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Table of Contents: Volume 14; Issue 11; November 2022

Life Sciences

  1. Panchabagesan, P., Dr. Prabhahar, C., Dhanasekaran, D., Dr. Manimegalai, G., Dr. Saleshrani K. and Dr. Sivakumar, D.
    ABSTRACT:

    Mosquitoes act as a vector for most of the life threatening diseases like malaria, yellow fever, dengue fever, chikungunya ferver, filariasis, encephalitis, West Nile Virus infection, etc. Under the Integrated Mosquito Management (IMM), emphasis was given on the application of alternative strategies in mosquito control.The continuous application of synthetic insecticides causes development of resistance in vector species, biological magnification of toxic substances through the food chain and adverse effects on environmental quality and non target organisms including human health. Application of active toxic agents from plant extracts as an alternative mosquito control strategy was available from ancient times. In this article, the larvicidal activity of Calotropis gigantea leaf extract were studied in laboratory on the concentration of 1.0, 2.5 and 5.0 mg/cm2 against 3 to 4 days ld unfed Aedes aegypti in a dial cycle from 7 am to 5 pm. This study reveals that the extract of C.gigantea has remarkable larvicidal as well as repellent properties. The flora of India has rich aromatic plant diversity with potential for development of natural insecticides for control of mosquito and other pests. These results could encourage the search for new active natural compounds offering an alternative to synthetic repellents and insecticides from other medicinal plants.

  2. Shakuntla Bharti and Ram P.Yadav
    ABSTRACT:

    Malathion one of the earliest organophosphate insecticides is being extensively used as dust, emulsion, and vapour to control a wide variety of insect pests under different condition. Malathion, one of the most extensively studied pesticides, may induce many significant changes in fishes. The malathion has shown strong piscicidal activity in freshwater fish Colisa fasciatus and Mystus mystus for all the exposure periods (24 or 96h) in time as well as dose dependent manner. The LC₅₀ values decreases from 0.096 (24h) to 0.076 (96h) in a winter season (water temp.19⁰) and 0.085(24h) to 0.051 (96h) in a summer season (water temp. 20⁰c) against freshwater fish Colisa fasciatus and LC₅₀ values decreases from 0.073 (24h) to 0.047 (96h) in a winter season (water temp.19⁰) and 0.095 (24h) to 0.063 (96h) in a summer season (water temp. 20⁰c) against freshwater fish Mystus mystus. The aim of the present study the toxicological action of malathion on freshwater predatory fishes. The Pesticide exposure may also fatal to many non- target organisms like fish where it hampers its health through impairment of metabolism, occasionally leading to the death of the fish.

  3. OULAI Tokpa Louya, AKPRO Lathro Anselme and GBOGOURI Grodji Abarin
    ABSTRACT:

    In this study, toxicological analysis of heads and headless parts of fish the Hydrocarbon Aromatic Polycyclic (PAH) such as pyrene and Benzo (a) pyrene (0.058 and 0.067 µg/kg), Benz (g, h, i) pyrilene, Benzo (a) anthracene. Other compounds such as fluoranthenes and indeno pyrilene have also been detected. The results show the pesticide presence of desethylatrazine (0.021-0.033 µg/g), fenuron (0.023 - 0.042 µg/g), metoxuron (0.622 - 0.623 µg/g), monuron (0.030 - 0.037 µg/g), methabenzthiazuron (0.023 - 0.024 µg /g), simazine (0.089 - 0.090 µg/g), isoproturon (0.062- 0.069 µg/g), cyanazine (0.022- 0.200 µg/g), metamitron (0.042 - 0.042 µg/g) (0.023± 0.0 mg/kg) ofmackerel followed by headless tuna (0.011 mg/kg). The lowest levels are found in the head and headless part of tilapia, as well as in the heads of the jawfish. The heavy metals such as lead and mercury were also detected at low concentrations in the headless parts and heads.

  4. Prasant Kumar Sabat, Durgamadhav Kar, Biswaketan Mahapatra and Rasmita Jena
    ABSTRACT:

    Objective: This particular research emphasis on the formulation, characterization and in vivo evaluation of analgesic activity of herbal spagyric essence (Electrohomeopathic medicine) White Electricity (WE) in Wistar rats. No scientific report has been available until date of WE. Therefore the current analysis focuses to prove scientific study of herbal spagiryc essence of WE. Materials and Methods: The Electrohomeopathic medicine WE is formulated by extracting and blending of spagiryc essence of specified herbal plants. The phytochemical characterization is done with help of qualitative chemical tests. The acute toxicity study is done with referring OECD toxicity guideline 420. The Analgesic activity of Electrohomeopathic medicine WE was carried out by the Acetic acid writhing reflex method, Tail immersion method and Hot plate method with using albino rats of either sex. The percentage protection against abdominal writhing and the pain reaction time were used to assess the degree of analgesia which has been measured and compared to control groups. Results: It was found that the Electrohomeopathic medicine WE is safe and non toxic. The acute toxicity study confirms the safety of drugs. It exhibited an excellent analgesic activity. The phytochemical investigation confirms the presence of phytoconstituents which justify the above pharmacological activity of WE.A decreasing the percentage abdominal writhing and increased the pain reaction time period when compared to control groups confirmed the potent activity of WE. Conclusion: This research indicates that electrohomeopathic medicine WE are relatively safe and effective in reducing pains in different animal models. Thus WE possess significant analgesic properties.

  5. Rashmi Singh and Dr. Smriti Johari
    ABSTRACT:

    Dung beetle feeds on the faecal matter they use the faecal matter for the various purposes like feeding, reproduction, breeding. This divine creature have great social as well as economic importance for us such as nutrient cycling, soil aeration and reduction of carbon dioxide and methane emissions, control of parasites and secondary seed dispersal. They are also important in food webs not only as decomposers but also as prey for birds, bats and other insectivorous animals. But today even after being nature’s friend thereis lack of awareness and information in people about these beetles. Their population is declining day by day by the human activities such as use of harsh pesticides, insecticides, antibiotics used on crops and cattle for maintaining their population and yield. Even today no proper conservation measures are in force for the conservation of this divine creature and we are losing the natural cleanup crew. Strategies and policies for the conservation should come into implementation in order to conserve this super divine but yet so neglected creature.

  6. Sedami R. Medegan Fagla, Hosanna G. D. Gaba, Ayide C. Ahouansou, Habib K. Toukourou, Urbain C. Kassehin, Victorien T. Dougnon and Fernand A. Gbaguidi
    ABSTRACT:

    The uncontrolled use of antibiotics has led to the emergence of multi-resistant bacteria affecting human health. Many solutions have been sought in the hope of developing alternative andeffective molecules, includingmedicinalplants. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the membrane destabilization potential of the essential oil extracted from fresh leaves of Eucalyptus camaldulensis harvested in Benin. For this purpose, the essential oil was extracted by steam stripping. It was separated and identified by gas chromatography coupled to a mass spectrophotometer. This oil was subjected to physicochemical characterisation and sensitivity tests on reference and clinical bacterial strains. Subsequently, the minimum inhibitory concentrations, minimum bactericidal concentrations and antibiotic power were determined. The mode of action of the antibacterial effect of Eucalyptus camaldulensis essential oil was explored using the outer membrane destabilization test of bacterial strains. The average extraction yield was 0.57%, and its major compound was Terpinolene. All strains tested were sensitive to the essential oil except Klebsiella oxytoca NCTC 13442. The inhibition diameters of the essential oil ranged from 7 to 16 mm. The minimum inhibitory concentrations ranged from 3.106 to 12.5 mg/ml. In addition, the essential oil affected the bacterial strains tested by destabilizing their outer membrane. The percentage of outer membrane destabilization of Salmonella typhi and Klebsiella pneumoniae by the essential oil was significantly better than that of Imipenem used as a reference. The present study revealed that the essential oil of Eucalyptus camaldulensis has a remarkable inhibitory activity on Gram negative bacteria with a better percentage of membrane destabilization than the reference molecule. This essential oil is therefore a good alternative to counteract antibiotic resistance.

  7. Abhijit Sasmal and Deeparani Urolagin
    ABSTRACT:

    Objective: To investigate immunomodulatory activity of hydro-alcoholic extract leaves of Cestrum nocturnum in wistar rat. Method: Cestrum nocturnum leaves extract in hydroalcoholic solution were prepared by Soxhlation method for 8 hrs at 55-600C and stored at 220C in a sealed airtight container. Hydro-alcoholic leave sextract of Cestrum nocturnum was screened for immunomodulatory activity and given to the wistar rat at a concentration of 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg of body weight in different groups of 6 mice each orally once a day for 14 days. Levamisole is also given to another group to support the result at a dose of 50mg/kg of body weight orally once a day for 14 days. DTH, HA, TLC, DLC are calculated for the rats.

  8. Kossivi DOSSEH, Essonam TCHAMDJA, Kokou IDOH, Komlatsè TOGBENOU, Mamatchi MELILA and Amegnona AGBONON
    ABSTRACT:

    Plants are recognized today as natural medicinal sources and some are used as ergogenic aids because of their antioxidant properties. Rourea coccinea is one of the most widely used plants in African traditional medicine. Studies have demonstrated its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. The aim of this study is to evaluate the potential beneficial effect of supplementation of R. coccinea ethanolic extract on anti-fatigue and ergogenic functions following intense endurance exercise. Male Wistar rats divided into three groups (n = 10) were given distilled water, ethanolic extract of R. coccinea (Rc) at 400 mg/kg (Rc-400) and 800 mg/kg (Rc-800) per day orally for 16 days. The effects on physical performance and anti-fatigue of the extract were evaluated after physical tests by measuring the time of swimming until exhaustion, and the level of biomarkers associated with fatigue such as blood glucose, blood lipids, creatine kinase (CK), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), aspartate transaminase (AST) and alanine transaminase (ALT). The results showed that the 400 and 800 mg/kg extract significantly increased swimming time compared to the control group. Rats in the extract treated groups showed a decrease in the level of AST, ALT and CK after physical activity compared to the control group. Blood glucose was significantly increased with the treated groups. In lipid profile, total cholesterol, triglyceride and HDL levels were not significantly altered in Rc treated groups; however, Rc extract decreased the LDL level significantly. Overall, these results suggest that the ethanolic extract of R. coccinea possesses anti-fatigue effects and increases physical performance in rats. Therefore, supplementation of R. coccinea may be beneficial for improving physical performance and combating muscle fatigue.

  9. Wan Syazzawani Wan Omar, Zaleha Kassim and Riwan Ramli
    ABSTRACT:

    Background: Chitin and chitosan from the exoskeleton of horseshoe crab was reported to have a comparable quality to commercial chitosan. It would become a good alternative for the existing chitosan in the market. Nonetheless, inefficient isolation processes could lead to a waste to this invaluable raw material and incur additional cost. Chitosan isolated from the raw chitin could be affected by the frequency of deacetylation process. At the same time, horseshoe crabs, as known as a living fossil, must be exploited sustainably. Objective: Thus, it is important to determine if a single deacetylation process can satisfy the quality and amount of extracted chitosan from the exoskeleton. Methods: In this experiment, exoskeletons of horseshoe crab were obtained from two different area (Balok in the South China Sea coast and Muar in the Straits of Malacca) and processed through several steps of grinding, deproteinization and demineralization before went through a single and double process of deacetylation using 50% NaOH. FT-IR spectra were analysed to ensure the completion of deacetylation process. Statistical analysis was done using IBM SPSS Statistics Version 22. The data were presented as mean ± standard deviation (SD). The p value was obtained from the independent-samples T-Test analysis with p < 0.05 was considered significant. Results: Percentage of chitin and chitosan isolated does not have a significant difference (p>0.05) between Balok and Muar. Nonetheless, the degree of deacetylation is significantly different (p<0.05) between the study sites despite the insignificant difference between single and double deacetylation processes. Conclusion: The results suggest that a double process of deacetylation would be efficient to produce chitosan from chitin extracted from the horseshoe crab exoskeleton. The yield was significantly higher when using samples from Balok than Muar which could be related to some other factors that should be further investigated.

  10. OUATTARA Lamoussa Paul, SAWADOGO Adama, TAPSOBA François, KONATE Zégué Amidou, COULIBALY Anass, OUEDRAOGO Abdou Rasmane, CISSE Hama, ZONGO Cheikna and SAVADOGO Aly
    ABSTRACT:

    For the control of multiple new and resurgent diseases associated with microbial resistance to antimicrobials, there is renewed interest in using herbal medicines. However, the efficacy safety issues and good manufacturing practices associated with herbal medicines are major aspects to consider. The presence of pathogenic microorganisms in herbal medicines may adversely affect the therapeutic potential of the product or even make the product harmful to the patient. This study aimed to evaluate the hygienic quality and the microbiological hazard of herbal medicine produced and sold in city of Ouagadougou. Thus, a total of 45 samples of herbal medicines were collected randomly from the production sites of traditional practitioners and the various points of sale in Ouagadougou by herbalists. Research and enumeration of the total aerobic mesophilic flora, total coliforms, thermotolerant coliforms, yeasts, and some specific pathogenic bacteria such as Salmonella sp, Shigella sp, Staphylococcus aureus were performed according to methods based on standard procedures. Good manufacturing practices were also assessed through sample filtration on a 0.45 μm diameter filter and then a cloth sieve to detect physical contaminants. The results were interpreted according to European Pharmacopoeia standards and microbiological criteria for ready-to-eat meals. The results indicate an absence of Salmonella and Shigella. It was noted the presence of S. aureus (2.91.103 CFU/ml to 6.17.103 CFU/ml). The average loads of the different germs in the traditional medicines of the production and sales sites were respectively 1.26.106 and 4.36.106 CFU/ml for the total aerobic mesophilic flora, 0.88.105 and 1.78.105 CFU/ml for yeast and moulds, 0.34.104 and 1.22.104 CFU/ml for total coliforms, 1.14.103 CFU/ml and 4.15.103 CFU/ml for thermo tolerant coliforms. The search for physical contaminants revealed presence of sand, leaf pieces, and stems in some traditional medicines. In sum, this study demonstrated the presence of some pathogenic bacteria in some ready-to-use oral herbal medicines and lake of good manufacturing practices and hygienic conditions during the production chain. Given the importance of phytomedicines in health systems throughout the world and particularly in developing countries, it is necessary to train and sensitize producers of phytomedicines in good manufacturing practices and hygiene.

Physical Sciences and Engineering

  1. Amr Sukkar and Mvula Mc Gerald Mvula
    ABSTRACT:

    Purpose: The core aim of this study was to comprehend understand lean supply chain performance measurements in the manufacturing industry. Design/methodology/approach: This was a quantitative descriptive design involving Zambia’s Manufacturing industry in this study. A homogenous survey form was employed. The study used a quantitative study, with a sample size of 100 workers, and 81 workers who responded favorably to the self-administrative survey. Conclusion: Customer delivery lead time matter the most for gauging the effectiveness of a lean supply chain. Supplier delivery lead time came second on the hierarchy of lean supply chain performance metrics with an average value of 4.77 and a standard deviation of 0.902. Attending to customer complaints by an organization is very important where lean supply chain performance is concerned. That being stated, Customer complaints accounted 4.51 average with standards deviation of 1.029 as a lean supply chain performance metrics. The percentage of standardized processes, Cost of energy, Total inventory and On-time delivery by suppliers all accounted for 4.28, 4.09, 4.46 and 3.97 mean values as lean supply chain performance metrics. The study further found that there are four categories of lean supply chain performance measures. These are Quality accounting for 30%, Cost accounted for 30%, Delivery and Reliability (D&R) which represented 25% and flexibility which accounted for 15% of the total four categories

  2. Dr. Pavan Tryambake, Dr. Shivdas Mhavarkar, Dr. Baljeet Kaur Rawal and Dr. Kishor Vhorkate
    ABSTRACT:

    Introduction: The bond strength of root canal sealer is the amount of force required to break the connection between a bonded sealer and the root dentin surface. Now a day’s synthetic irrigants are only used as root canal irrigants but they cause harm to root-dentin surrounding soft tissue and adjacent bone. To reduce these factors ayurvedic medicine takes part in innovation. Though the perception is incorrect, on balance herbal medicines are still much safer than synthetic drugs. Aim: To compare the Push-out bond strength of different endodontic sealers using ayurvedic intracanal irrigants. Methodology: Sixty single-rooted permanent upper anterior teeth were selected. All teeth were decoronated at the level of CEJ. Root length was specified at 15mm. All teeth were prepared with universal Protaper until F3 according to manufacturer instruction. All samples were randomly divided according to the different irrigants and sealers used. Group I: Kutkrumin + Perma evolution; Group II: Kutkrumin + Apexit plus; Group III: Chlorhexidine 2% + Perma evolution; Group IV: Chlorhexidine 2% + Apexit plus; Group V: Sodium hypo chloride 5.25% + Perma evolution; Group VI: Sodium hypo chloride 5.25% + Apexit plus. All samples were finally irrigated with normal saline. Then sealers were applied using lentulospiral. Samples were sectioned into 2 mm disc thickness. By using a universal testing machine push-out bond strength was performed. Results and Statistical Analysis: According to one-way ANOVA with a level of confidence of 95%, Kutkrumin and Chlorhexidine with Perma evolution as a sealer showed the highest bond strength values (p <0.005) when compared with other groups whereas, chlorhexidine with apexit plus sealer had the most minor bond strength among other groups. Kutkrumin and sodium hypochlorite with apexit plus sealer showed equivalent bond strength this was presented by intergroup analysis post hoc Tukey test. Adhesive failures were predominant in all groups. Conclusion: Kutkrumin with Perma evolution as a resin-based sealer showed better outcomes when compared with chemical irrigants like sodium hypochlorite and chlorhexidine.

  3. Flores-Encarnación M., Valentín-Aguilar I., Aguilar-Gutiérrez G.R., Xicohtecatl-Cortes J. and López-García A.
    ABSTRACT:

    One of the most significant environmental parameters affecting growth and survival of microorganisms is the local concentration of protons (H+). When the proton concentration is high, acidic conditions prevail and cells must respond appropriately to ensure that macromolecules and metabolic processes are protected. The extreme acidophiles grow optimally at pH 3 or less and for that those bacteria have multiple strategies for tolerating stresses that accompany high levels of acidity.

  4. Ashok. N. and Harshavardni. K.P
    ABSTRACT:

    Background: Sports physiotherapy is a specialized area of physiotherapy that deals with the injuries related to sports people. Those are different from everyday injuries. The sports physiotherapists works closely with the coach and the player or athlete in terms for the performance enhancement by the unique combination of the knowledge that includes, anatomy, physiology, biomechanics, exercise therapy, kinesiology. The study aimed to determine the association between the knowledge about factors such having a sports physiotherapist in team, equipment used by the physiotherapist and having benefited personally from physiotherapy. Objective: To find out the awareness about sports physiotherapy knowledge among university professional players. Methodology: 100 professional non-contact sports players were selected and a self-administered English questionnaire was distributed. Results: 86.17% of the players have good knowledge about the physiotherapy regarding the prevention, rehabilitation, types of injuries and equipment used by the physiotherapist Conclusion: The university level professional players have good knowledge about basic physiotherapy.

  5. Vangala K., Al-Kandari A., Al-Barood A., Al-Jumah K, Al-Rewaih K. and Vijay K.
    ABSTRACT:

    This paper describes the contaminated features in one of the project area under South Kuwait Excavation, Transportation and Remediation (SKETR) in Burgan oil fields of Kuwait. The contaminated areas were particularly comprised of three main features viz. Wet Oil Lakes (WOL), Dry Oil Lakes (DOLs) and Oil Contaminated Piles (OCPs). The various types and layers of these main features (WOLs, DOLs & OCPs) were further described in the paper. For the purpose of characterization in terms of both inorganic and organic, soil samples were collected as per the international standard and were analyzed for key parameters such as pH, Sodium Absorption Ratio, Electrical Conductivity, Nutrients, Chlorides and Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons. The test results of the analysis particularly under various layers of each type of feature was discussed with a focus on the minimum, average and maximum values. Based on the test results discussed, it is concluded that Wet Oil Lakes were characterized as severely contaminated with hydrocarbon contamination in comparison to Dry Oil Lakes and Oil Contaminated Piles. It was also seen that much of the contamination was confined to top two layers in both Wet Oil Lakes and Dry Oil Lakes out of the total three layers.

  6. Uttam R. Patole, Krishnagopal Rajesh Sinha, Gaurav Prakash Khairnar, Ritik Shivram Zinjurde and Sanika Jitendrasingh Chauhan
    ABSTRACT:

    Traditional Human-Machine Interface (HMI) devices have generally used human motor movements as source of input to perform corresponding output commands and functions. Keyboards and mice have long been the de facto writing and pointing input devices respectively, but these are not very friendly towards people with motor disabilities, motor impairment, diseases such as Paralysis, Muscular dystrophy, Polio, Cerebral palsy, et cetra. Since these devices are being used since inception of computers, they have potential to be replaced by far more convenient methods that can improve the HMI experience and ultimately quality of life. These new methods can either completely replace the existing methods or supplement the current ones or stay as alternatives or else they could also be used as backup when a preferred HMI system fails. We can utilize new and emerging technologies such as Brain-Machine Interface (BMI) and Machine Learning (ML) to design a far better solution for HMI than current existing ones. Using BMI and ML we can also ensure that these are friendly towards the aforementioned people who are not able-bodied.

Health Sciences

  1. Osama H. Khalid, Abdu A. Dahlan, Yahya Msalamani, Yehya Hejri, Salem Alsahhari, Mohamed Yaseen, Nariman Alraih, Fuad Riany and Makki Khormi
    ABSTRACT:

    Background: The future of covid-19 in the community can be placed under assumptions and predictions. The first assumption is that the virus will be mutating at a constant interval and each new mutation will be severe and result in a high mortality rate. The technology will allow the production of vaccines almost immediately and efficiently. Another assumption is that the new variant will be overcome with existing vaccines. For instance, the case of the new delta variant of COVID-19 has put forward a new problem because it cannot be mitigated with available vaccines. Methodology: Based on a comprehensive secondary dataset taken from the infectious disease and prevention department of health affairs in the Jazan region of the Kingdom. The time frame was selected from March 2020 to March 2022. This study aimed to determine the difference between the 1st, 2nd, and 3rd pandemic waves of COVID-19 and detect the dominant variant in each wave of COVID- 19, and correlate the rising transmission rates as well as the infectivity of the disease among index cases in addition to their close contacts. We reviewed a covid-19 variant in every epidemic wave with its positive rate, mortality rate with percentage and actual figures, transmissibility between persons, and the infective cases of COVID-19. Results: 514 main patients and their close connections were assessed in the research, and the term was chosen from March 2020 to December 2021. Data from January 2020 was also collected to enhance a recent poll. The prevalent variation in the first wave was discovered to be a type-A variant, the positivity rate was 29 percent , and the case fatality rate was 1.5 percent per cent of the entire. In the 2nd wave, the positive rate was 24 percent , while the case fatality rate was 0.9 percent. Moreover, the delta variation was the most prevalent, and Omicron dominated the 3rd wave with the greatest positive rate compared to other variants, which was 39 percent. Bearing in mind that the case fatality rate was lowest in the 3rd wave compared to previous waves (0.1 percent). (0.1 percent ). Nearly 72.8 percent of patients were impacted by the Delta variant, 16.2 percent were affected by the Alpha variant, and 2.8 percent were afflicted owing to N50IT. The vaccine was categorised based on significant and mild side effects with vaccination frequency, requirement for medical help, timeframe following side-effects encountered, medicaments, and therapy required. The Delta variation holds first position with a total percentage of 72.8 percent , although 81.9 percent of the male was impacted by the Delta variant; compared with a female, the male gender was affected more by the Delta variant. Conclusion: The preventive measure against COVID-19 developed by the Saudi Arabia region was not implemented in the Jazan region was conformed to the above statistics 10.3% of infection spread rate through close contact. In the 2nd wave, the positivity rate was 24%, while the case fatality rate was 0.9%. Moreover, the delta COVID variant was the most prominent variant, whereas Omicron dominated the 3rd wave with the highest positivity rate relative to other variants (39%). Bearing in mind that the case fatality rate was lowest in the 3rd wave compared to other waves (0.1%). The age group (15 up to 49 years) was the most vulnerable to COVID-19transmission. Further study is recommended.

  2. Ambaga M., Tumen-Ulzii A. and Buyantushig T.
    ABSTRACT:

    After making such new interpretation as Ninth stage - of 9 staged close cycle of proton conductance in the location of Respiratory membrane, Pulmonary circuit have been distinguished by oxygen uptake from alveolar air - under effect of increase of bicarbonate entry by bicarbonate / chloride ion shift mechanism and Eighth stage have been functioned in the level of Pulmonary circuit, Respiring tissue characterized by oxygen uploading by bicarbonate / chloride ion shift mechanism, release of oxygen from HbO2 - under effect of exit of bicarbonate by bicarbonate / chloride ion shift mechanism, leading to increase of oxygen in a mitochondrial - 6-th stage was became easy to understand the scientific basis of relation ship between Halden, Bohr eighth and ningh stages of closed 9 staged cycle of proton, electron conductance.

  3. Chauhan, R.S., Tulsa Devi, Divya Chauhan and Shuchi Verma
    ABSTRACT:

    Cancer is characterized by uncontrolled, uncoordinated purposeless proliferation of cell that invades the surrounding tissues and to cause metastatic lesions at different body places mainly through blood and lymph vessels. Extensive resources carried out during last century on the control of cancers include surgery, chemotherapy, radiotherapy, immunotherapy and various kinds of traditional natural and local therapies. Most of these therapies are not so successful because of the fact of rapid multiplication of cancer cells weekly in the host, depressed immunity and imbalance in the body fluids and hormones. Surgery is a good choice of removing the cancer nodule confined to a particular place and at initial stage, this is successful. However, if the metastasis occurred causing same kind of cancer at different body places, then in spite of surgery, the prognosis is very poor because removal of cancer form one site is not sufficient enough as there are many other remaining malignant cells in the body. Similarly, the radio therapy causes alteration in the genetic makeup of the cancer cell directed towards the destruction of rapidly multiplying cells may lead to either recovery or aggravation of the cancer. Almost everyone who receives cancer treatment experiences side effects, which vary according to the treatment and the area of the body undergoing treatment. Chemotherapeutic agents, sometimes called cytotoxic agents because they kill cells, produce toxic side effects on rapidly dividing host tissues such as bone marrow and intestinal mucosa. Some normal cells, including blood cells, hair, and cells lining the gastrointestinal tract are also rapidly dividing, and are most likely to be damaged. Cow urine enhances the immunocompetence and improves general health of an individual. It has vital potential to enhance the activity of macrophages and lymphocytes (both T and B cells), and has been reported to increase the humoral and cellular mediated immunity. Increased immunocompetence of an individual is a very essential parameter to prevent the development of cancers by several mechanisms, of which the upregulation of lymphocyte proliferation and stimulation activity, increased macrophage activity, higher antibody production and increased synthesis and secretion of cytokines (IL-1, Il-2) plays significant role by enhancing the recognition of tumor cells by the immune cells of the body and cytotoxic activities of the tumor killing cells, the lymphocytes. It is an efficient anti-aging factor, since prevents the free radical formation, which could help preventing cancers as the incidences of cancer increases as the one progresses towards old age. Cow urine efficiently repairs the damaged DNA, thus can be very effective for the cancer prevention and therapy, and can also reduce the spread of malignant cancers and help fighting tumors. During the past few years, cow urine therapy has provided promising and authentic results for the treatment of cancer, a deadly malady which is being faced by the mankind and the incidences of which are ever increasing in the current scenario of changed lifestyle and food habits along with exposure to predisposing factors of carcinogens such as tobacco chewing, smoking, alcohol intake, environmental pollutants, occupational health hazards etc. Anti-cancer potential of cow urine therapy has been reflected by several case reports, success stories and practical feedback of patients for the treatment of cancer.

  4. Panna Khatun
    ABSTRACT:

    In recent years, women's position has become increasingly dependent on the theme of women empowerment. The analysis of objectives is to compare the SHGs social impact to that of the Self-Help Group for women, to examine how the SHGs social section has changed, to determine how the SHGs influence on people social standing has changed and to distinguish people attitudes toward the SHGs and their social impact. The investigation stands alone with the final aim of utilizing only crucial facts. The necessary data was gathered from the number of respondents near about is 300. Information was gathered from Paschim Medinipur in West Bengal for the respondent survey. The expert had employed stratified random testing. Through SPSS, discriminate analysis is used to examine the data that had been collected. The aim focus of study is on SHGs' social empowerment initiatives and the empowerment of women in Paschim Medinipur of West Bengal.

  5. Dr. Paveethra, A.G., Dr. Krishnaswamy, B., Dr. Gopalakrishnan, KR., Dr. Dhanalakshmi, M. and Dr. Shyamala, E.
    ABSTRACT:

    Aim: To find out the seroprevalence of HIV in blood donors. Introduction: The Blood safety remains a major public health problem in India. Screening for transfusion-transmissible infections such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV) and syphilis is essential for blood transfusion safety and protecting human life. Materials and Methods: This retrospective study was done in, Department of Pathology, Government medical college and hospital, Cuddalore district (Ernstwhile Rajah Muthiah Medical College), a rural teaching hospital in Chidambaram from the years 2012 to August 2022. All the donor samples were analyzed for antibodies to HIV-1 and HIV-2. Result: Out of a total 27,690 blood units collected, 11 blood units were tested positive for HIV and seroprevalence was 0.03%. Conclusion: In this study there is high seroprevalence of HIV in younger age group (18-30 years) suggests a potential public health problem.

  6. Sumi, M., Gopalakrishnan, KR, Krishnaswamy B. and Valluvan Manimozhi
    ABSTRACT:

    Introduction: Ovarian tumors play an important role in female genital tract pathologies. It can occur in any age group. It may be a simple cystic lesion or a life-threatening malignancy. Most malignancies are diagnosed at a later stage because of vague symptoms. Histopathological examination is confirmatory for an ovarian tumor. Hence, the Pathologist plays a great role in diagnosing and classifying ovarian tumors. Materials and Methods: This prospective study was done in the Department of Pathology Rajah Muthiah Medical College and Hospital for a period of 2years from August 2020 to July 2022. The data was collected in a proforma with relevant detailed information. The excised specimens were received in buffered formalin, processed, sectioned, and stained with routine Haematoxylin and Eosin stains. Results: Among 142 cases studied, the most common mode of presentation is Pain abdomen followed by mass abdomen. The most common age group affected is 21-40years. Unilateral occurrence of tumor predominates. The non-malignant lesions account for about 93.7%. Among non-malignant lesions, Serous cystadenoma is the most common. Among malignant tumors, the incidence of Mucinous cystadenocarcinoma predominates. Conclusion: It is concluded from this study that ovarian tumors have different modes of presentation. Hence efforts must be taken to identify the risk factors for developing ovarian carcinoma.

  7. Aarthi Arulvanan, Krishnaswamy, B., Dhanalakshmi, M., Manohar, U. and Vinodha, S.D.
    ABSTRACT:

    Introduction: Cervical cancer is the most common cancer in women in many less developed countries as well as among Indian women[1].Cervical cancer is the third common cancer in the world in female and fourth leading cancer for death in women. This study was done to evaluate age incidence,age and clinical presentation and clinical presentation and cytological patterns. Methods and materials: This is a Prospective study was conducted by department of pathology, in a rural teaching hospital, Chidambaram. Cervical smears of 476 female patients of reproductive age women attending gynaecology outpatient clinics was enrolled in this study. Smears were from squamo-columnar junction and transferred to department of pathology in coplin jar with 95% ethyl alcohol. Result: Out of 476 cases, , a high incidence of 212 cases (44.5%) was observed in (31-40 years) followed by 149 cases(31.3%) in age group of (41-50 years ), Leucorrhea was the most common clinical presentation among 20-30 years with 56% of incidence. Menorrhagia was the second most common symptom with 141 cases(29.6%) Intermenstrual bleeding was most commonly seen in 31-40 years). In inflammation, Leucorrhea (33.6%) is the most common clinical presentation followed by menorrhagia (31.6%) and Amenorrhea. Mass desending per vaginum (0.56%) being the least. In patients reported with ASCUS ,post menopausal bleeding(55%) was the commonest complaint. A high incidence of inflammation was observed in 31-40 years (46.5%) followed by women in 41-50 years (28.5%). Conclusion: This study emphasise more number of individuals to be included in screening. Early diagnosis of pre malignant lesions by Pap smear study result in timely therapeutic intervention leading to decrease in number of cases progressing to frank malignancy. Programme to increase the awareness among the women regarding the benefits of Pap screening will go long way in reducing the cancer burdern in the community.

  8. David Ayem and Mary Bi SuhAtanga
    ABSTRACT:

    An unmet need for family planning refers to women capable of reproducing who are not using contraception, but wish to postpone their next birth for 2 or more years or to stop childbearing all together. In Africa, especially in resource limited setting, pregnancies are unplanned and spacing between pregnancies is poor, which is associated with an increased risk of infant mortality, childhood malnutrition, and complications during pregnancy. The objective of this write up is to expose the determinants of family planning and adaptable measures to increase family planning uptake. Providing decision makers in developing countries, including in Africa, with the best available evidence on the factors that determine the quality of care in family planning services, from the perspective of clients and health care providers, is important to inform the design and implementation of the most effective, efficient and acceptable measures. Policy implementation is the magic that translates policies into results. That includes following through on commitments with adequate resources, trained providers, operational policies, and guidance that are responsive to local needs and are based on best practices. Learning from FP2020, the Ouagadougou Partnership, and the Challenge Initiative, and other networks and platforms, progress in family planning is achievable if governments, civil society organizations, bilateral and multilateral organizations, private sectors, religious leaders, and other implementing partners come together around a common goal with a clear definition of targets and responsibilities. Improving use of family planning services is key to improving maternal health, and provision of quality of care in family planning services is critical to support higher levels of family planning uptake both by attracting new family planning service users and by maintaining existing users.

  9. Yousif Obaid and Ali Alwardi
    ABSTRACT:

    Background: Bipolar disorder (BD) is a lifelong episodic mental disorder that causes powerful mood swings. It is manageable through a variety of pharmacological interventions of mood stabilizers and antipsychotics, of which encompass several different adverse drug effects (ADEs) and have narrow therapeutic windows. Therefore, it is crucial to conduct routine blood monitoring based on standard international recommendations such as that of the National Institute of Clinical Excellence (NICE). Objectives and Rationale: To conduct an Audit that looks at long-term adherence of blood monitoring of mood Stabilizers and antipsychotics to NICE guidelines in the behavioural medicine department, Sultan Qaboos University Hospital (SQUH)to provide recommendations. Methods: Patients of all ages who were diagnosed with BD on antipsychotics and mood stabilizers were admitted to the Department of Behavioral Medicine for a period of 1 year were included. The data was collected retrospectively and compared to the NICE guidelines for blood monitoring. Results: A total of 249 BD patients met the inclusion criteria in the study. 219 of them were prescribed with Antipsychotics. Lipid, prolactin and glucose were measured only 9.1 %( 9), 29.7 %( 65) and 18.6 %( 40) respectively. 144 of thepatients were prescribed with Sodium Valproate. Complete Blood Count and Liver Function were measured only 31.7 % (97) and 32.6(45) respectively. 41 patients were prescribed with Lithium; urea, thyroid and plasma drug levels were measured 61.5 %( 24), 51.2 %( 21) and 57.5 %( 23) respectively. Finally, 12 patients were prescribed with Carbamazepine. Urea, CBC and Plasma drug levels were only measured 8.3 %( 1), 25 %( 3) and 8.3 %( 1) respectively. Conclusion: Blood monitoring of Mood Stabilizers and Antipsychotics in BD patients at SQUH falls below standards when compared to NICE guidelines. The findings could be due to several organizational and patient factors. Measures need to be taken and further audits need to be conducted to improve adherence to monitoring recommendations.

  10. Ambaga, M., Tumen-Ulzii, A. and Buyantushig, T.
    ABSTRACT:

    We had been established that it is existed a close relationship between following two expressions as Life has become dependent from presence of protons and electrons which were formed during the events called Big Bang 15 years ago and the presence of protons from peripheral tissues favors the formation of salt bridge in histidine residue of betta subunits( HarpersBiochemistry). In this connection, it is raised a principal important questions as in which stages of the membrane redoxy potential three state dependent 9 stepped full cycle of proton conductance has been occurred the relationship between a expressions as Life has become dependent from presence of protons and a expressions as the presence of protons from peripheral tissues favors the formation of salt bridge in histidine residue of betta subunits. It was became clear that, 9-th stage-Respiratory membrane - Pulmonary circuit-increase of oxygen uptake from alveolar air -under effect ofincreased bicarbonate entry by bicarbonate / chloride ion shift mechanism, leading to increase of HbO2 formation, 8- th stage- Respiring tissue - Pulmonary circuit -oxygen uploading by bicarbonate / chloride ion shift mechanism, Release of oxygen from HbO2 -under effect of exit of bicarbonate by bicarbonate exit / chloride ion entry shift mechanism , leading to increase of oxygen in a mitochondrial - 6-th stage, gives the possibility to find the scientific relationship between a expressions as Life has become dependent from presence of protons and a expressions as the presence of protons from peripheral tissues favors the formation of salt bridge in histidine residue of betta subunits.

  11. Dr. Pooja Thakur, Dr. Sahrish Tariq and Dr. Nidhi Gupta
    ABSTRACT:

    Context: Schools exert maximum influence on lives of children and youth; and can play a key role in supporting students health and by extension, the health of their families and communities. A teacher with sufficient knowledge on dental health can be a cornerstone in encouraging and motivating children. So, it is imperative to have teachers with good knowledge ,attitude and practices of oral health. Aims: To assess the Knowledge, attitude and practice regarding oral health among government school teachers of Panchkula. Settings and Design: A Multistage probability sampling was used. Methods and Material: The primary sampling unit comprised of Panchkula district. The teachers were selected by multistage cluster sampling method. Results: Around 91.4% female and 92% male teachers knew the fact that oral health does have a role on general health. When attitudes of teachers on oral health was assessed, it was observed that 90.7% female and all (100%) male teachers accepted the fact that maintenance of oral health is an individual responsibility. Around 86.4% female and 76% male teachers brushed their teeth twice daily and 13.6% female and 24% male teachers brushed once daily. Conclusions: Even though most of the teachers show satisfactory knowledge in some aspects of preventive oral health, they still lag behind in knowledge in some crucial parts of oral health. The results of this study did not show favorable performance from the teachers.

Social Sciences and Humanities

  1. Xu Yihan
    ABSTRACT:

    The development of Chinese animation in recent years has always been characterised by a lack of speed and quality. New works are forever shrouded under a glorious history of struggle. However, it would be unfair to criticise animation in recent years without understanding the art of animation and the difference between art films and commercial films. This article takes Monkey King: Hero is Back as the subject of study, and on the basis of an analysis of the film's strides in the various components of the animation process from the perspective of commercial animation, explores the achievements and shortcomings of Chinese animation by comparing the differences between commercial and artistic animation. Chinese animation has gone through the trials and tribulations of history and will rise in the future. The accumulation of technical concepts and the strength of the momentum will play an important role.

  2. Gaurdas Sarkar
    ABSTRACT:

    Indian parliamentary democracy is a system of democratic governance in India where the Head of the state appoints the leader of the political party holding a plurality of seats in parliament as Prime Minister and he then forms the union council of ministers. This is purely a representative form of democracy and it has been adopted in India by the Constituent Assembly in 1950. This present paper seeks to analyze the economic costs of parliamentary democracy in India. While we are going to analyze economic costs of any form of governance we should first concentrate on the mode of production allowed in the state and subsequently concentrate on the procedure by which this mode of production is being reshaped in the state. Mode of production refers to the forces of production and their interrelationship. Major criticisms labeled against democracy are: (i) There exists no free choice of leadership due to party system involved in democracy (ii) There exists party politics and power struggle among parties(iii) Decision making takes time and (iv) Democracy is regarded as governance of illiterates. Apart from those theoretical criticisms labeled against democracy more strikingly we note that in a representative form of democracy there does not exist any justified desired correspondence between elected representative and his/her electors. Instead we find power monger politicians to appear before election and change of representative through exercise of our voting rights, if we really can, does not yield any fruitful result. Another striking feature of Indian democracy is that people are considered to be little aware of their own benefits and the proponents of representative democracy or so called politicians are the right persons to feel and understand what beneficial for the common people is. Surprisingly they claim to be knowledgeable enough to understand the benefits of their electors and their electors are illiterate enough to fail to understand their benefits. Last but not the least is the administrative costs involved in representative form of democracy in terms of cost of election and allowances paid to representatives. However, this present paper seeks to consider such entire burden of democracy that we do inherit from generation to generation and tries to find out a solution

  3. Kamal Hossain
    ABSTRACT:

    It was a big challenge to provide prompt and quality services to the library clientele groups during coronavirus surge and covid-19 pandemic situations. Students and faculty members were unable to visit the Library physically for receiving services and supports, such as - borrowing and returning library resources, study in the library and others due to lockdown and other restrictions. Online and E-resources become more popular and essentials to teachers, students, and learners. They preferred to use e-resources for their teaching and learning. They accessed e-resources remotely from home and off-campus. The World community experienced the same situations. Service delivery through digital and online means became an integral part for ULAB Library as well as for the educational institutions.

  4. Arpita Singh
    ABSTRACT:

    Women always lack financial independence and also the resources that can help them take an accelerating path towards their goals. Final security has always been a bigger concern for women in society. Especially rural women face much more difficulty in creating good income factors for their families in the absence of financial management. Women entrepreneurs faced much more challenges than any other small-scale industry or service industry ever faced yet. Is it because people question their potential of repaying their debts? Or does patriarchal society dominate the financial structure in most countries, especially in India? Or People don't see the vision of female entrepreneurs as much as they want to invest in the male part of society? Multiple questions and reasons can be seen in the scenario but we need to look over the aspects that have truly helped women in achieving their goals in the hard and cruel conditions of financial security. The role of microfinance has been seen as a Revolutionary idea on the grounds of women's entrepreneurship. Females are seeking this option to support their social and economical development. Is this contribution helping women or is it just an illusion to exhibit?

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