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Table of Contents: Volume 15; Issue 05; May 2023

Life Sciences

  1. Alwin Anto, Meby Susan Mathew, Milagrin Xavier and Jeffin Thomas

    Background: The surgical ICU’s are the core areas in the hospital where antibiotics are frequently prescribed to treat number of infections. The consequence of irrational antibiotic use can result in drug resistance and associated rise in treatment expenditure. Aim: To study the impact of antibiotic stewardship program on antibiotic use in surgical ICU’s and surgical wards at tertiary care hospital in south India. Methodology: All the patients in surgical ICU’s and surgical wards who were prescribed with WHO watch and reserve antibiotics were included in the study regardless of sex. The data were collected retrospectively from October 2021 to January 2022 (pre-ASP) and prospectively, starting from February 2022 to May 2022 (Post-ASP). The consumption of watch and reserve antibiotics were compared in two time periods and drug use density is expressed as by anatomical therapeutic chemical (ATC)/defined daily doses (DDD) and normalized per 100 bed days. Results: From a total of 363 prescriptions, 274 appropriate prescriptions and 89 inappropriate prescriptions were observed. The result shows an increase in appropriate use and also gradual decrease in inappropriate use of targeted antibiotics. An overall -18.46% decrease in antibiotic consumption was observed between the pre-ASP and post-ASP phases measured in DDD/100 bed days for target antibiotics. The consumption of the targeted antibiotics reduced at the end of study. The consumption of vancomycin increased and the consumption of cefixime was reduced significantly (P-value = 0.015). Conclusion: As a conclusion, antibiotic stewardship program in hospital surgical ICU’s are effective in reducing the antibiotic consumption.

  2. Md. Enamul Haq Hazary and Md. Kabirul Islam Khan

    Indigenous chickens such as non-descriptive deshi, Aseel, Naked Neck, and Hilly are available in Bangladesh. These chickens are the suppliers of protein and minerals and assist to create employment opportunities for rural people and reducing the poverty level. Their production potentialities in terms of meat and eggs are poor. Usually, a hen lays 50 to 90 eggs per year and their live weight varies from 1000 to 1500 g. There is no proper breeding and conservation strategy to increase their production potentialities that is these genotypes are underutilized. However, if a comprehensive conservation and breeding program is undertaken on these underutilized potential chicken genetic resources they could contribute to meet up the country's nutritional demand as well as it will assist to create opportunities for the unemployed rural people.

  3. Chaitra R.K., Harsha, T.S. and Rahman, M.F.

    The present paper was attempted to study the fish diversity in Tungabhadra River at Harihar Taluk, Davanagere District, Karnataka. The study was conducted for a period of three months from December 2022 to February 2023. The investigation was carried out to study the distribution and characteristics of the collected fish species and to determine the water quality parameters in the study area. The results revealed that the presence of 31 fish species belongs to 05 order and 10 families were reported in the study area. The Order Cypriniformes was dominant (14 species) followed by Siluriformes (9 species), Perciformes (6 species), Osteoglossiformes (1 species) and Synbranchiformes (1species).Hence,the study of water quality parameters and fish diversity cautions for proper utilization fisheries, monitoring, conservation and management of natural resources policies of aquatic environments in the region.

  4. Prakash B. Jadhavar

    Cyanophycean algae are also known as blue green algae or cyanobacteria. These were found in a wide range in India and worldwide. These are important contributors to aquatic biology of fresh and marine waters. Eleven species of cyanophyta bearing different orders were recorded from the study area. The study was carried out during present investigation to explore algal diversity. Present communication deals with cyanophycean species, observed at Mehekari water reservoir. A detailed report of present study is described in the present paper.

  5. Shri Ram Bharat, Dr. Archana Suyal, Suman Kumar Jha and Dr. Rajeev Saini

    The impact of moisture content on yield and study of stability at 25±2 °C/60 %RH±5 % and 40±2 °C/75 %RH±5 % of mechanically cold pressed neem seed kernel oil collected from four different location was examined. The Matured neem seed was obtained and the initial moisture and oil yield was determined in samples (Bihar (B1nk) 37.0%, Rajasthan (R1nk)34.2%, Tamilnadu (T1nk) 35.2%, Uttar Pradesh (UP1nk) 40.4%)using solvent extraction method in laboratory. The initial data of stability generated including organoleptic, moisture (%), acid value (mgKOH/g), Iodine value (g/ml), saponification value (mgKOH/g) and Azadirachtin content (ppm).The recorded moisture and oil yield was compared with the initial oil content and moisture of the seed kernels for all the four location kernels. As the moisture decrease the yield increase and vice versa. Thestability data was generated at both the temperature conditions for6 month of oil extracted from cold pressing to study effect of temperature and humidityon thequality and stability of stored neem oil. All the test results showed that physicochemical properties of neem oil met the specification limit and the oil was best to use even after 6 months with all its goodness properties intact.

  6. Aayushi Mahat, RN, RM and Ranjana Pal, RN, RM

    Aim: To assess the effectiveness of foot reflexology on the level of depression among older adults residing at selected old age home, West Bengal. Background: Older people are a valuable resource for any society. When a person gets old, he inevitably needs more care and affection. Ageing is a natural phenomenon with opportunities and challenges faced more when they are residing at old age home. It is estimated that approximately 4 million older people have suffered moderate to severe mental health problems mainly depression. It has been reported that reflexology helps to improve physical as well as psychological well-being in older adults. Method: The data was collected from 100 older adults residing at old age home. Foot reflexology is the intervention given to the group for 30 minutes for 5 times a week for consecutive 4 weeks (first 1 week by the physiotherapist and remaining 3 weeks by the researcher). Pre-test and post-test was done using Geriatric Depression Scale before and on the 30th day of intervention respectively. Result: The findings revealedthat before the intervention, majority of the older adults had moderate level of depression whereas after the intervention (foot reflexology) most of the older adults had mild level of depression. This shows that foot reflexology was effective in reducing the level of depression among older adults at p<0.001 level of significance. Conclusion: Hence foot reflexology is effective in reducing the level of depression among older adults.

  7. Lili Lin and Zongliang Niu

    The adsorption of dicamba by coconut shell biochar (CSB) was investigated. The effect of initial concentration of dicamba was studied. The optimum concentration was 60 μg/mL. This suggested the strong interaction of dicamba with the CSB.Therefore, CSB, as a green, environmental-friendly adsorbent, can be applied to the adsorption of contaminants in environment.

  8. Dr. Bishnupriya Mohanty, Umesh Vagare IV B.A.M.S., Laxmikant Kolte, IV B.A.M.S and Prof. Dr. Sangram Keshari Das Professor

    Grahani Chikitsa consists of three parts. The first part explains the concept of normal digestion process. The second part describes the abnormal digestion and third part is about diseases caused by abnormality of digestive factors

  9. Wei Xu, Yingying Wen

    The adsorption of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) by coconut shell biochar (CSB) was investigated. The effect of initial concentration of 2,4-Dwas studied. The optimum concentration was30 μg/mL. This suggested the strong interaction of 2,4-D with CSB. Therefore, CSB, as a green, environmental-friendly adsorbent, can be applied to the adsorption of contaminants in environment.

  10. Elniema A. Mustafa

    The Holy Quran is the sole source of inspiration for the definitions of halal and haram foods. Halal refers to what is acceptable and permitted in Islam, whereas haram refers to what is unacceptable and prohibited. Furthermore, Muslims worldwide adopt eight different Schools of Thought(SOT) as reference materials recognized by the International Islamic Fiqh Academy (IIFA) of the Organization of Islamic Cooperation(OIC).The halal food industry is one of the consumer industries with the fastest development in the world, reflecting its increased acceptance by Muslims and non-Muslims. One of the main factors preventing the development of a single, universally accepted halal standard is the various interpretations of Muslim jurists regarding halal animal stunning, slaughtering methods, and other Islamic requirements. This review sought to examine how differences across schools of thought (SOT) prevent the creation of a halal meat standard that is widely accepted.

  11. Kalita M.C. and Kalita, A.

    Most of the rice growing field of Boko block was found as saturated soil during Kharif season and Ground water table goes below (>2.5m) the surface soil during the entire period of Rabi season. All the selected farmers has grown winter rice (cv-Ranjit) satisfactorily as rainfed crop. Only a few numbers of farmers has applied Urea fertilizers @25kg/ha. Dried FYM@4-5t/ha was applied by all farmers in their rice field before the final land preparation of soil. PH of the rice soil was mostly acidic. Except, K-other nutrients were found as low to medium range. Grain yield variations were recorded from 48.0-53.0q/ha. Highest net returns of rs.1,19,328.00 per hactre was received by a selected farmers of village-18.

Physical Sciences and Engineering

  1. Papa Touty Traore, Fatimata Ba, Seydou FAYE, Mor Ndiaye and Issa Diagne

    In this paper, the spectral response of an interdigitated back contact of solar is studied under different illuminations, sunlight, xenon lamp. The set-up model allows to determine the short-current density and the photon current of a solar cell under separate spectra. The spectrum generate is evaluated for each illumination. The external quantum efficiency related to the spectral response of the interdigitated back contact solar cell is also evaluated in this work. The model is computed under the powerful calculators PV lighthouse. The standard test conditions are applied to the model

  2. Oscar GODONOU, Vincent PRODJINONTO, Jean-Louis FANNOU, IsdeenYAYA NADJO

    In this work, we were interested in improving the performance and durability of LiFePO4 batteries through the application of a constant magnetic field. To do this, we defined three paramanders: kinetic efficiency and coulombic efficiency for the assessment of performance, then internal resistance for the assessment of durability. We also defined three factors: the charging or discharging rate, the magnetic field, and the state of the process. With an experimental device, we tested the IFR 26650 battery according to an appropriate experimental. design. The analysis of the various results obtained shows among that the magnetic field increases the kinetic efficiency, coulombic efficiency and decreases the internal resistance. Thus, the magnetic field improves the performance and durability of LiFePO4 batteries. A search for optimal conditions of battery use shows that, during charging, a charging rate of 0.5 C and a magnetic field of 6 mT must be established and during discharge, a discharge rate of 1 C and a magnetic field of 3 mT should be recommended. These optimal charging conditions procur average 25 % of the increasing of kinetic efficiency, 5 % of increasing of coulumbar efficiency, and 58 % of reducing of internal resistance compared to a 0.5 C charge rate in the absence of a magnetic field. About the optimal discharge conditions, they procurs average 2.6 % of increasing of kinetic efficiency, 8.4 % of increasing of coulomb efficiency, and 26 % of reducing of internal resistance compared to a 1 C discharge rate in the absence of a magnetic field.

Health Sciences

  1. Mahira Firudinkizi Amirova, Shayman Ibrahim qizi Hasanova and Huseyn Azizulla oglu Abiyev

    Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are widely present in nature and play the role of self-protection of a living organism from the presence of foreign presenters. They are amphipathic, i.e. contain both charged and hydrophobic domains, however, they are divided into cationic and anionic, depending on the presence of positively or negatively charged amino acids in the active domains, which allows them to easily bind to the surface of the bacterial membrane, which has an advantage of phosphatidylserines different from eukaryotic cells on the outer surface of the plasma membrane, as well as with the surface of fungi and tumor cells. The mechanism of the killer action of AMPs is based on their ability to form pores according to the principle of a toroidal, mosaic and barrel model. But the mechanism of the immunomodulatory action of AMP does not end there. Along with the above action, which ensures the leakage of vital intracellular components into the external environment, AMPs act on DNA transcription, RNA and protein synthesis, sharply inhibiting their formation in a virulent cell, preventing colony development. Of course, a diet depleted in protein and antibiotics are undesirably introduced into the process of self-regulation of immune reactions in the body under the influence of AMP, which is the reason for the deterioration of the condition of patients after taking chemotherapy drugs. Simultaneously, the emergence of multidrug resistance cannot be ignored. On the contrary, increased AMP production due to thediet enriched by essensial, especially widely presented in AMPs hydrophobic amino acids has a beneficial effect on the outcome of an infectious disease. It has been shown that the supplementation of such essential nutrients as tryptophan and branched amino acids, as well as vitamins D and A, increases the host defense by increasing the expression of genes responsible for AMP synthesis.

  2. Shivam Kumar Pandey and Raman Kanwar Rathore

    Nanotechnology is an innovation that will significantly alter how we create tools and materials in the future. The potential use of nano-sized and -composed building blocks is reshaping the field of material science. Many researchers are investigating nanotechnology and its potential uses, advantages, and outcomes. Nanotechnology has several applications in the maritime industry, which include shipbuilding, submarines, and offshore platforms. Nanoparticles in fuel have been found to cut emissions and fuel consumption in diesel engines. Burnt hydrocarbons and soot are decomposed when these nanoparticles are added to the fuel, leading to increased efficiency. As a whole, nanotechnologies appear to offer enormous potential in fields as varied as pharmaceuticals, water purification, digital networks, and the manufacture of superior, lightweight nanomaterials. The advantages of nanotechnology in maritime settings are no less substantial. This paper focuses on nanotechnology applications in maritime security and also throws light on the initiatives taken by India to enhance maritime security.

  3. Prof. Dr. Mrs. P. Genesta Mary Gysel

    Background: The health of the children is the fundamental importance in every country. 0-5 age group of children are vulnerable to get any kind of infection. Under five children are in developing stage and all body system is immature. So they get frequently infected with infections like respiratory tract infection, Otitis Media, Diarrhea, Gastro enteritis etc. Fever is a common presentation of infection. In some children high grade fever can result in convulsions. Objectives: To find out the Pre-Test level of knowledge and to evaluate the effectiveness of video assisted teaching program on the knowledge regarding Febrile seizure among mothers of under five children. Methodology: A Quasi experimental research design with convenience sampling technique was adopted for the study. Data was analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. Mean percentage and standard deviation will be used to assess the knowledge regarding management of febrile seizures among the mothers of under five children. chi square test will be used to find out association between the Knowledge scores and practices scores and the selected demographic variables. Result: The result of the study showed that the mean knowledge score in pre-test control group mean was 8.10 and Standard deviation was 2.89 in experimental group mean was 7.26 and standard deviation was 2.98 and in post-test control group mean was 9.63 and standard deviation was 3.47 in experimental group mean was 13.63 and standard deviation was 2.45. So, management of febrile convulsions were significantly greater than their mean pre-test knowledge scores at P<0.05 level of significance. Conclusion: The outcome of our study will be supportive in designing program that will be of assistance in creating awareness about the management of fever for the under five children among the mothers of under five children.

  4. Dr. Pradnya V. Bansode, Dr. M.B. Wavdhane, Dr. Seema D. Pathak and Dr. Janhavi Swami

    Esthetics is an increasing concern for patients, particularly for anterior teeth. Any flaw that disrupts a pleasing social smile demands to be taken care of with quick, cost effective and minimally invasive procedure. Composite resin restorations have become a life saver in such cases due to their excellent esthetic and handling properties. However from time to time they have proven to be technique sensitive, also getting exact proportion and symmetry right during restoration of anterior teeth is of paramount importance where Putty index technique comes into picture. This technique not only provides exact palatal base shelf to build on but also makes multiple restorations possible on same tooth possible at same time. This paper throws light on anterior esthetic restorations using Direct and Indirect putty index technique by composite resin.

  5. VijayaKumar S Kulambi and 2Nithin Thomas George

    Introduction: Idiopathic congenital talipes equino varus is a complex deformity which is difficult to correct. The treatment of clubfoot is controversial and continues to be one of the biggest challenges in Paediatric Orthopaedics. Most Orthopedicians agree that the initial treatment should be non surgical and should be started soon after birth. We aimed to study a short term follow up of 75 patients treated by the Ponseti method at the Department of Orthopaedics, J.J.M. Medical College, Davangere to assess the efficacy of the treatment modality. Materials and Methods: 75 patients of idiopathic CTEV underwent the Ponseti method of treatment at Department of Orthopaedics in Chigateri Government Hospital, Davangere and Bapuji Hospital, Davangere attached to JJM Medical College, Davangere, during the period of from September 2020 to September 2022.Patients were followed up regularly every week during treatment and monthly after the completion of treatment. The severity of foot deformities were graded as per Pirani’s scoring system before treatment at follow up and after completion of treatment and results were assessed. Results: Out of 75 patients good results were obtained in 69 patients.6 patients developed recurrence of the deformity due to noncompliance with Dennis-Browne splint. Conclusion: The Ponseti method is a safe and cost effective treatment for congenital idiopathic clubfoot and radically decreases the need for extensive corrective surgery. There is high level of parent satisfaction regarding the correction of deformity. Non compliance with orthotics has been widely reported to be the main factor causing failure of the technique.

  6. Dr. Megha Rastogi, Dr. Urvashi, Dr. Kriti Ganguly and Miss. Abhya Rani

    Introduction: Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are a significant health concern, necessitating accurate identification of causative agents and their antimicrobial susceptibility patterns for effective treatment. Antibiotic resistance among uropathogens threaten to greatly increase the economic burden of these infections1,6 The emergence of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) among uropathogens has become a global concern, leading to limited treatment options and increased healthcare costs. This study aimed to investigate the antimicrobial resistance profiles of uropathogens and emphasize the importance of judicious antibiotic selection to minimize AMR and assist clinicians in effective treatment decisions. Most common organisms isolated causing UTI in present study were Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumonia, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Enterococcus faecalis. Objective: The objective of this study was to identify the most frequently involved pathogen in the causation of urinary tract infections (UTIs) in patients, determine the common causative agents, and assess their antimicrobial susceptibility patterns. Methodology: This retrospective study was conducted at Healthians Lab, Gurugram, India, to determine the common causative agents and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of UTIs using microbiologic laboratory data from urine culture samples tested over a one-year period. Bacterial identification and antibiotic sensitivity is done by automated system BD phoenix. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of each antibiotic was determined and judged to be susceptible, intermediate, or resistant following the breakpoints of Clinical and Laboratory Institute (CLSI). Conclusion: The study provides important data on the most commonly isolated organisms from urine samples. The analysis and comparison of the antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of these organisms provide valuable insights for clinicians. Based on this information, they can choose the most appropriate empirical treatment options for UTIs.

  7. Dr. Femi Mariya Benny and Dr. Suhas Rao, K.

    The most frequent fracture in patients with standard acrylic resin maxillary dentures when placed against the opposing entire or partial natural dentition is a midline fracture. This happens due to excessive masticatory forces from the natural dentition against the opposing arch. A glass fiber reinforced denture benefitsin response to fracture of denture. This case report compact with the oral rehabilitation of completely edentulous maxillary arch opposing a dentulous mandibular arch with full complement of natural dentition by integrating a glass fibers mesh into the denture base to counteract the masticatory pressures from the natural teeth and lengthen the life of the replacement.

  8. Umarudeen A. M., Khan F. and Ibrahim A.

    Alcohol and substance abuse in Nigeria is fast becoming a public health menace. The unregulated proliferation, sale and consumption of low-price sachet and other low-volume alcohol has accentuated the incidence of alcohol abuse in the country. The potential risks associated with this scenario are further aggravated by the habit of including medicinal plant extracts locally believed to have physical or sexual vitality-enhancing property in many of these alcoholic/non-alcoholic liquid brands. Despite the increasing prevalence of this problem and its attendant physical, mental, and social health impact, there has not been any scientific report specifically focused on the variety and the chemical constituents of these low-cost brands in the country. Theaim of this study, therefore, is to know the variety of the liquid brands available in major Nigerian cities, profile their chemical compositions – especially their alcohol and the medicinal extract contents. Surveys were carried out on convenient days starting from September 2022 throughMarch 2023 in randomly selected streets in Lagos, Ibadan and the federal capital territory, Abuja particularly market and motor park areas where alcohol-related activities were likely to be high. All sachet and other small-volume alcohol packaged brands encountered were inspected and relevant data such as brand names, name(s) and address(es) of the manufacturers/marketers, brand unit price(s), percentage alcohol content, inclusion or omission of medicinal extracts, and the presence or lack of the official (government) National Agency for Foods and Drugs administration and Control’s (NAFDAC) approval were captured. The surveys encountered a total of seventy-five (75) alcoholic and non-alcoholic brands (See table below). All the survey brands, except one (Alomo bitters), are manufactured in Nigeria with over 90 precent of these brands are produced in the South-western region of the country. Most of these brands existed in both sachets and in small-volume plastic containers. The sachet brands’ volumes ranged from 50 to 70 ml and sold for N30 to N70 per unit while the plastic container brands’ volumes ranged from 80 to 125 ml and sold for N60 to N200 per unit. Eleven brands were stated as non-alcoholic (zero %). Of the rest 64alcoholic brands, 54 had and 10 did not have their alcohol contents stated on their labels. The percentage (%) alcohol contents of the brands ranged from the minimum of 15% to the maximum of 45%. Over half of the brands exhibited high (more than 30%) alcohol contents. Two-thirds of the brands had about 60 different medicinal plant extracts and spices in various combinations, included in their contents. Only about 37did but 16 brands failed to disclose their medicinal extracts on their labels. A significant proportion of brands contain a variety of plant extracts (Asimina triloba, Lanneawelwitschii, Picrasmaexcelsa, Reglisse (Liquorice), Gentiane jaune, Rhubarb root, Guarana, etc.), food preservatives (sodium benzoate, citric acid E330), additives (aspartame, acesulfame-k etc.), flavours, colourants (Allural Red, Tartrazine E102) and supplements (Taurine, caffeine). Some these substances have toxicity concerns. More than half of these alcoholic and non-alcoholic brands did not indicate any therapeutic uses for their products. For those that did indicate their beneficial uses, these include physical and sex-related vitality enhancement, and alleviation of low back ache or menstrual disorders. Only eight brands failed to showcase the official approval (NAFDAC licence) to operate. It is worthy to note that 10 of the 14 brands which failed to specify their medicinal plant extract constituents were among those brands exhibiting government (NAFDAC) licence. None of the brands listed any adverse effectsagainst their products. Only 19 brands gave any form of general or specific warnings to those for whom their products are not recommended or are contraindicated. Potentially toxic chemical compounds such as plant-derived acetogenins, alkylated hydroquinones, Juniper berry, glycyrrizin, glycyrrhetic acid, quassin and neoquassin; and food additives Allura Red, tartrazine, aspartame, Acesulfame-k, citric acid (E 330), caffeine, several synthetic colorants and falvourings are included in many of the brands. These findings showthere is alcohol abuse risk in some Nigerian cities due to unregulated production, easy access and low cost of sachet and other small-volume packages. The %alcohol, some medicinal extract, and foot additive contents of some of these brands may not be safe for continued public consumption. There is a need for greater supervision/regulation of the production, sale and consumption of sachet and other small-volume alcoholic packages on one hand and for more effective alcohol-related public health awareness campaigns on the other.

  9. Mafele Jumanne Ihoyelo and Samwel Mchele Limbu

    Objective: Posterior teeth intrusion performed by means of temporary anchorage devices (TADs) offers the possibility of closing anterior open bite, but data on the long-term stability of the treatment effect are lacking. This systematic review and meta-analysis evaluates the post treatment stability of anterior open bite patients performed by posterior teeth intrusion using temporary anchorage devices. Methods: The Pub Med, EMBASE, Web of science, Scopus, and Cochrane library databases were searched comparing effect of temporary anchorage devices on open bite treatment and posttreatment stability in studies performed using lateral cephalograms. No language restriction, authors were contacted and reference list screened. Screening and data extraction were performed by two independent investigators. Outcome measures were amount of changes in cephalometric variables measurement of upper and lower posterior teeth after intrusion using temporary anchorage devices. Standardized mean difference (SMD) and their corresponding 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were calculated. Quality and risk of bias were assessed by using Newcastle Ottawa scale and methodological index for non-randomized trials (MINORS) respectively. Results: Studies involving 115 patients; (mean age, 24.8 years) were included. There were significant differences in amount of upper and lower molar intrusion with open bite correction (SMD -1.63, 95% CI -2.68 to -0.57; P = 0.003) and (SMD -2.67, 95% CI -4.33 to -1.00; P = 0.002), respectively. No significant differences existed between upper and lower molar relapse with open bite recurrence for one year (SMD -0.41, 95% CI -1.04 to 0.22; P = 0.02) and more than one year posttreatment (SMD -0.41, 95% CI -0.55to 0.64; P = 0.88). Conclusions: TADs produce greater amount of molar intrusions which results into autorotation of mandible along with open bite correction. Greater percentage of molar and overbite relapse seems to occur during the first year posttreatment than the next subsequent years but doesn’t result in relapse of open bite malocclusion.

  10. Mahesh Dave, Heer Nath, Anuj Goyal

    Background: Snakebite is a major public health problem throughout the world and more so in tropical and subtropical countries, where people are more engaged in agriculture work have highest incidences of snake bites. Lipid profile at the time of admission can be helpful to predict severity, course as well as outcome of these snake bite patients. Methodology: This was a descriptive case control study which was carried out over all the patients of snake bite being admitted to various medical wards of Maharana Bhupal Government Hospital, attached to R.N.T. Medical College, Udaipur (Rajasthan) from January 2020 to November 2020. Result: Maximum incidence of snake bite was found in males (58%), from rural area (88%) and farmer (54%) by occupation. It was observed that bite was common in monsoon and post monsoon season (90%), bite was common in lower extremities (72%) and at day time(54%). Among all bites, 12% were contributed by non- poisonous and rest 88% were poisonous bites, out of which 54% were haemorrhagic and 34% were neuroparalytic. The mean serum total cholesterol levels were significantly lower (P<0.034) in severe cases (133.65 mg/dl) as compared to moderate (147.30mg/dl) and mild (149.50 mg/dl) cases. The mean serum triglyceride levels were lower in severe cases (116.15mg/dl), as compared to moderate (120.07 mg/dl) and mild (133.92 mg/dl) cases. The mean serum HDL levels were lower in severe cases (31.95mg/dl), as compared to moderate (33.69 mg/dl) and mild (37.42 mg/dl) cases. The mean serum LDL levels were lower in severe cases (61.50mg/dl), as compared to moderate (69.07 mg/dl) and mild (69.83 mg/dl) cases. Conclusion: Lipid profile (TC, TG, LDL, HDL) were significantly decreased in snake bite patients both with hemorrhagic and neuro-paralytic. In our study, we found that a negative correlation exits between serum TC,TG, HDL, LDL and severity of envenomation. Hence,we can use lipid profile as a surrogate marker of severity of snake bite envenomation and predicting the complication and recovery.

  11. Mahesh Dave, Anuj Goyal and Manasvin Sareen

    Introduction: Diabetes Mellitus (DM) refers to a group of common metabolic disorders that share the phenotype of hyperglycemia. Impaired glucose tolerance and hyperglycemia are the main clinical and diagnostic features and the result of an absolute or relative insulin deficiency or resistance to its action. Aims and Objectives: To study various inflammatory markers such as ESR, CRP, Serum albumin and Ferritin and their correlation in type 2 Diabetes Mellitus patients. Material and Methods: The present study was carried out in 50 Diabetes Mellitus type 2 patients (cases) and 50 age and gender matched individuals (control) in MBGH hospital and RNT Medical College, Udaipur over the period of 12 months. Results: Mean age of patients was 59.50 ± 11.06 years. Females out numbered males 1.5:1. Patients of case group had dyslipidemia, total cholesterol (257.70 ± 49.49), triglycerides (203.52 ± 83.62), LDL was 124.30 ± 29.99 and HDL was 35.67 ± 7.62. Serum ferritin was found to be very high (511.09 ±390.37) in patients with diabetes mellitus as compared to control group (106.60 ± 30.19), the difference was statistically highly significant. Same was the case with ESR and CRP levels. This showed strong association of increased inflammatory markers with diabetes mellitus. Also, serum albumin was decreased in cases as compared to controls; which was statistically significant. There was a positive correlation between duration of Diabetes Mellitus type 2 with inflammatory markers (Ferritin, albumin). Also, inflammatory markers like ESR, CRP and albumin had coorelation with HbA1c values. Conclusion: Diabetes Mellitus type 2 has a close association with inflammatory markers and dyslipidemia such as raised ESR, CRP, Ferritin and decreased albumin. These markers are associated with uncontrolled hyperglycemia and increased risk of various complications ; thus , they can serve as a prognostic marker

  12. Dr. Brajendra Pal Singh, Dr. Amit Mehra, Dr. Mamta, Dr Deepika Divan and Dr. Avinash Pastore

    Asmari is a most difficult disorder for the sufferings. The disease mootrashmari is the most common disease among various urinary disorders and has been described briefly in Sushruta Samhita and other Ayurvedic texts. This disease can occur in kidney, ureters and badder with renal colic pain, haematuria or dysurea. According to modern science Urolithiasis or Urinary calculus are typically classify by locate in the urinary system. Such as in the Kidney (Nephrolithiasis), in the bladder (Cystolithiasis) etc. Urinary stone typically live in the body and can be passed through urine stream by the help of diet and appropriate medicines. Here an attempt has been taken to observe and see the efficacy of Kushmanda swaras yoga in the management of Urolithiasis. The contents of the proposed medicine having proven diuretic effects with capable of bhedan (break) and excrete out the stone through urine.

  13. Mahesh Dave, Anuj Goyal, Ram Gopal Saini, Gaurav Dave, Avinash Sharma, Yash Shah and Ravi Manglani

    Introduction: Hypertension is defined as any one of the following Systolic blood pressure >140 mmHg and Diastolic blood pressure >90 mmHg. Hypertension is a rapidly growing pandemic. It is no Longer restricted to older adults as more young patients are being diagnosed with hypertension. Hypertension among young people is common, affecting 1 in 8 adults aged between 20 and 40 years. Aims and Objectives: To study the demographic profile, clinical presentation and the various etiological factors in young hypertensive patients. Material and Methods: The present cross sectional study was carried out in 200 young hypertensive patients with age <40 years in MBGH Hospital and RNT Medical College, Udaipur over a period of 12 months. Result: Majority of the patients 100 (50%) were in the age group 36-40 years. Males outnumbered females with M:F ratio of 1.8:1. Maximum incidence of hypertension was found in 89 (44.5%) farmers. Incidence of hypertension was almost equal in literate 101(50.5%) and illiterate 99(49.5%).Incidence of hypertension was more common in rural area 113(56.5%). Hypertension was more common 120(60%) among middle class socioeconomic status. Comorbidity was present in 122(61%) patients. The most common comorbidity was CKD54 (69.2%). Majority of the patients had BMI of 18.5-22.9 kg/m2, i.e. normal weight. Maximum cases 105(52.5%) presented with ghabrahat, followed by vomiting 89(44.5%). 114(57%) were found to have a secondary cause of hypertension. Amongst the secondary causes of hypertension, the leading cause 86(75.4%) was renal parenchymal disease. Conclusion: Demographic profile, aetiology and clinical features vary considerably in young hypertensive patients as compared to older age groups. In our study, we found that hypertension was more common in males and secondary hypertension was more common than primary hypertension. Hence, it can reasonably be concluded that screening for hypertension among young individuals should be carried out frequently and search for the secondary cause should be done thoroughly before labeling it as primary hypertension.

  14. Bassirima Traoré, Samba Sidibé, Souleymane Mariko,Karamoko Kantako, Mariam Sako, Massama Konaté, Nouhoum Diallo, Kalifa Diallo, Akoro Dolo, Seydou Sogoba,Lahaou Touré, Abdel Karim Djimdé, Abdoulaye Waissoun, S. Coulibaly, I. Menta and Abdel Karim Djimde

    Introduction: Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction is a common condition the diagnosis of which is difficult because it predominates in elderly subjects with other pathologies. Objective: To describe the epidemiological, clinical, paraclinical and therapeutic aspects of this condition in the medical department of Tombouctou hospital in Mali. Methods: This is a descriptive, cross-sectional study carried out over 24 months and relating to the analysis of 61 files of patients hospitalized for clinical heart failure with isolated diastolic dysfunction of the left ventricle on cardiac echodoppler. Results: The study involved sixty-one patients with isolated diastolic dysfunction of the left ventricle with preserved ejection fraction out of 266 cases of heart failure, i.e. a prevalence of 23%. The average age was 52.6 ± 18.8 years with extremes of 18 and 90 years. There was a female predominance with a sex ratio of 1.2. Cardiovascular risk factors were dominated by arterial hypertension (52.5%), tobacco (21.3%) and obesity (9.8%). The electrocardiogram showed complete arrhythmia by atrial fibrillation with 34.4% frequency and left ventricular hypertrophy with 14.8% frequency. Transthoracic cardiac echo-Doppler revealed left ventricular hypertrophy and dilatation of the left atrium in (13%) and (75.4%) of the patients, respectively. Mitral flow was restrictive, pseudo-normal, or of the relaxation type disorder in 25 (41%), 18 (29.5%) and 18 (29.5%) patients, respectively. Conclusion: Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction is a condition increasingly encountered in daily practice in Africa. It is characterized in our context by the precocity of its occurrence in subjects with a long history of unbalanced arterial hypertension and chronic stress.

Social Sciences and Humanities

  1. Dr. Kiran Dilip Khalangre, Dr. Khan, A. I. and Dr. Suryawanshi, M. V.

    The livestock sector plays a multi-faceted role in the socio-economic development of rural households. Livestock rearing has a significant positive impact on equity in terms of income and employment and poverty reduction in rural areas as the distribution of livestock is more egalitarian as compared to land. In India, over 70 percent of rural households own livestock and a majority of livestock-owning households are small, marginal and landless households. The sheep is an important economic livestock species contributing greatly to the agrarian Indian economy, especially in arid, semi-arid and hilly areas. They play an important role in the livelihood of a large number of small and marginal farmers and landless laborers engaged in sheep rearing. Sheep’s are mostly reared to obtain meat and wool as commercial goods. Sheep skin and wool is used by a number of rural based industries as raw material. Sheep manure is an important source of organic fertilizer for increasing soil fertility. The entire investigation is based on field observation and secondary sources of data obtained from Socio-Economic review and District Statistical Abstract and livestock census hand book. The study concludes that from last a decade number of sheep population is decreased in throughout the district. The distribution of sheep population in Latur district is uneven. The district as a whole has a 100.15 density of sheep per 100-hectare land, but the spatial distribution varies from tehsil to tehsil. During period of investigation district as a whole has a -94.3 negative changes in the density of sheeps. The aim of present paper is to assess growth, distribution and changes in Latur district of Maharashtra (Dr.Kiran Khalangre, 2022).

  2. Aruna, J. and Prof. Satyaveer Yadav

    Background: Success in teaching depends upon two prime factors -attitude towards profession and job satisfaction. Thus, if the teachers are well-informed, motivated, with a positive attitude and committed to their profession, learning will be enhanced. Teachers’ attitudes towards education of children are often based on practical concerns about how educational policies can be implemented, rather than be grounded in any particular ideology. Objectives: The present piece of research aimed to investigate the attitudes of primary school teachers towards certain strategies implemented under inclusive schools in the State of Telangana. Specifically, it probes into the levels of attitudes towards certain strategies viz, peer-tutoring; Self-instruction; Co-teaching and Direct instruction with special reference to gender, qualifications and experience. Methodology: Asample of 199 (63+136) Regular Teachers as well as Resource Teachers were selected under Inclusive settings in Rangareddy and Hyderabad districts of the State of Telangana, employing simple random sampling technique. A standardized tool related to teachers’ attitudes towards inclusion, developed by Galis and Tanner (1995), was used as a test tool. It lays emphasis on three areas – effective strategies for meeting the needs of all students, the support in their district for educational change, and inclusive education. The test tool consists of 24 statements. Results: It was revealed that there was no statistically significant difference between the levels of attitude of Teachers at primary level in using various strategies in Hyderabad and Rangareddy districts of Telangana State with special reference to gender and qualifications On the other hand, a significant difference was found with regard to experience. Conclusion: Strategies used in the inclusive settings not only equipped all Teachers to achieve the international cherished goal of ‘Education For All (EFA). Educational implications along with suggestions for future research was also proposed.

  3. Kshilpa, KS

    The automotive industry has become one of the most important world-wide industries, not only at economic level, but also in terms of research and development. Increasingly, there are more technological elements that are being introduced on the vehicles towards the improvement of both passengers and pedestrians’ safety. In addition, there is a greater number of vehicles on the roads, which allows for us to move quickly and comfortably. Electric Vehicles (EVs) are gaining momentum due to several factors, including the price reduction as well as the climate and environmental awareness.

  4. Maguatcher Jeremie and Ning Ru

    Technological innovation has rapidly transformed the global business and education landscape in recent years. Digital transformation strengthens not only companies' economic positions, benefits society and the environment but also brings about social and cultural changes. As a result, businesses are training their employees in digital skills to keep up with new trends, and higher education institutions (HEIs) must adapt their teaching methods to meet changing labor market demands. This paper examines the challenges facing Cameroon's higher education system in terms of digital transformation, focusing on the University of Maroua and the Universities of Yaounde I and II. The research methods used include questionnaires, interviews, and observation. The Strategic Approach of Digital Transformation theory is applied to facilitate the successful promotion of educational technology in Cameroon's higher education system. The study reveals that Cameroon's higher education faces several challenges in digital transformation, including a lack of digital infrastructure and internet access, and insufficient university budgets. The root cause of these challenges is the central government's lack of funding, lack of international cooperation, and poor governance. To address these issues and advance digital transformation in Cameroon's higher education sector, the study recommends increasing investment in digital infrastructure and internet access, strengthening international partnerships, and improving investment and governance for lifelong learning in the digital age. And finally, the authors draw insights from international experience to enhance digital transformation in Cameroon's higher education.

  5. Yazheng Li and Lezi Zhang

    The Metaverse concept has been applied in many domains and attracted widespread attention from the Chinese academic community. In order to explore the research status, hotspots, and topics of the Metaverse in China, this study employed bibliometric and scientific knowledge mapping methods using tools such as COOC13.4 and VOSviewer. Cluster analysis was performed on 1117 Chinese metaverse-related research papers collected from the China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) since 2021. The findings suggest that the Metaverse and virtual reality, digital collections and blockchain technology, application scenarios and virtual spaces, digital technology and media convergence, digital twins and smart libraries, publishing convergence, and the digital economy, and artificial intelligence and digital transformation were the most studied metaverse-related topics in China. The research status of the Metaverse in China was analyzed to provide references for future studies.

  6. Anyanwu J.C., Nwafor D.M., Ejiogu C.C., Iwuji M.C., Ulor C.O., Esomonu I., Uche C.C., Uyo C.N., Nmecha M.I., Amaku, G.E., Egbuawa, O.I. and Ugochukwu, P.C.

    An assessment of Physico-chemical parameters and phytoplankton diversity in Nkisi River in Anambra State was conducted for a period of eight months from February 2021-September 2021. Water samples were collected from three sampling stations of the river every month in sterilized containers during the course of the study. The study stations are Trans Nkisi (S4), Omaga Phase II (S5), and Ozalla Layout (S6). The samples were analysed for both physicochemical attributes and phytoplankton diversity. Phytoplankton species were determined following standard procedures. A total of twenty three species of phytoplankton were encountered in Nkisi River. Chlorophyceae was the dominant group of phytoplanktons in the river, accounting for 38.3% in Nkisi River. The most abundant phytoplankton species in Nkisi River was Navicula spp accounting for 6.67 %. A total of 127, 144 and 119 phytoplanktons were recorded for Station 1 (S1), Station 2 (S2) and Station 3 (S3) respectively in Nkisi River. 20 phytoplankton species cut across the 3 stations in Nkisi River while none was entirely unique to the 3 stations. Nkisi River recorded high diversity indices value for Chlorophyceae = 2.24 and least value for Cyanophyceae = 1.557. The physico-chemical attributes of the river were investigated by measuring the degree of correlation with the phytoplankton diversity. The phytoplankton diversity of the river correlated positively with physico-chemical parameters. The result revealed a deterioration of water quality of the river due to industrial, commercial and anthropogenic activities. The status of phytoplankton diversity of Nkisi River was low indicating that the river is polluted and that the water chemistry has direct effect on plankton diversity. Cyanophyceae have shown less number of phytoplankton abundance in most of the sites in the river. The discharge of industrial effluents, domestic wastes and other anthropogenic activities has altered the structure of phytoplankton community of the river. There is need for legislation and conservation strategies to restore the water quality and protect the river from further degradation.





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