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Table of Contents: Volume 15; Issue 01; January 2023

Life Sciences

  1. Santosh Kumar Verma, Ashok Kumar Kakodia, Shiv Lal and Ravindra Choudhary

    Rajasthan is desert state in India and the most of population is depends on the groundwater. The average annual rainfall is 580 mm with 30 rainy days. Groundwater level is in range of 250 feet to 400 feet. The level of groundwater is going down due to the growing population and per capita increase of consumption by urban and rural area.The testing and monitoring of water is very important and the water impurities are time varying parameter and it is also affected by the use of chemicals in agriculture, mining activities and industrialization. In the present study corrosivity of water is selected for the determination of suitability of source for drinking purposes.

  2. Uwumarongie, A.M.D., Emuedo, O.A., Uzunuigbe E.O., Ohikhena, F.U., Chukwuka, A. N., Ugiagbe-Ekue, U., Omoruyi, J.I., Omorogbe J.A., Ehiwe, O.D. and Edoma E.E.

    The land available for agriculture to feed the population that is growing geometrically, has reduced drastically due to urbanization. This has led to the use of arable land for industrial purposes. Industrialization has reduced the arable land available for agriculture to feed the ever growing population. To remedy this situation and ensure that the people don’t starve, there is the need to intensify agriculture by adopting a cropping system that utilizes the available resources on the land by increasing input on that available land to bring about increase output. Intercropping is one of the methods of intensifying agriculture. It involves the growing of two or more crops on a particular piece of land for efficient use of the resources available in that land for increase productivity. for a successful intercropping enterprise, there is the need to have knowledge of crop management techniques like spacing, spatial arrangement, planting density, varietal selection, understanding the physiology of the plants to be grown together, their growth habits, canopy and root architecture, water and nutrient use in order to manage interaction that occurs in favour of the component crops. This review tends to study the role of plant spacing, spatial arrangement, plant density, plant architecture in agricultural intensification for food sustainability and availability.

  3. Uwumarongie, A.M.D., Emuedo, O.A., Uzunuigbe E.O., Ohikhena, F.U., Chukwuka, A. N., Ugiagbe-Ekue, U., Omoruyi, J.I., Omorogbe J.A. and Edoma, E.E.

    A field study was conducted in 2018 and 2019 cropping season to determine the comparative effects of some soil amendments on the growth and fruit yield of snake tomato in a newly established rubber plantation in Iyanomo. The treatments involved a combination of sole and intercropped combination with NPK and rubber effluent application rates laid out in a randomized complete block design in three replications. Data were collected on vine length, vine girth, number of leaves, leaf area, fruit yield and its components. Results showed that soil amendment had significant effect on growth and fruit yield of snake tomato (P<0.05). Soil amendment significantly (P<0.05) improved snake tomato growth characters. The fertilized plants were higher in all the characters accessed than the unfertilized plants. Sole and intercropped snake tomato fruit yield with or without treatments had similar values. Unfertilized sole and intercropped snake tomato had the lowest fruit yield. The highest fruit yield were obtained from sole and intercropped snake tomato treated with NPK (STNPK and RSNPK).

  4. Pragati Pandey and Tulika Mishra

    Organic farming is a knowledge intensive system and has been developed by practitioners themselves over the years. Organic farming is one such system which provides healthy and safe food without ecological harm. Hence, the Indian Government started promoting organic farming through various schemes like National Project on Organic Farming (NPOF), National Horticulture Mission (NHM), Rashtriya Krishi Vikas Yojana (RKVY) etc. This farming is a modern and a sustainable form of agriculture that provides consumers fresh natural farm products. Organic farming works in synchronization with nature. The objective is achieved by using techniques to improve crop yields without harming the natural environment as well as the people who live and work in it. Organic agriculture offers an exclusive amalgamation of environment-friendly practices, which require low external inputs, thereby contributing to increased food availability. It has a very positive influence especially on birds, insects, weeds, wildlife, and soil flora and fauna. As compared to conventional agriculture, organic farming produces cost-effective food products, free of synthetic fertilizers and pesticides. It also provides employment opportunities and economic benefits to local communities. Organic systems give higher animal immunity and increased disease resistance to plants, with 50 % less mycotoxins in crops and a persistent shelf life. This Chapter emphasizes on use of bio-pesticides in place of chemical agents and drugs that are not only harmful for the environment but they also enter inside the food chain through the edible products and then by biological magnification continuously go on increasing in percentage. There are various plants that have potential in being used as insecticidal agents and they can prove to be an arsenal in crop management both post and pre- harvesting. Farmers need an awareness to use these biological agents as tools to enhance productivity and also increase their profits over time rather than spending heavy amounts on toxic chemicals that deteriorate the soil quality and make it unfit for future farming practices.

  5. Rahul Nayan and A.K. Thakur

    Numerous heavy metals show significant mutagenic, teratogenic, and clastogenic. Most of the heavy metals such as lead, arsenic, mercury, and cadmium affect on male reproductive function, including sperm head morphology and spermatogenesis. Several studies have reported that heavy metals caused testicular oxidative stress, which has been linked to infertility. The aim of the present research his to investigate the cytotoxic effect of lead acetate on production of sperm cells and behavioural pattern during dosing period of two doses (20 and 40 mg/kg body weight/ per day) of lead acetate for 40 days in male Swiss albino mice (Mus musculus). For the research Adult Male Mus musculus of same age and average body weight 25 -30 gm taken and were divided into three groups one group was considered control group and other two were considered treated groups. Sperm counting and behaviour pattern parameter were included in this research to investigate the cytotoxic effect of lead acetate. After 40 days of treatment, the experimental animals were sacrificed and epididymal part were taken for study of sperm counting. The result shows that in both lower dose and higher dose of lead acetate were significantly decline the sperm counting (p < 0.05). The number of sperms was 150.4 ± 3.12 (control), 87.08 ± 2.21 (lower dose), and 48.1 ± 1.4 (higher dose) million cells/ml. In behavioural pattern feeding habits were not changed. However, aggressiveness, sleeping time, and loss of body hair increased in all treated groups as compared to the control group. In the present research, lead acetate administration shows significant on behavioural dysfunction and cytotoxic effect in germinal cells by disturbing sperm production.

  6. Mukul Chandra Kalita

    In general, B: C ratio is not very much promising in most of the Cereal, Pulses and Oilseeds. But if we go for seed production system of cereal, pulses and Oilseeds than B:C ratios will be high. This is because of higher output values of crops. Applications of FYM@5.0t/ha and 50% recommended dose of NPK fertilizer plus Rhizobium inoculation help in saving 50% chemical fertilizers and increased yield to about 30%. In Assam, the total biomass in the crop field is more and after it’s decay; it releases a little quantity of NPK nutrients to the soil system. That is why the recommended fertilizer dose of cereal, pulses and oilseeds are found less in Assam. Fertilizer have contributed significantly towards, increasing agricultural productions world wide ).

  7. N'DA Amalan Sylvie, LOZO Roméo N'Guessan, KONE Naminata, ODOUKPE Kadio Saint Guillaume and BERTE Siaka

    Many small dams for agropastoral purposes have been initiated in various regions of the country, with the aim of promoting economic and social development, particularly to facilitate rice yields. These aquatic environments are home to an important biodiversity, including phytoplankton, which are not well known and likely to be impacted by human activities. The objective of this work is to know the phytoplankton population of the Yamoussoukro rice-growing dams in order to prevent the risks of eutrophication. The physico-chemical parameters of the water were measured with a multi-parameter HANNA model HI 98194 in three stations (Nanan, Subiakro and Zatta). Nutrient salts were measured using HANNA digital mini-photometers model H1781. Taxa were sampled with a plankton net of 20 µm mesh size. A photonic microscope was used to observe the different samples collected. In total, one hundred and fourteen (114) phytoplankton taxa were inventoried and divided into for (4) phyla: Chlorophyta (44 taxa or 39%), the Euglenophyta (41 taxa or 36%), Cyanoprokaryota (16 taxa or 14%) and Heterokontophyta (13 taxa or 11%). Water reservoirs could be considered rich in taxa. Chlorophyta and Euglenophyta contain the greatest diversity and constitute more than half of all taxa collected. The study also revealed that the reservoirs are warm (29.86°C) and acidic with low dissolved oxygen (2.25 mg/l) and high nutrient values (ammonium, nitrate, nitrite and ortho-phosphate). This mineralization of these waters explains the high diversity of taxa in the Yamoussoukro dams.

  8. Geethalakshmi, I ., Punitha, A., Sumathi, T., Vadivel, N., and Adeline Vinila, J.E.

    The experiment was carried out during 2016 - 2018 on rabi season to evaluate the qualitative parameters in different forms of fenugreek. Seven different forms viz., young seedlings (7-10 days after germination), fresh leaf at matured stage (30-40 days after sowing), dry leaf at matured stage (30-40 days after sowing), fresh leaf at matured stage (60-70 days after sowing), dry leaf at matured stage (60-70 days after sowing), dry seed and sprouted seed were studied. The results revealed that the sprouted seeds and the dried seeds were found to be best with high quality parameters, chlorophyll contents (a, b and total), catalase activity, soluble protein content, total carbohydrate content. On the other hand, the fresh leaves at matured stage (60-70 days after sowing) recorded higher ascorbic acid content.

  9. Elexis A. Richardson and Dr. Marianne Robertson

    Energy is a limited resource that is used in reproduction, growth, and maintenance. For organisms to reproduce, energy may be transferred from maintenance to reproduction. We studied the effect of a single mating period on adult lifespan in Drosophila melanogaster to examine whether exposing female D. melanogaster to 0, 1, 2, or 6 male(s) for a 48-hour time interval would impact female lifespan while also examining how male competition during these intervals would impact male lifespan. We assigned females (n=20) to one of the four above treatments and exposed them to the designated number of males for a 48-hr time period, and we then isolated both males and females and monitored them daily for survival. There were no significant differences in the number of days survived between treatments for either males or females when comparing 0 versus 1 male or when comparing 2 versus 6 males. All four treatments could not be statistically compared because they were not conducted at the same time due to the number of virgins required for trials These results suggest that lifespan is not affected by the number of mates a female is exposed to or the number of competitors a male is exposed to. Further research could investigate whether 1 versus 6 males results in statistical significance.

Physical Sciences and Engineering

  1. Dr. Rajashri Ramesh Chavan and Mst. Shubham Siddeshwar Jadhav

    The paper aims to understand the awareness of customers and government efforts to promote e-vehicle and also to understand customers' product perception. This study is conducted in Satara city with 125 samples which consist of both existing customers and potential customers. A stratified disproportionate sampling technique is adopted to select the sample. The Schedule is designed to collect the feedback from the sample. The nature of the research study is descriptive. The study identified and evaluated the consumer perception of various factors about the electric bike. The result reveals that Government is taking rigorous efforts through FAME Amendment and PLI Scheme for the Auto sector. Satara customers are well aware of e-vehicle. There is a growth in both e-bikes and e-cars in Maharashtra. There is a combination of both positive and negative perceptions about e-vehicle. Most of the respondents consider the cost and the mileage in purchasing a bike, so there is ample potential for an electric bike in two-wheeler sectors. But their battery performance, speed, and appearance are the major factors that are affecting the sales of electric bikes.

  2. Leontine Tekoum, Doumnang Mbaigane J.C. E. Kadjangaba, Ye Qian, Da Wang Guang and Fengyue Sun

    The Mayo kebbi mafic-ultramafic intrusions are represented by gneiss–amphibolite complex, which is exposed east of the Zalbi Group. They consist mainly of gabbro-diorite, amphibolites, gneiss amphibole, hornblendite and pyroxenite. The mineral assemblages are characterised by amphibole (hornblende), plagioclase, pyroxene and chlorite. Our electron microprobe analysis showed that, the most of mafic –ultramafic rock mineral are calcic-amphoble. Where hornblende are more Magnesio (Fe2+

  3. Azra Kamal

    Diatoms are microscopic algae which are present in all aquatic environments. The primary application of the study of diatoms in forensic investigations is in the diagnosis of drowning as the cause of death. Extraction and identification of diatoms present in the tissue samples can be used as supportive evidence in drowning and also for site specific diatoms. Whenever there is drowning the diatoms along with the water enter the blood circulation and reach the distant organs like bone marrow. In this present work few selected drowning death examination cases were mentioned .The biological sample as well as the water sample from the place from where the dead body was recovered examine in the laboratory by acid digestion method, centrifugation and presence or absence of diatoms were studied under trinocular microscope. 13 cases were selected in which 5 cases showed positive result for diatom test and the rest 8 that showed negative results are mentioned here. Finding also revealed the occurrence of various varieties of diatoms in Bihar region. Thus the study concluded that diatoms test is a valid tool to support the diagnosis of drowning which have a great forensic significance. Further research on molecular level and new methods are required for diatom testing and recognition.

  4. Mamadou Lamine, L.O., Fatimetou Zehra Eba and Djibril, S.O.W.

    Like the countries of the sub-region, the Mauritanian context is characterized by the absence of a local road design guide. Thus, classic methods developed elsewhere and based on parameters whose relevance is debatable, given the climatic context, are used. This research, a pioneer in geotechnical engineeringin Mauritania, aims to determine the correlation between the CBR and the Young's modulus of the two most commonly used shell quarries, PK23 NDB and PK35 AKJT, in order to determine objective geotechnical characteristics for road design. The geotechnical characteristics of the materials studied were determined in the laboratory after a cement treatment with a dosage of 3 to 3.5%. Thereafter statistical analysis of the experimental results via computer tools like Python, Numpy, Pandas, Matplotlib, Scipy and Sklearn, showed that the widely used equation “E= 5*CBR” relation is not always appropriate in the local context and it varies between quarries. For the PK23 NDB quarry, the correlative relationship is established as follows: E = 3,55*CBR while for the PK35 AKJT quarry it is given by this equation: E = 3,76*CBR. The results obtained in this study are an important step towards the development of a pavement design guide that is appropriate to the local context, and they reinforce the idea of using these materials in pavement base layers.

  5. Rabindra Kumar Mishra, Ankit Kumar Jena and Sanjay Kumar Dey

    The biological data warehouse is shown here, and it is stored locally. It provides the most comprehensive forum for (a) biological sequence integration, (b) interactions among molecules, (c) Understanding of homology, (d) annotations for gene sequence, and (e) biological ontologies. For bioinformatics research and development, this framework provides both data and application infrastructure. This study defines an internet frame of reference for building database warehouses that incorporate multiple gatherings of bioinformatics datasets into a particular database managing model. A description of Atlas, Biowarehouse, BIOZON, COLUMBA, and VINE dBs to the data warehouse design has been given to validate t(DBMS), allowing queries to span multiple database servers. This paper is based on data extraction and Integration from varied sources and alternative proposals for processing the consolidated data, data warehousing, and integrating data into information. Data source as well as the architecture of a biological data warehouse proposition.

Health Sciences

  1. Dr. Mahasweta Choudhury, Dr. Akhileshwari, B.S. and Dr. S.S. Koushik

    Background: Two percent of all pancreatitis is accounted by Drug induced pancreatitis. It is a diagnosis of exclusion, a patient can be diagnosed with Drug induced pancreatitis only after alcohol use, and cholelithiasis are excluded. The diagnosis can be made by establishing a temporal link between the drugs and the development of pancreatitis in the patient who does not have any other factors that can contribute to the development of pancreatitis. Case report: Here we present a case of 18 years old female who presented to the emergency room with acute onset severe pain abdomen 7 days after being started on Tablet Orlistat for the treatment of obesity. The patient does not give any history of alcohol consumption habits. Diagnosis of pancreatitis was established by elevated levels of amylase and lipase and CT abdomen showed a bulky pancreas with peri pancreatic fluid with no evidence of gallbladder and hepatobiliary abnormality. Conclusion: Tablet Orlistat is being extensively used for the treatment of obesity. Few studies have shown that Orlistat can trigger Drug induced pancreatitis in certain patients, so it should be prescribed cautiously, especially in patients at high risk of pancreatic injury.

  2. Dr. Atoe- Imagbe Osagioduwa Mike, Dr. Osarenkhoe Osaretin John, Dr. Umuerri Ejiroghene Dr. Aigbe Fredrick, Dr. Aiwuyo Osarumme Henry and Dr. Obasohan Austine

    Background: There is an increasing prevalence of stroke in the young adults as well as older adults in general. Cardiovascular risks are a significant predisposition to occurrence of stroke in both age groups. Various cardiac abnormalities are present in stroke patients either as risk factors or as complications. A relationship exists between these cardiac abnormalities and the prevalence, morbidity and mortality from stroke. The changing pattern of the cardiovascular risk factors among these groups of patients may contribute to a changing pattern of cardiac and echocardiographic abnormalities in stroke patients. Objective: The aim of the study was to investigate the profile as well as prevalence of various echocardiographic abnormalities in young versus older adult stroke patients of the different subtypes of stroke. Method: Descriptive cross sectional and comparative study was done. 180 subjects comprising of 90 young(less than 45years) and 90 older (45years and above) adult stroke patients were recruited for this study. Echocardiography was done for the patients. Echocardiographic abnormalities were compared among the young versus the older groups using chi-square and t-test tests when necessary. Results: Mean age in the young and older stroke patients were 40.23 ± 2.75 and 65.77 ± 12.34 years respectively. Male to Female ratio was 1.6: 1 among the older group and 1.4: 1 among the young group. Ischaemic stroke was the commonest subtype of stroke in both groups of patients (54.4% in the young and 68.9% in the older group of patients). Intracerebralhaemorrhage and subarachnoid haemorrhage were present in 37.8% and 7.8% respectively in the young while 26.7% and 4.4% of the older group had intracerebral and subarachnoid haemorrhage respectively. Echocardiographic left ventricular hypertrophy was also the commonest structural abnormality on transthoracic echocardiography in both groups of patients (52.3% in the young versus 47.1%in the older group), and the difference in prevalence was not significant. Left ventricular systolic dysfunction was significantly more in the older patients than the young (21.1% versus 6.7% χ2=7.850, p=0.005). Left ventricular diastolic dysfunction was slightly more in the older group (86.7%), compared with the young (75.6%). This difference was however not significant (χ2=6.759, P=0.08). The commonest pattern of cardiac diagnosis was hypertensive heart disease in both groups of patients (68.9 versus 65.5%).Others were valvular heart disease (6.7% both groups), ischaemic heart disease (2.2% and 5.5% in the young and old respectively), pericardial diseases (2.2% and 5.5% in the young and old respectively) dilated cardiomyopathy (1.1%) and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (1.1%) both in the older group and left atrial myxoma (1.1%) in the young group. Conclusion: Transthoracic echocardiographic structural and functional abnormalities were largely similar among both age groups with slight differences noted. Left ventricular systolic dysfunction was significantly more on echocardiography among the older group of patients. It is therefore important to screen adult patients with stroke irrespective of the age at presentation.

  3. Rakesh Ashok Kadam, Hussam Aldeen Ahmed, Melita Rodrigues and AreebaTajammul

    Background: To create a 3D representation of the white matter bundles in the brain, dMRI uses the diffusion of water molecules along axons. This function is very helpful for planning a surgical approach and seeing how a tumor affects the surrounding white matter. Objective: This article examines the various applications of dMRI in improving brain surgery, as well as its advantages and drawbacks. We discuss surgical methods that can be used in conjunction with dMRI to enhance the impact of the procedure on the patient’s recovery, such as loading 3D tractography into the neuronavigation system and using direct electrical stimulation to confirm the location of the targeted white matter bundles. Methods: We looked at research that support dMRI results with other anatomical study methods, like postmortem dissections, manganese-enhanced MRI, electrical stimulations, and phantom experiments with established ground truth, in recent meta-analysis, research articles. We will talk about the parts of the brain where dMRI works well and where the obstacles lie in the future. Results: Tractography has lots of potential. Preoperative Tractography can assess the neural pathways and assist surgeons for optimal surgical approach. The technology is still in development. Conclusion: The review will be concluded with recommendations and key takeaways for neurosurgeons, on how to advance the discipline and reap the rewards of using tractography in clinical practice.

  4. Dr. Rupal Bhatt, Dr. Swati Bhattacharjee, Dr. Surveen Kaur Arneja, Dr. Vaidehi C. Shah, Dr. Nitisha N. Khare

    Vernal Keratoconjunctivitis(VKC) is a chronic inflammatory bilateral external eye disease affecting mainly patients in the first and second decade of life and keratoconus is a bilateral, asymmetric, non-inflammatory and slowly progressive corneal ectatic disease and characterized by corneal thinning and protrusion, progressive myopia, and irregular astigmatism, Here in this study we are calculating the prevalence of keratoconus in pediatric patients presented with vernal keratoconjunctivitissince this condition’s progression can be delayed with adequate treatment and keeping the patients in a close follow up

  5. Renuka Nagarale, MandarTodkar, Fatima Shaikh, Najiya Shaikh, Kanshini Waghmare and Sanaya Ahmed

    Introduction: The ‘guided endodontics’ technique was introduced in 2017 as a substitute for the conventional access cavity preparation for teeth with canal obliteration, apical pathosis or irreversible pulpitis. With the help of cone-beam computed tomography and a digital surface scan, an optimal access to the calcified root canal orifice can be planned virtually with suitable software. AIM: The aim of this review was to provide with an update on the application of guided endodontics for calcified root canals. Materials and Methods: A search of the particular literature was performed on four electronic databases PubMed, Scopus, Science Direct, and Web of Science until October 2022. Studies that answered the research question were included (i) application of guided endodontics for calcified canals, (ii) case reports and (iii) in vitro or ex vivo studies assessing types, advantages, disadvantages, and outcomes of its use and the accuracy as well as limitations of guided endodontics for calcified canals. The exclusion criteria were as follows: (i) Articles in any language other than English, (ii) Articles before the year 2017 (iii) experts’ opinion and (iv) guideline reports. The researchers reviewed the complete list of articles and selected the articles that were potentially relevant. Later, full-text screening was performed and articles that did not meet the inclusion criteria were excluded. The articles those dealt with a topic other than that of interest to this literature review were also excluded. Conclusion: GE seems to be extremely promising. Favorable laboratory-based results regarding the accuracy of guided endodontic access cavities for both static and dynamic navigation provided better insight towards it being more accurate and safer.

  6. Dr. Sanhati Biswas, Dr. Puloma Bagchi, Dr. Amit Vilas Tandulkar, Dr. Anushree Koyande and Dr. Sagnik Bhattacharya

    The most common problems in childhood and adolescence leading to structural damage of primary and young permanent maxillary anterior teeth include early childhood caries and dental trauma. It causes difficulty in mastication and also poor phonetics. With recent advancements in technologies there are various restorative materials available for reconstruction of such damaged teeth. Use of natural tooth is a good alternative to other restorative materials as suggested by various literatures. The present case report shows the successful use of biological post and crown with the follow up period of 1 year. Methods: A freshly extracted permanent mandibular central incisor is sterilised and prepared as biological post for restoration of fractured maxillary permanent central incisor after its root canal treatment. Results: There was no complaint of discomfort with the treated tooth. The follow-up of the patient was continued after every three months for 1 year. Conclusion: Biological post is an excellent alternative over pre-fabricated commercially available posts for the aesthetic and functional rehabilitation of severely mutilated teeth. This case study reports successful management of fractured endodontically treated teeth with biological post.

  7. Renuka Nagarale, Mandar Todkar, Ayesha Patel, Wajeeha Mulla and Vivek Chaudhary

    Background: Implantology is becoming a speciality in thefield of dentistry in the last few decades dentistry appears to have recorded its most sign I cant advancement in the field of dental implantology. Replacement of lost teeth with dental implants are widely accepted as a prosthetic treatment of completely or partially edentulous patients. Objective: The aim of this study is to evaluate the level of acceptance and challenges among Dental practitioners. Method: The survey was constructed using a convenient sampling method with self administered questionnaires among dental practtioner between October and November 2022. Results: majority of questioned subjects knew about the dental implants and accept it as a treatment option for replacing missing teeth. Conclusion: Dental implant is an accepted treatment modality in India.

  8. Dr. Shilpa Sharma, Dr. Dinesh Kansal, Dr. Dhiraj Kapoor and Dr. Atal Sood

    Aim & Objective: To compare the efficacy of empagliflozin versus teneligliptin on diabetic retinopathy and urine for microalbuminuria as add on therapy to metformin monotherapy in patients of uncontrolled T2DM. Material and Methods: The study was randomized, prospective, open label, comparative interventional study conducted at Dr RPGMC Tanda. Out of total 66 patients, 32 patients (Group A) received empagliflozin 25mg/day and 34 (Group B) received teneligliptin 20mg/day in addition to metformin 1000 mg BD. Total 18 patients, 9 in each group had mild to moderate non proliferative diabetic retinopathy (NPDR). Both the groups were evaluated after 6 months. Statistical Analysis: The data is presented as mean+/- SD. Student’s t test was used for data analysis. The p value<0.05 is significant. Results: After 6 months, In group A only 1 patient had mild NPDR, In group B only 3 patients had mild NPDR. There was statistically significant decrease in urine for microalbuminuria in both groups at 6 months, when compared with baseline (both p < 0.001). Conclusion: Non proliferative diabetic retinopathy improved with both the drugs (empagliflozin > teneligliptin) which also proved their potential role in protection from microvascular complications. Both the drugs showed decrease in microalbuminuria by improving diabetic status.

Social Sciences and Humanities

  1. Mrs. Radhika, A.

    Use of technology and multimedia has been of utmost help during his pandemic. It has become more and more important as the classroom scenario changed from physical to virtual. Technology enables teachers to adapt to classroom activities thus enhancing language learning process. Use of multimedia and also technology grew more now as a tool to help the teachers facilitate language teaching and learning at all levels. Teachers now-a-days can choose from You tube videos, blogs, ppts, electronic dictionaries, video lectures and some applications as well. In this pandemic situation where education became virtual, it is important for the teacher tom upgrade and then engage the students in an active and interesting manner. It supports 24x7 , builds 21st century skills and also increases student engagement in all kinds of digital activities. Some benefits of using technology may be as follows: 1. Creates a more engaged environment and easy learning . It may be a distraction sometimes but by proper and guided instruction it can work wonders. 2. Incorporates different styles and levels of learning for all levels of students. 3. Improves collaboration among the students as they help each other in a very interactive way. 4. Prepares children for the future as the future lies in Digitalisation. Use of Multimedia in ELT: Multimedia content helps to enhance easy learning process and leads to better knowledge retention as the old saying goes we remember when we see and learn more quickly. Social media plays a vital role in every students life. It is often easier and more convenient to access information, provide information and also communicate via social media. Read-aloud is a popular and effective way to improve the word knowledge. Multimedia enhances English Language Skills of the learning by using five elements like graphics, texts, audio, video and animation. Some Multi-media tools • Animoto( video tool which allows to create/share videos) • GoAnimate • PodOmatic • Prezi • iMovie Benefits of Multimedia learning • deeper understanding • improved problem solving • access to a vast variety of information etc., How to use Multimedia in classroom • using Audio-books • using song files and music videos • short video clips etc.,

  2. Nalin Kumar Ramaul, Pinki Ramaul and Vivek Negi

    Several authors have studied the prevalence and incidence of violence against women, but there have been few systematic attempts to investigate the financial consequences of the problem, that too mostly in developed countries. But the criminal justice policy debates can no longer ignore the basic economics of public policy choices. Violence against women is unquestionably a public problem because the entire society pays monetarily, as well as non-monetarily. Violence against women is enormously costly – to the women who experience violence directly, to women generally whose lives are constrained by the fear of violence, and to governments whose expenditures are swollen by responding to some of the consequences of this violence. In the Indian context, there has been no comprehensive study estimating the cost of violence against women. Establishing robust estimates are subject to significant data restrictions. Therefore, the present paper is an attempt to investigate the methodological aspects of estimating the costs of violence against women on the victim, family, and the State. The paper is based on desk review and critical analysis of various research studies and reports on violence against women. Measuring the full economic impact of this issue is the key to inspiring greater efforts to reduce the prevalence of violence against women.

  3. Achintya Singha and Sampad Shit

    Mathematics is erroneously regarded as a abstract to understand meant only for persons of higher mental ability. It arouses fear among many students which in turn creates resistance to learning at and result in adverse effect on their attainment. But actually school mathematics is within the reach of any average students. What is needed is to create the right ambience of learning mathematics in every school. Mathematics needs to be learnt with senses of joy and delight. It needs to be related where possible to life oriented activities to create interest in the subject. Mathematical faculty and intuition develop not only through theory and problems given in mathematics text books but also through a variety of activities involving concrete objects. Activities can be engaging as well as instructive. The main purpose of this study is to find out the students’ attitude towards mathematics laboratory. The researchers collected data using questionnaires and analyzed it using descriptive statistical tables, t-test and column charts.

  4. Patrick HINNOU

    Le régime révolutionnaire amorcé depuis le 26 octobre 1972 des suites d´un coup d´État a fait parler de lui, entre autres, en termes de quelques réformes mais surtout de mal gouvernance et de confiscation des libertés publiques. Les crises sociale, économique et politique qui s´en sont suivies ont amené les masses populaires ignorées, marginalisées, opprimées à prendre conscience de leur statut de dominés qui ne leur paraissait fatal. Dès lors, comment ces acteurs dominés se sont-ils organisés et à travers quelles stratégies pour braver les pratiques dictatoriales de « l´État-commando » pendant la période révolutionnaire ? La présente recherche répond à cette question centrale qui analyse leur résistance, assimilable à des « insubordinations sociales », comme le produit d´un long processus fait d´actions et d´événements majeurs sonnant le glas du régime et ouvrant la voie à de la transition démocratique dès 1990. De nature qualitative, elle est alimentée par un recueil de témoignages dans les principales régions du Bénin connues pour être le bastion de la lutte contre la révolution du fait de leur posture oppositionnelle au pouvoir. Ce corpus, qui s´étend à des données obtenues de l´exploitation des documents d´archives et autres coupures de presse, est moulé dans un paradigme analytique qui associe la Grounded Theory et la sociohistoire, ouvertes à la théorie des relations dominants-dominés avec les stratégies de la résistance à la domination. Ainsi, les résultats auxquels aboutit cette sociologie de l´action collective et des mouvements sociaux antirévolutionnaires, débouchent sur l´innovation dans la contestation de la révolution et la synergie d´action retrouvée entre élèves et étudiants pendant les soulèvements populaires de 1985, sur la généralisation et la radicalisation de la résistance contre l´État-commando en 1989, sur la multisectorialité des niveaux d´implication d´acteurs clés réunis au sein de la Convention du peuple sous l´impulsion du Parti Communiste du Dahomey (PCD), et sur l´ingéniosité syndicale avec la trouvaille des « Bureaux de liaison ».

  5. Osbin Samosir

    Election organizers in Indonesia are often seen as obstacles to the growth of democracy. The presence of election administrators has become a serious problem in the development of democracy in Indonesia. In fact, very high hopes are given to the election organizers as a pillar that will determine the growth of Indonesian democracy. The reason is simple: Indonesian democracy has failed in the past, partly because of the role of the election organizers. The New Order became an opaque record for Indonesian democracy when election administrators became an inseparable part of the authoritarian regime. Even in the early days of reform, the election organizers could not be proud of their work and even became one of the sources of the problem itself. So it is not surprising that the election organizers, namely the Komisi Pemilihan Umum - KPU (General Elections Commission), were asked to supervise their work by establishing the Badan Pengawas Pemilu - Bawaslu (Election Supervisory Body) in 2008. The results achieved did not make the democratization process through general elections better. The poor technical work of election administrators means that election administrators cannot be allowed to work maturely and maturely, but special courts must be prepared for their bad work. The birth of the election ethics body, namely the Dewan Kehormatan Penyelengggara Pemilu - DKPP (The Honorary Council of Election Organizers), shows that the election organizers, namely the KPU and Bawaslu, are doing quite badly in building the electoral process. The big concern is the difficulty of holding a dignified general election in the 2024 national simultaneous elections.





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