AS) to assess core strength needs to be investigated. Objectives: To study the validity of the aneroid sphygmomanometer cuff for assessing the core muscles strength of low back in young healthy adults. Methodology: This observational study included normal healthy young adults in the age group of 20-30yrs (N=100) were enrolled in the study, after taking their consent to participate in the study.Core muscle strength was measured by AS cuff and PBU, with the help of Richardson and Jull’s core muscle grading method. Results: The Mean Age of the study group was 23.18yrs ± 1.63 (95% CI, 22.86 – 23.50). The Core muscle strength was 2 (95% CI, 1.51 – 1.91) with PBU and 1 (95% CI, 1.2-1.56) with AS. High concurrent validity was found between AS and PBU (rho = 0.856, p = 0.000). Conclusion: The aneroid sphygmomanometer cuff can be used instead of pressure biofeedback unit for assessing the strength of core muscles. The regression equation (PBU grading = 0.269+ (1.037) As grading) obtained will help the therapist to convert the grading using AS cuff to widely accepted, reliable and standardized grading using PBU which can be used for research purpose.

  22. Hassane Amadou Bouba Traoré, Salissou Iro, Moctar Issiaka and Hamidou Amadou Bagna

    Objective: The Aim of This study was to demonstrate the need for early and appropriate management of orbital cellulitis secondary to pansinusitis, in order to avoid serious functional and even life-threatening complications. Material and method: This was an observational case of a 17-year-old female patient with no known pathological history, admitted for left frontal swelling, palpebral edema, associated with bilateral periorbital erythema, more marked on the left. Hematological examination revealed an infectious and inflammatory syndrome: WBC 15.30 elements/mm3, CRP 69.40 mg/l, normal blood glucose 84.40 mg/dl. A CT scan of the orbitocranium, performed without injection of contrast medium in an emergency situation, showed pansunusitis associated with an abscess of the subcutaneous soft tissues opposite, and obstruction of the left maxillary sinus meatus and ostium. Under general anaesthesia, a 15 cm incision was made at the tail of the eyebrow, and the yellowish-coloured pus collection of around 200 cc was detached and drained. Medical treatment with antibiotics, corticosteroids, analgesics and antiseptics resulted in complete remission of the symptoms. Conclusion: Orbital cellulitis in young subjects is a rare condition, but it can lead to serious functional and vital complications. Urgent and effective treatment is therefore essential to avoid blindness or death.

  23. Srujana Zakkula, Roja Roshan Amiti, Narendra Reddi, Adepu Veena lahari, Nelson Raj Eedula and Tharuni Thammareddy

    Background: In Dentistry digitalization is less when compared with other fields. Especially in India when compared to other countries. The purpose of this article is to evaluate the new devices which are introduced to the dentistry in the process of digitalization from giving the appointment to the patient till completion of the treatment. Methods: Google, Pubmed and other databases were electronically searched and augmented by hand searches. Articles evaluating digitalization in dentistry and digital equipment used in dentistry and their efficiency are picked out. Collected data is statistically analyzed. Advantages and disadvantages of digitalization in dentistry are assessed. Results: Digitalization in dentistry has many advantages like time saving, accuracy and precision of the treatment has increased, painless treatment, more comfort for patient and doctor, better diagnosing aids are included. Conclusion: Digitalization increases the quality of treatment. It is not easy to incorporate the digital equipment in present dentistry as it needs heavy investment. Coactions of dentists and dental team members can make dentistry digitalized.

  24. Rajneel Ravinesh Prasad, Suesh Kumar Pandey, Bishuwar Narain Maharaj

    Background: Despite the studies on government bond in Fiji, this is the first study providing a unique exploration of Fiji's green bonds, focusing exclusively on investors' viewpoints. It contributed novel insights into the motivations and decision-making processes of green bond investors, enriching the discourse on sustainable finance, especially in developing nations like Fiji. Objectives-The primary aim of this study was to explore the stability of green bond markets in Fiji comparison to term deposits offered by listed financial institutions. The specific objectives included evaluating the status of Fiji's green bonds and government debts, term deposits in listed financial institutions, exploring the prospects of green bonds, and providing recommendations for market share expansion. Methodology- A desk-based research approach was employed, combining descriptive analysis and future value simulation analysis (Dulock, 1993) (6). Data was sourced from empirical studies, websites, and annual reports, and analyzed using software such as SPSS and Microsoft Excel, with results presented through charts and graphs. Results - Indicated that domestic investors exhibited reluctance towards trading green bonds. To broaden the capital market, the research underscored the importance of smaller bond denominations, facilitating bond trading through domestic financial institutions, conducting extensive marketing campaigns, and enhancing financial literacy. The study also introduced innovative insights into potential investors' perspectives. Conclusion- The findings could assist stakeholders in devising effective strategies to attract potential green bond investors, while theoretically, the research made a valuable empirical contribution to the existing literature on green bonds.

  25. Patricia T. Osunu, Ezekiel U.Nwose and John E. Moyegbone

    Background: Fruits constitute an important component of balanced diet and provide a variety of important micronutrients that help to remedy metabolic and chronic inflammatory diseases. Pictographs design is an important tool in health promotion of indigenous fruit consumption for the management of health conditions. This study aimed to investigate the level of perception of use of pictographs design in promoting the health value of indigenous fruits among adult population in Mgbouba community, Obio-Akpor Local Government Area, Rivers State, Nigeria. Methods: This was a pilot study of pictographs design of sixindigenous African fruits; avocado pear, orange, water melon, pineaple, banana and mango among 30 samples aged 18 years and above randomly selected using purposive sampling technique from Mgbouba community. Data were collected using self administered questionnaire to assess the perception of the pictographs design. Data collected were analyzed using SPSS version 27.0 with 95% confidence level, and significant at P > 0.05. Results: Fifty percent (15) of the respondents were males. Age range between 41 – 50 years made up 26.67% (8) of the respondents. Findings showed that 100% (30) of the respondents stated that the pictographs design fulfill its educational purpose of highlighting medicinal value, giving a high perception score of 100 (good level of perception).Meanwhile, 70% of the respondents has poor perception of the textual scientific information of the graphic design with a perception score of 40. Conclusion: Majority of the respondents has high level of perception for the African indigenous fruits pictographs. This implies its usefulness as a health education and promotion tool to promote consumption of fruits.

  26. Singh Riya and Parwanda Geeta

    Background: According to FOGSI -Hysterectomy is one of the most frequently performed surgical procedure worldwide. However, in India six in every 100 women aged 30-49 have had a hysterectomy and the prevalence is about 11 per 100 women in the age group of 45-49 years, according to study in Reproductive Health journal. In order for the blessing of a mother to bear a child and deliver it, is a favor of God and removing the organ which bear child is a most difficult process for women feminine identity. The researcher aim is to assess and evaluate the effectiveness of care bundle given to hysterectomy women in terms of anxiety and post-operative complication. O bjectives of the study 1. To assess the level of anxiety and risk of post-operative complications (constipation and urinary tract infection) among women undergoing hysterectomy. 2. To evaluate the effectiveness of care bundles administered in experimental group as compare to control group. 3. To find out the association between level of anxiety and risk of post-operative complications with selected demographic variables. Methods: A Quasi experimental study enrolled 60 women undergoing hysterectomy, 30 in both experimental group and control group selected by purposively sampling techniques. Data was collected by using generalized anxiety disorder assessment, Kendall constipation assessment scale and Bristol urinary tract symptoms assessment scale. Pre-test and post-test were taken from both experimental group and control group, care bundles were given only to experimental group. Findings: The findings revealed that by giving care bundles to experimental group, reduces the anxiety and prevent the complication of hysterectomy confirmed by unpaired “t” test (t = 48.1 and p = < 0.001%) level for anxiety, (t=37.4and p = < 0.001%) for constipation, (t= 35.5and p = < 0.001%) for urinary tract infection. Discussion: The study showed that women who received the care bundle are having less complications as compared to the women who didn’t receive care bundles. These results are significant associated with pre-test of complications where women have received the care bundles postoperatively. Conclusion: There was a marked improvement in level of anxiety and early recovery in post-operative colony phase for patients’ security care bundles. Binder and post-operative complications in experimental group. The use of care bundles on experimental group of hysterectomy women was significantly higher than control group.

  27. Gopa Biswas and Dr. Jasline, M.

    Introduction-Bedsore also called pressure sores or pressure ulcers are injuries to skin and underlying tissues resulting from prolonged pressure on the skin. Objectives: The study aimed to assess the effectiveness of planned teaching programme on knowledge regarding management and prevention of bed sore among the care givers of patients in a selected hospital at West Bengal. Design: The study was conducted by adopting experimental group pre-test and post-test design. Sample: 60 caregivers who are fulfilling the inclusion criteria. Sampling Technique: Non-probability sampling technique was used. Results: Analysis revealed that in experimental group the pre-test level of knowledge mean score was 10.35 with the standard deviation of 3.67 and the post-test level of knowledge mean score was 20 with the standard deviation of 3.31. The “t” test value was 44.91 at the level of P<0.05 which was very highly significant. Karl Pearson co-relation co-efficient, value of r 0.85. Thus, it indicated that there was effectiveness of planned teaching programme regarding management and prevention of bedsore among the caregivers of patients. Conclusion-This study can be repeated using a larger sample in another setting with other teaching strategies.

  28. Md. Asaduzzaman Lovelu, Sabuj Kanti Nath and Shamsul Arfin

    A study was carried out to investigate the Newcastle disease outbreak of pigeons in Khulna, from 16 to 26 November 2019. In squabs, growers, and adult pigeons, a confirmed case of PPMV-1 was found to be the cause of the observed mortality. Diarrhea (92.86%), nervous signs (28.57%), shivering (21.43%), and respiratory signs (7.14%) were among the symptoms displayed by the affected population. Notably, pigeons that had not received vaccinations had a 100% attack rate. Potential risks, like ingesting plastic and foraging for toxic substances, were revealed by an examination of the gut content, emphasizing the importance of appropriate dietary management. Acceptable quantities of lead, cadmium, arsenic, pH, nitrate-nitrogen, total dissolved solids, and ammonia-nitrogen were found in the water, indicating no direct causative relationship with water. To rectify deficits in zinc, vitamin A, vitamin C, lipids, protein, and fats in pigeon feed, a feed analysis is essential. These results highlight how important immunization, a healthy diet, and stringent biosecurity protocols are in inhibiting PPMV-1 outbreaks. Effective strategies including regular surveillance, quarantine, and comprehensive diagnostic approaches are crucial for the management and control of Newcastle disease in pigeon populations.

Social Sciences and Humanities

  1. Sanjay Basu

    Concept of national education is changing in whole world. Dynamic changes in the national education system has helped to improve the education facility of the students. Even in India change in their process of higher educationis noted. Indian higher education systemhas expanded at a significant pace through adding nearly 20,000 colleges as well as more than 8 million students in a decade.Bengal has played a crucial role in the development of the education system in this country. However, some issues has noted in its quality management of higher educational.

  2. Abdoulaye NGOM

    This article examines the link between migration and prostitution in Ziguinchor, a region in southern Senegal. The aim is to shift the focus from migration to prostitution, by making the link between migration and prostitution at the level of the Ziguinchor region and, more generally, of Senegal. More precisely, the aim is to report on the phenomenon of prostitution and its various forms in the Ziguinchor region. Through the exploration and analysis of various empirical cases, the article also sets out to take stock of the main countries from which these sex workers come. The analyses are based on a multi-sited ethnographic fieldwork approach, involving 50 interviews and life stories with foreign prostitutes based in the Ziguinchor region. The article shows how, in the space of a few years, the Ziguinchor region has become a preferred destination for foreign prostitutes.

  3. Prof. Sudhakar Reddy, B.

    This comprehensive overview delves into the multifaceted challenges facing organic farming, examining issues ranging from economic pressures to environmental concerns. Through an exploration of production-related challenges, economic and market pressures, genetic contamination implications, access to land and capital hurdles, and the high costs associated with organic farming, the article provides insight into the complexities of the sector. Additionally, it offers policy recommendations and solutions to bolster the growth of organic agriculture. By addressing these challenges and advocating for strategic interventions, stakeholders can support the sustainable development of organic farming, contributing to global food security, environmental sustainability, and the well-being of future generations.

  4. Dr. Ayouba LAWANI

    The feasibility and control of nature by mankind should make it possible to deliberately manipulate nature and counteract climate change using highly sophisticated technological means. This integration of nature into the sphere of human action turns it into an immense artefact that humans can heat up and cool down at will. We propose to challenge this environmentalist technocracy by simply rejecting this futurological idea. We then countered this position with the idea that man is mistaken in thinking that nature is totally controllable and predictable, because he is unaware that one of the main lessons of global warming is precisely the unavailability of nature’s predictability. It is almost impossible to pinpoint the exact moment when the human project to manipulate the Earth system will turn into a nightmare. It is, moreover, the clear awareness of this danger and of the illusion of man’s superpower that fuels all the measures taken to respond to the climate emergency and avoid destroying nature and life. To achieve this result, we used a mixed-method approach combining both observation and qualitative methods.

  5. Bhaskar Das and Dr. Jyoti Kumari

    In the context of India, the surge in popularity of e-learning, especially prompted by the COVID-19 pandemic, highlights the need to explore how learners perceive and accept this mode of education. The existing literature on this subject in India is limited, particularly in relation to teacher e-readiness relation to user-satisfaction. This study adopts an empirical research methodology, analyzing data from 62 e-learners of higher educational institutes in India engaged in various e-learning formats, including higher education, re-skilling, online skill certifications, institutional training, and hobby and language-related learning. The research framework is grounded in the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology model and the End User Computing Satisfaction model. The collected data is subjected to multiple linear regression analysis using SPSS. The study's outcomes reveal a significant association of teacher e-readiness towards user satisfaction, thereby influencing the acceptance of e-learning in India. This research contributes theoretically to the understanding of factors influencing e-learning acceptance. Moreover, the findings and recommendations hold practical implications for educational providers, corporate entities in the education industry, and policymakers.

  6. Dr. Poonam Srivastava

    Technological advancements are occurring at an unprecedented rate in today’s rapidly evolving world. These innovations not only save us time but also make our lives more comfortable and convenient. However, this increasing reliance on technology has led to a phenomenon known as Nomophobia, which is an addiction to mobile devices. The mobile phone, initially designed as a tool for communication, has gradually permeated all aspects of our lives, leading to the development of Nomophobia. Those who exhibit addictive behavior towards their mobile devices are referred to as Nomophobics. This study aims to explore the prevalence of Nomophobia among Indian students and its impact on their mental, emotional, and social well-being. The findings of this research will serve as an eye-opener not only for students but also for parents and other stakeholders in the education system.

  7. Nianjan Das

    This research discusses the black and white relief printmaking as a tool for social justice and voice of masses in the context of the Far-East. Black and white relief Printmaking, being the most democratic of art-making processes, and it's easy reproductive quality have been used by artists and printmakers globally as a voice against social violations. This research aims to explore how artists and printmakers employed the medium to register social issues in the context of Far-East.

  8. Kumari Priya

    The term "sustainable finance" refers to the use of financial resources to support socially, economically, and environmentally significant enterprises. This includes "low-carbon finance," "green finance," and "climate finance." The achievement of "low carbon, green growth" depends heavily on green finance. It is essential in establishing connections between the financial sector, environmental enhancement, and economic progress. The Indian economy has traditionally found it difficult to finance such environmentally significant projects, particularly the capital needed to achieve the production of 175 gigawatts of renewable energy by 2024. The funding of renewable energy projects has traditionally been hampered in India by issues including high capital costs, inadequate debt financing, and short loan maturities. The work is broken up into several portions. It first emphasises the significance of green finance. The Indian economy and government's different initiatives in this regard are covered in the second part. Section three further discusses the several issues facing the Indian economy. Concluding observations about the future of India's economy and its green investments are given in the final part.

  9. Om Parkash Kapoor and Dr. Anil Chandhok

    Purpose: Govt. of India, Ministry of Roads Transport & Highways (MoRTH) ; established PUC (Pollution Under Control) centers in all states, under their I&M (Inspection & Maintenance) program following CMVRs (Central Motor Vehicles Rules) 1989, to test on-road vehicle’s tail pipe emissions and issue PUC certificate to a vehicle which complies with BS IV or BS VI emission standards. The purpose of PUC is to control vehicular air pollution. The PUC centre could not function appropriately and failed to control the vehicular air pollution as brought out by studies and audits during the intense literature review. Various studies and audit reports gave observations and non-conformities (NCs) to PUCcentre. Had those observations and NCs been separated into management and worker controllable, then those might have been dealt with appropriately so as to bring improvement in the PUC certification process and kept vehicular pollution under control. Air pollution is recognized as a pressing sustainability concern. Design/Methodology/approach: Use of Concept of controllability paves the way for data of non conformances reported by study reports or audits to be separated into management controllable and worker controllable for their implementation. Secondly using relative authority levels and reporting lines, the organization structure is formulated to make it useful for coordination of employees in the PUC activity. In the Organization, Manager in any activity or function is responsible to put controls on the activity to produce a product or service which must be meeting fitness for purpose. Meeting fitness for purpose constitutes (i) Meeting customer needs (ii) Protecting human safety and (iii) Protecting the environments. Findings: The key findings are that (i) 20 to 30 % of non conformities are worker controllable and (ii) 70 to 80 % are management controllable. (iii) Existing org structure needs breakthrough as it lacks in depicting the means to manage across it like relative authority levels. Originality Of the study: Application of this concept for separation of defects/NCs into management & worker controllable, bring out performance gaps challenging the manager for actions which leads to improvement of performance. This is the uniqueness of this study that performance gaps appear which can be worked out for their remedy. Significance of findings: Regional Transport Office (RTO) is the management for 70 to 80% of non conformances of PUC. Remedy of these certainly improves air pollution control process. Similarly PUC Operator owes 20 to 30 % of defects. Removal of these leads him to do right certification of vehicle emissions. This innovative approach, even if, applied today may put PUC on the path of continual improvement thus saving human lives and protecting the environment.





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