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Plagiarism Detection

IJCR is following an instant policy on rejection those received papers with plagiarism rate of more than 20%. So, All of authors and contributors must check their papers before submission to making assurance of following our anti-plagiarism policies.













November 2011

  1. S. Maya, Jose John Chungath, K. R. Harshan and N. Ashok

    Prenatal development of intermediate horn of gray matter in goat was studied using 52 foetuses of various ages. By 48 days of gestation, outer white matter and inner gray matter became distinguishable; the latter with dorsal and ventral horns. In thoracic, anterior lumbar and middle sacral levels the intermediate horn appeared as lateral projections of gray matter. It contained lamina VII of the intermediate zone and presented intermediolateral and intermediomedial nuclei. Intermediolateral nucleus appeared by 48 days as a clear cell column at the lateral aspect of intermediate horn, became better organized by 54 days and well differentiated by 124 days. By 81 days, cells were spindle-shaped with acidophilic, scanty cytoplasm and condensed nucleus. Typical spindle-shaped neurons with vesicular nucleus and size upto 36 m were seen towards end of gestation. Intermediomedial nucleus appeared by third month in thoracic and lumbar regions, consisting of small-sized neurons located lateral to central canal and ventral to Clarke’s column in the medial aspect of intermediate horn. By fifth month, these nuclei became better developed with fine and uniformly distributed Nissl bodies indicating a better differentiation towards the end of gestation.

  2. Rakib A. Al-Ani, Mustafa A. Adhab, A.A. Ali, Sabir N.H. Diwan

    A disease characterized by severe yellow mosaic, plant stunting, leaf reduction and distortion, and knobbed fruits, suspected to be of Zucchini Yellow Mosaic Virus (ZYMV) was observed on summer squash growing areas at different sites in Iraq. Samples of symptomatic plants were collected and tested by bioassay and by serological DAS-ELISA, using anti-ZYMV polyclonal antibodies. Results showed that the virus infects; Cucurbita pepo, C. moschata, Cucumis melo, and Citrullus lanatus giving the same symptoms observed on squash plants. Mild mottling with slight deformation of fruit was observed on Cucumis sativus sap-inoculated by the virus. Chenopodium amaranticolor developed chlorotic local lesions on sap-inoculated leaves. Necrotic local lesions were formed on Euphorbia peplus leaves sap-inoculated by the virus. The susceptibility of these hosts to the virus was confirmed by serological DAS-ELISA test. Based on these results, it can be concluded that the virus could be a strain of Zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV). The foliar application of chemical product on squash plants at 50 ppm one week before virus inoculation confer a protection period against ZYMV infection for up to 30 days. No symptoms were developed on the treated plants, as well as no virus was detected by ELISA test. Meanwhile, when the product applicated after 2 weeks of virus inoculation at 75 ppm, the virus was detected in the old leaves only for 3 days of inoculation, then it disappeared for up to 30 days. These results indicate that the product may induce the synthesis of compounds in the plants leading to inactivate the virus and inhibit its replication locally at the penetration site or systemically throughout the plant.

  3. Bidhan Chandra Patra

    An eight weeks experimental trial was conducted with variable percentage levels of protein (25, 30, 35, 40, 45 & 50) diet fed to the Indian major carp, Labeo rohita to study the satiation time, maximum feed intake in different hours of the day, protein/dietary energy requirement for optimum growth in different size groups, amino acid absorption and quantitative requirement, in vivo protein biosynthesis etc. and finally to calculate the requirement of digestible energy for the production of one gram fish to thousand gram in weight. It was observed that the maximum feed intake recorded with smaller size groups (5.0 g) as compared to 20.0 g and 50.0 g, satiated within one hour and highest appetite was recorded at 12.00 hours of the day. Maximum growth were observed with 45.0% protein (5.0 g) followed by 40% (20.0 g) and 35% (50.0 g) in Labeo rohita, although growth continued till 50% of dietary protein but not significant at the 0.5% level. Maximum weight increase recorded with 1:14.85 digestible energy / digestible protein ratio. Maximum amino acid absorption takes place in the posterior serosal layer of the intestine. It was also recorded that the same 10 amino acids are essential and their requirement was almost at per with the other fish species, and as in higher vertebrates. However, the importance of cystine and tyrosine for the growth of Labeo rohita should not be ignored and should be considered as two additional essential amino acids. The protein biosynthesis in vivo is highly correlated with the dietary protein/energy, feed intake and growth performance of fish.

  4. Cooling and freezing time of beef based thermal and physical properties as function of moisture content

    One of the most important value that determine the quality of beef at refrigeration treatment is duration of cooling and freezing process which should be determined in advance. Mean while duration depends upon more than one factor such as initial moisture content of beef, dimention, temperature and velocity of cooling air. The objective of this paper is to study the effect of mentioned above factors on duration of one stage freezing process. This study has been based on various analyies of calculation results using a mathematical model. A computer program was developed to simulate the appropriate equations that calculate the cooling and freezing time at different conditions of moisture content of beef, temperature and velocity of cooling air. Expression the thermal and physical properties of beef as a function of its moisture content, the calculation method of refrigeration treatment duration have been given. The flow chart of the computer program has been represented. The results obtained indicate that duration of one stage freezing process could be decreased from 21 hours to 19 hours as a result of decreasing in temperature of cooling air from -25Co to -30Co at the same conditions of cooling air velocity of 4m/s, initial moisture content of beef about 0.75, beef initial temperature of 35Co, final temperature of center beef of -8Co and beef thickness of 0.20 m. In addition to that, it was found that increasing of cooling air velocity from 4 to 5m/s will cause more decreasing in duration of one stage freezing process from 19 hours to 16.5 hours at the same conditions.

  5. S. Krishnamoorthy and R. Subash

    The generalized inverses of k-normal matrix are discussed by its schur decomposition.

  6. Tamilenthi, S and Padmini, V.

    This article analyses the society of Zambia how much change taken place between the time periods of 1990 and 2010 with the transitions to the youth involvement, high education attainment and the national per capita income. The statistics of Youth population, Education and nation development in terms of per capita income from the government records of Zambia 1990 and 2010 are taken to the account for the analysis. The three different points of time (1990, 2000 and 2010).Simple and descriptive statistics were used to analyze the data with reference to the variables taken for the study. Empowering youth and providing better higher education surely will make the changes in the nation’s development. To make appropriate changes in the society and to build a virile nation, producing better youth, better future generation, better future leaders and a better society suggestions and recommendations were given after analyzing the data.

  7. Sumathi, R. and Samuel Selvaraj, R.

    This paper covers an analysis of sunspot numbers and fractal dimension analysis for 104 years. Hurst exponent has been calculated for 104 years to arrive at Fractal Dimensional analysis of sunspot numbers. The results show a less persistent behavior.

  8. Vijayaraghavan, C., Thirumalaivasan, D. and Venkatesan, R

    A Nuclear bomb explosion within or immediately nearby a City or town can cause catastrophic damage on the building's, infrastructures, basic amenities, and shutting down of critical life-safety systems. Nuclear explosions produce immediate effects such as Blast, thermal radiation, prompt ionizing radiations and delayed destructive effects such as radioactive fallout and other possible environmental effects, cause damage over an extended period ranging from hours to years. In this present study a Simulated City with all basic amenities with an area of 125 Square Kilometers is developed using Satellite Data of different Cities and GIS. Data for existing City is not used in this study because of security reasons. Any how the City is planned and modeled as per second Master plan of Chennai Metropolitan Area. The Model City is detonated with a yield of 10 Kiloton of Nuclear explosions using openly available source Hotspot 2.07 as the surface blast at various locations. The ill effects are predicted and modeled using Arc GIS.

  9. J. K. Chumo, T. C. Sharma and W. K. Ng’etich

    This paper examines potential evaporation over the Lake Victoria basin, a region with very few operational meteorological stations hence scarce data. Data stations within the Lake basin provided rainfall and temperature data covering periods of at least twenty years. Five methods of computing Potential Evapotranspiration (PET) (Penman, Hargreaves, Thornwaite, Blaney-Criddle and Pan Evaporation) were studied for their applicability under the same catchment. The homogeneity of rainfall was done using mass curve analysis and the filling of missing data using Markov Model. The averaging of historical data was used to interpolate the missing data. The stated empirical equations were applied to all stations over the 20 year period. C++ Program was developed and used to generate respective PET values using the stated empirical models. Based on the range of difference and average values of both the total absolute differences and the standard deviation, and using the Penman method as the basis of comparison, the Blaney-Criddle method predicted the monthly PET values better and Thornwaite was rated the poorest predictor. This showed that the Blaney-Cridle method could be applied in place of Penman as it predicted closer to Penman where the latter could not work.

  10. Kiran Divakaran and P.V. Shanmuganathan

    This article focuses on the design, development and fabrication of the strain measuring sensor and its interface with a data acquisition system which converts the force applied on the rigid frame of the leg to a voltage potential which can be used for further processing. The sensor element used for the experimentation is a transducer class of strain gauge which are open gauges with a constant alloy pattern constructed on a thin polyimide-film backing and is pasted on a GI sheet. The strain gauge is then interfaced with a Wheatstone bridge and is interfaced with a National Instruments SCC-68 interface card and PXI-6259 DAQ system.

  11. Kumar, G. and Subbarayan, A.

    Urbanization is an index of transformation from traditional rural economies to modern industrial one. It is a progressive concentration of population in cities/towns. To describe the size distribution of cities, we use Zipf’s law, which states that the size distribution of cities follows a simple Pareto distribution with shape parameter equal to 1. In this paper we have performed a test for Zipf's law in respect for Andhra Pradesh city and town sizes distribution for the period 1951-2001. The analysis of data reveals that class I cities dominate Andhra Pradesh urban scene in terms of their share in urban population. We have performed sensitivity analysis and observed the resulting impact on the Pareto coefficient. An indepth study of the City Size Distribution demonstrates that the value of the Pareto coefficient increases when the threshold population increases for 2001 census data.

  12. Bourai, A. A. and Petwal, K.C

    The analysis of different physical systems and mathematical devices depends on the utilization of various types of algebraic quantities involved in the description of geometrical aspects of the phenomenon and states which occur. The most familiar tensors in physical importance are internal stress in a solid and viscous stress in fluid. The purpose of the present manuscript is to discuss a nice and lucid characterization of tensor and their basic features. Moreover, the manuscript is intended to serve the purpose of familiarity with recent developments in the tensor theory and its applications in various fields of sciences. We just reviewed and combined the results on applications of tensors, which we feel useful in the recent developments. The manuscript begins with tensor primer and consists of few applications in elasticity including illustrations of stress and deformation tensors of elastic bodies, electro-dynamics with Maxwell’s tensor and finally includes brief notions of diffusion tensors used in strain Green’s tensors applied in the study of seismology.

  13. Oseni, Lateef Adebayo

    Syntheses of α,β-unsaturated neutral Chromium Fischer carbene complexes bearing alkoxy groups as donor substituents have been explored. Treating β-bromostyrene with a base and chromium hexacarbonyl followed by alkylation with an alkyl iodide produced the alkoxystyryl carbene complexe 1 in modest yield. The results however did not show significant variation in the yield of 1 with the size of the side chain R. Owing to their resemblance to α,β-unsaturated carbonyl compounds, these compounds can provide very useful protocols for the synthesis of organic compounds. 1a. R = isopropyl (42.0%) 1b. R = isobutyl (40.0%) 1c. R = sec-butyl (45.3%) 1d. R = benzyl (41.2%)

  14. Shilpa Mohan Shitole and Kondiram Nathuji Dhumal

    A pot experiment was performed at the experimental research field, Department of Botany, University of Pune, to observe the response of Cassia angustifolia under different NaCl stress. The first NaCl (25mM NaCl concentration) treatment was given on 45 days after sowing (DAS) and the subsequent treatments were given in three stages at the interval of 15 days. All growth and yield parameters were measured at three phenological stages. The significance reduction in growth and yield parameters with the increase of salinity levels was observed. However, the content of sennoside content in leaves and pods increased with 25mM NaCl concentration.

  15. Udensi, O., E. A. Edu, V. O. Ntui1, P. A. Otu, I. S. Urua, G. A. Akpan

    Effects of mutagens on the chromosomes of crop plants are a good indicator to deciphering the extent to which they can be utilized for crop improvement. The aim of this research work was to evaluate the cyto-sensitivity of two landraces of pigeon pea [Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp] to amiprophos methyl (APM). The seeds from the two varieties were soaked in different concentrations of APM (4ppm, 6ppm and 8ppm) for 24, 48 and 72 hours, respectively. From the control experiment, it was observed that the diploid chromosome number was 2n=22. This diploid was also observed in other treated cells not affected by the APM treatment. The APM treatment caused varying types of chromosomal aberrations or abnormalities, which was observed to be concentration and time – dependent. The following chromosome abnormalities were observed viz,; disoriented chromosomes, clumped chromosome, laggards, sticky chromosomes, irregular chromosomes with bridges, inhibited chromosomes, elongated chromosomes, curved chromosomes; thick and sticky chromosomes. Chromosome doubling (polyploidy; 4n = 44) was also observed in seeds of brown pigeon pea treated with 6ppm of AMP for 24 hours; 6ppm of AMP for 48 hours and 8ppm of AMP for 48 hours for the white variety, respectively. Our result also revealed that the total percentage chromosomal aberrations increased with increase in the concentration of the mutagen and majorly on the duration of soaking, the variety notwithstanding. Succinctly, the chromosomal aberrations caused by the treatment of the seeds with amiprophos methyl (APM) notwithstanding, the induction of polyploidy to these pigeon pea landraces is significant in crop breeding and improvement if meticulously exploited.

  16. Omendra Kumar Prajapati, Danish Faraz, Satyam Rastogi, Junaid Naim and Pramod Kumar Pandey

    The phosphate uptake, ATPase activities and 14CO2-incorporation were investigated in free living and immobilized cells of Nostoc calcicola under copper stress conditions. The maximum Cu concentration in free and immobilized N. calcicola cells was 60µM at which the immobilized cells were characterized by a faster rate of phosphate uptake than free cells. Immobilization was associated with decrease in vivo activities of ATPase(s), suggesting that the immobilized cells maintain sufficient ATP pool. 14CO2-incorporation in immobilized cells was less sensitive to Cu and degree of inhibition was less marked compared to free living cells. The tolerance of immobilized cells in terms of all the activities studied over free cells suggested that such a system could be successfully applied to remove heavy metals from polluted water through repeated cycles with no loss of cells in bioremediation.

  17. Adugna Debela, Gerba Daba, Diriba Bane and Kassaye Tolessa

    Horticultural crops are known for their high return per unit time and area. How ever, a significant proportion of postharvest loss of these produces is experienced in Ethiopia. This postharvest loss contributes to the reduction of profit from the produce and leads to food insecurity. This survey investigation and laboratory analysis was therefore conducted to study the causes and magnitude of post harvest loss of selected fruits in three different towns of Jimma Zone, South western Ethiopia from November 2010 to March 2011. The survey method was explored using carefully designed semi-structured questionnaire reflecting the proposed scope of study among producers, wholesalers and retailers of fruits in the fruit market chain. The chemical analysis was determined using the standard procedures in Postharvest laboratory of Jimma University College of Agriculture and Veterinary Medicine. The result indicated that there were greater postharvest losses of mango (35.5%) and banana (40.0%) especially in Jimma town than in Agaro and Seka Chekorsa. These postharvest losses were mainly attributed to poor handling during transportation and the use of poor marketing structures to sell their fruits. To reduce the losses of these fruits, it calls for a close integration of the beneficiaries along the value chain and a public awareness campaigns to increase their experience of using appropriate packing materials.

  18. Prasant Pandey, M.K.Singh, V.P.Singh, Deepak Mishra, G.P.Singh

    The paper aims to study the factors responsible for the incidence and promotion of corneal ulcers in the parts of eastern Uttar Pradesh and Bihar states of India. 248 patients with corneal ulcers were included in this prospective study from among the patients attending the out patient department of department of ophthalmology of a tertiary care hospital in India. All patients are drawn from the eastern parts of Uttar Pradesh and Bihar states. Patients with any other systemic and ocular diseases were excluded from this study, viral and protozoal corneal ulcers were also excluded. All patients underwent grams staining and potassium hydroxide staining of specimens, all specimens were plated and cultured. Staphylococcus aureus (20.56%) and staphylococcus albus (33.06%), along with pseudomonas and neisseria were bacterial pathogens detected, while fusarium (10.08%) was the chief fungal agent detected. Percentage occurrence in the age groups was the most in the 31-40 year (48.38%). Males (58.33%) were more affected with corneal ulcers than females (40.72%). Rural population (62.50%) was found to be more affected with corneal ulcers than urban (37.50%,), illiterate(69.75%) more affected than literates(30.24%) and labourers(62.50%) more affected than house wives(37.50%), those with low socio economic status (71.31%) and poor hygiene (64.51%) more affected with corneal ulcers than in high socioeconomic status(28.62%) and better hygiene(35.48%). The burden of corneal blindness induced by corneal ulcers lies on the illiterate ,rural, population of eastern Uttar Pradesh and Bihar, and that too largely young and male patients. Agricultural workers especially labourers and those in poor socio-economic conditions and hygiene are more at risk. Prevention with antibiotics and education about the disease may be of help.

  19. Madhav Mutalik, Rama Srivastava, and Maitreyee Mutalik

    Aims and Objectives: Primary mental abilities play a major role in learning process. The present study was done to understand perceptions of learners on their primary mental abilities of learning. Methods: An 8-item questionnaire with modified Likert-like scale was administered to 245 students in Mauritius while being in second year of graduate medical program. Data was arranged, analyzed, and classified, and percentages were calculated. Results: The learners recorded highest percentages for perception of having good verbal fluency and inductive reasoning (77.1% each). Much lower percentages were recorded for verbal comprehension (24.1%), “memory capacity” (33.9%), and “comprehension of scientific terminology” (57.1%). Values were 67.3% for perceptual speed, 66.5% for spatial ability, and 64.5% for numerical ability. Conclusion: Learners recorded perception of good abilities for verbal fluency and inductive reasoning, and also perceptual speed, spatial ability, and numerical ability. Verbal comprehension, memory capacity, and comprehension of scientific terminology had lower values. These findings are useful to learners and instructors to understand the areas to be focused upon during teaching and learning, and to appropriately modify the curriculum delivery. This work also provided a useful questionnaire for knowing learners’ perceptions on primary mental abilities.

  20. Usha Rani Ahuja and Neelu Nanwani

    Conservation agriculture offers a powerful option for meeting future food demands while also contributing to sustainable agriculture and rural development. CA methods can improve the efficiency of input, increase farm income, improve or sustain crop yields, and protect and revitalize soil, biodiversity and the natural resource base. Still there exists a wide gap between the technology available at the research level and its knowledge at farmer’s level. Keeping this in view, an attempt has been made to know about the awareness and knowledge level of the farmers of Mewat District of Haryana state. The study has been conducted in the three clusters comprising of 17 villages of 5 blocks of the Mewat District. It is found that most of the farmers are not aware about the practice of zero tillage only 13, 10 and 6.5 % of the farmers in cluster 1, 2 and 3 respectively are aware of the practice of zero tillage and it is adopted only in one village. Retention of crops in the field is also not practiced because the crop residue is mostly used as fuel and fodder; if some alternate arrangement for fuel and fodder is made then residue retention is possible in that area.

  21. Robinson K. Ngugi and Stephen M. Mureithi and Peter N. Kamande

    The potential use of seasonal climate forecasts in farm and resource management has been studied in a number of cultural contexts around the world. Many of these studies reveal difficulties that smallholders encounter in accessing, interpreting and applying forecasts for their own benefit. This study looked at the awareness of and usage of climate forecast information in central Kenya in the aftermath of the 1997/98 El Niño event. Household surveys were conducted in Machakos District, Kenya, in January 2001. Retrospective and concurrent awareness and application of seasonal forecast information was assessed for 240 households across a range of agro ecological zones. The results show high degree of awareness and use of forecasts. Farmers discussed both actual and potential application of forecasts for both above-normal and below-normal rainfall. The influence of the El Niño tendency to increase the rainfall as in the case of 1997/98 El Niño was clear from their emphasis on strategies to mitigate the impacts of above-or below-normal rainfall. Applications of information in both crop and livestock management are documented. Constraints still exist, such as interpretation of information, relevance of the variables forecast to the management decisions of concern, confidence in the forecasts, and timely and affordable access to resources such as seeds. We suggest that collaborative efforts between the forecast providers and the users of information may be directed towards addressing these constraints. For instance in case of abnormal phenomenon such as droughts or floods, forecasts can be closely followed by early warning campaigns with clear guidelines of how to prepare, distributed through the FM radio in local languages order to abate human suffering.

  22. Salve, R.V., Syed Imran Hashmi, Kajalwad, B.M. Pandhre, G.R. and Sonkamble, S.M.

    Corn (Zea mays) Cob is rich source of cellulose, so this cellulosic material was utilized for ethanol production. The cellulosic material was pretreated with 1% H2SO4 at 1080 C Temp. by taking 1:5 proportion (solid : liquid). The pretreated cellulosic material was hydrolyzed with cellulase enzyme (conc. in FPU) at 600 C Temp., fermented by sacchromyces serevisiae 3090 at 300 C Temp. for 72 hrs. It was found that the hydrolysis time was increased at the interval of 12 hrs., the yield of reducing sugar and ethanol yield was increased i.e. 50.30% & 28.67 % resp. The particle size was inversely proportional to ethanol yield. Also substrate concentration should be minimize as such as possible for hydrolysis because the reducing sugar & ethanol yield (24.79% & 23.99%) had a similar variation trend with cellulase dosages varying from 10 to 30 FPU/ gm. substrate.

  23. Alfonse Opio, Lawrence Aribo and Frank Kansiime

    In this study, assessment of rainfall variability on wetland pollutants dynamics was done. Results indicated monthly rainfall totals and anomaly increasing at non significant rate and similar faecal coliform numbers between months for all streams (p > 0.05). All streams except Concorp and Pepsi had similar Total Suspended Solids (TSS) concentration for the months (p > 0.05). Relationship of total rainfall with faecal coliforms was significantly negative and weak in Kyambogo, Banda and Outlet streams (p < 0.05). However, Pepsi and Concorp streams showed positively weak but significant relationship (P < 0.05). TSS concentration and total rainfall had significantly negative and weak relationship for Pepsi and Outlet streams (p < 0.05) while Concorp, Kyambogo and Banda streams had significantly positive but weak relationship (p < 0.05). Faecal coliform loads were similar between dry months for all streams (P > 0.05). TSS loads between dry months were significant except for Concorp stream. There was faecal coliform dilution in Kyambogo and outlet streams, and the effect was significant for TSS loads in all streams. Monthly retention ranged from 99.9 - 99.5% and 94.6 - 98.0% for faecal coliforms and TSS respectively. The study indicates that catchment designs coupled with human activities contribute to potential pollutants dynamics in wetlands.

  24. R. Shalini, R. Kalivani, K. Ramanathan and G. Jayashree

    This study investigates that detailed analysis of phytochemical compounds from ocimum sanctum by using GC-MS. The phytochemical compounds are to be docked with the receptor PB1F2 by Hex tool and calculate the docking scores. We can also focus on Genomic studies to identify the Coding regions and predict the structure. The Restriction sites present in the sequence are to be identified by NEB Cutter tool. This detailed study will focus on ocimum sanctum can act as herbal drug for swine flu.

  25. Jahangir, A.D., Vaseem, R. and Kudesia, R.

    Electrophoretic SDS-PAGE and RAPD analyses were performed to estimate genetic diversity in five Cicer cultivars. In SDS-PAGE, a total 36 polypeptide bands were detected, only 4 were monomorphic and the rest 32 were polymorphic with an average polymorphism of 88.88%. Jaccard’s similarity ranged from 0.25000 to 0.56000. A dendrogram constructed based on UPGMA clustering method revealed two major clusters, cluster 1 and cluster 2, comprising of two accessions each. The accession Shubhra occupies a distinct place as revealed in the dendrogram. In case of RAPD, primer OPM-05 was used and led a total of 21 bands, all of them were polymorphic. Dice’s coefficient ranged from 0.00000 to 0.25000. A dendrogram constructed based on UPGMA revealed two major clusters. Accession DCP-92-3 and IPC-04-20 are genetically dissimilar, hence it is recommended that these should be used for future breeding programs to create higher amount of genetic variability in chickpea.

  26. Ighere Dickson A, Ajiboye T.O, Edagbo David E, Borokini Temitope I, Alowonle Ahmed A, Michael Clement, Giwa Alexander and Adeyemo Adegboye

    The local medicinal herbs used in combating malaria among the Urhobo people in Delta state, Nigeria were investigated in this study. The Urhobo people have a rich cultural heritage, which is reflected in the well-developed herbal medicine used to combat malaria and some other common ailments. The survey identified the parts of the medicinal plant used as drug, mode of preparation and mode of administration among the Urhobo people in Delta state. It was observed that some of these plants are used alone or in combination with other plants, which are either taken orally or used for bathing. The study revealed that plant leaves were the main part of plants used by the Urhobo people in the treatment of malaria. The other parts of the plant also used included the stem bark, root bark and whole plant. Information on dosages of the herbs administered to patients varies. The survey was conducted by administering a well-structured questionnaire to select natives who were adjudged by the locals to be knowledgeable in the use of local herbs for medicine. We found out that some plants were more frequently used in treating malaria than others; these plants included Azadirachta indica, Carica papaya, Mangifera indica, Cymbopogon citratus and Citrus aurantifolia. The study showed that 33 plants belonging to 25 families were frequently used than other plants by the Urhobo people of Delta state Nigeria in treatment of malaria fever.

  27. Praveena, P. and Sudarsanam, D.

    Enicostema axillare (Lam.). Raynal, syn. E.littorale Blume (Family) Gentinaceae is a perennial herb found throughout the greater part of India. Locally it is known as Chota chirayita and used in indigenous medicines in the treatment of fevers and as bitter tonic and forms one ingredients of many hypoglycemic marketed formulations. In the present study in vitro antimicrobial activity (Minimum Inhibitory Concentration by Micro-titre plate method of Chloroform, Ethyl acetate, Methanol, Petroleum ether extract of whole plant has been evaluated. Four Bacterial Species and two fungal strains used for study are: Staph aureus, Pseudomonas aeroginosa, Salmonella typhi, Shigella sonnei, and two fungal strains are: Aeromonas hydrophila, Candida albicans. It was observed that Ethyl acetate, Methanolic extract showed prominent antimicrobial activity against all micro organisms.

  28. Udensi, O., E. A. Edu, J. and E. V. Ikpeme

    This research paper was aimed at investigating the extent of relationship between yield and yield-contributing traits, which will facilitate selection of high performing genotype(s) of local cowpea. Seeds of three varieties of locally grown cowpea were sown in a randomized complete block design (RCBD) in ten replications. The field study was done at the University of Calabar Experimental Farm, University of Calabar, Nigeria, during the 2008-2009 growing season. Correlation coefficients and path coefficients were estimated on yield and yield-contributing traits. Results when averaged revealed that vein length-1 negatively correlated with the number of leaves-1 (-0.63*) and pod length-1 (-0.653*) while correlating positively with number of nodules-1 (0.605*). There was significant positive relationship between number of leaves-1 and pod length-1 (0.552*) and number of seeds-1 (0.641*) while correlating negatively with number of nodules-1 (-0.722*). Significant relationships were also observed between leaf area-1 and pod length-1 (0.587*) and number of pod-1 and 100-seed weight (0.683*). Other character had associations with one another though not significant. The genotypic correlation coefficient was partitioned into direct and indirect effects. It revealed that vein length-1 (-0.926), leaf area-1 (-0.619), pod length-1 (-0.621) and number of pods-1 (-0.116) had negative direct effects on yield while number of leaves-1 (0.788), number of flowers-1 (0.278), number of nodules-1 (0.551) and 100-seed weight (0.548) had positive direct effects on yield. However, number of leaves-1 had the highest direct effects followed by 100-seed weight, number of nodules-1 and number of flowers-1. Explicitly, our results are indications that for the selection of superior genotypes of cowpea during any breeding programme, the genotype(s) with higher number of leaves, number of nodules, number of flowers, 100-seed weight should be considered in conjunction with those with broader leaf area and long pods.

  29. Helmy Zefaan

    At the point, which it becomes more expensive to extend the service life of vehicle than owning and operating a new one, it becomes economic to replace it by a new one, present less operating costs, less out of working periods and more income. However the procedure of replacement vehicles, after determining the optimal economic lifetime, are very useful, where decision makers are facing with complex tradeoffs involving economic, environmental, or policy impacts of fleet management decisions or regulations. This paper reports a scientific concept, for replacing or choosing vehicles. Several widely microbus vehicles run in ministry of health, ambulance sector, Egypt, are used in this study. The results indicated that each vehicle has its own history, so the best time to get rid of one vehicle is not necessarily the best time to get rid of other vehicles of the same age and type. In addition, the decision of replacement is part of a wider problem involving many factors other than depreciation and maintenance costs.





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Chief Scientific Officer and Head of a Research Group

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Luai Farhan Zghair
Hasan Ali Abed Al-Zu’bi
Fredrick OJIJA
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Saudi Arabia
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