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IJCR is following an instant policy on rejection those received papers with plagiarism rate of more than 20%. So, All of authors and contributors must check their papers before submission to making assurance of following our anti-plagiarism policies.













November 2011

Prenatal development of intermediate horn of gray matter in goat was studied using 52 foetuses of various ages. By 48 days of gestation, outer white matter and inner gray matter became distinguishable; the latter with dorsal and ventral horns. In thoracic, anterior lumbar and middle sacral levels the intermediate horn appeared as lateral projections of gray matter. It contained lamina VII of the intermediate zone and presented intermediolateral and intermediomedial nuclei.

A disease characterized by severe yellow mosaic, plant stunting, leaf reduction and distortion, and knobbed fruits, suspected to be of Zucchini Yellow Mosaic Virus (ZYMV) was observed on summer squash growing areas at different sites in Iraq. Samples of symptomatic plants were collected and tested by bioassay and by serological DAS-ELISA, using anti-ZYMV polyclonal antibodies. Results showed that the virus infects; Cucurbita pepo, C. moschata, Cucumis melo, and Citrullus lanatus giving the same symptoms observed on squash plants.

An eight weeks experimental trial was conducted with variable percentage levels of protein (25, 30, 35, 40, 45 & 50) diet fed to the Indian major carp, Labeo rohita to study the satiation time, maximum feed intake in different hours of the day, protein/dietary energy requirement for optimum growth in different size groups, amino acid absorption and quantitative requirement, in vivo protein biosynthesis etc. and finally to calculate the requirement of digestible energy for the production of one gram fish to thousand gram in weight.

One of the most important value that determine the quality of beef at refrigeration treatment is duration of cooling and freezing process which should be determined in advance. Mean while duration depends upon more than one factor such as initial moisture content of beef, dimention, temperature and velocity of cooling air. The objective of this paper is to study the effect of mentioned above factors on duration of one stage freezing process. This study has been based on various analyies of calculation results using a mathematical model.

The generalized inverses of k-normal matrix are discussed by its schur decomposition.

This article analyses the society of Zambia how much change taken place between the time periods of 1990 and 2010 with the transitions to the youth involvement, high education attainment and the national per capita income. The statistics of Youth population, Education and nation development in terms of per capita income from the government records of Zambia 1990 and 2010 are taken to the account for the analysis. The three different points of time (1990, 2000 and 2010).Simple and descriptive statistics were used to analyze the data with reference to the variables taken for the study.

This paper covers an analysis of sunspot numbers and fractal dimension analysis for 104 years. Hurst exponent has been calculated for 104 years to arrive at Fractal Dimensional analysis of sunspot numbers. The results show a less persistent behavior.

A Nuclear bomb explosion within or immediately nearby a City or town can cause catastrophic damage on the building's, infrastructures, basic amenities, and shutting down of critical life-safety systems. Nuclear explosions produce immediate effects such as Blast, thermal radiation, prompt ionizing radiations and delayed destructive effects such as radioactive fallout and other possible environmental effects, cause damage over an extended period ranging from hours to years.

This paper examines potential evaporation over the Lake Victoria basin, a region with very few operational meteorological stations hence scarce data. Data stations within the Lake basin provided rainfall and temperature data covering periods of at least twenty years. Five methods of computing Potential Evapotranspiration (PET) (Penman, Hargreaves, Thornwaite, Blaney-Criddle and Pan Evaporation) were studied for their applicability under the same catchment. The homogeneity of rainfall was done using mass curve analysis and the filling of missing data using Markov Model.

This article focuses on the design, development and fabrication of the strain measuring sensor and its interface with a data acquisition system which converts the force applied on the rigid frame of the leg to a voltage potential which can be used for further processing. The sensor element used for the experimentation is a transducer class of strain gauge which are open gauges with a constant alloy pattern constructed on a thin polyimide-film backing and is pasted on a GI sheet.

Urbanization is an index of transformation from traditional rural economies to modern industrial one. It is a progressive concentration of population in cities/towns. To describe the size distribution of cities, we use Zipf’s law, which states that the size distribution of cities follows a simple Pareto distribution with shape parameter equal to 1. In this paper we have performed a test for Zipf's law in respect for Andhra Pradesh city and town sizes distribution for the period 1951-2001.

The analysis of different physical systems and mathematical devices depends on the utilization of various types of algebraic quantities involved in the description of geometrical aspects of the phenomenon and states which occur. The most familiar tensors in physical importance are internal stress in a solid and viscous stress in fluid. The purpose of the present manuscript is to discuss a nice and lucid characterization of tensor and their basic features.

Syntheses of α,β-unsaturated neutral Chromium Fischer carbene complexes bearing alkoxy groups as donor substituents have been explored. Treating β-bromostyrene with a base and chromium hexacarbonyl followed by alkylation with an alkyl iodide produced the alkoxystyryl carbene complexe 1 in modest yield. The results however did not show significant variation in the yield of 1 with the size of the side chain R. Owing to their resemblance to α,β-unsaturated carbonyl compounds, these compounds can provide very useful protocols for the synthesis of organic compounds. 1a.

A pot experiment was performed at the experimental research field, Department of Botany, University of Pune, to observe the response of Cassia angustifolia under different NaCl stress. The first NaCl (25mM NaCl concentration) treatment was given on 45 days after sowing (DAS) and the subsequent treatments were given in three stages at the interval of 15 days. All growth and yield parameters were measured at three phenological stages. The significance reduction in growth and yield parameters with the increase of salinity levels was observed.

Effects of mutagens on the chromosomes of crop plants are a good indicator to deciphering the extent to which they can be utilized for crop improvement. The aim of this research work was to evaluate the cyto-sensitivity of two landraces of pigeon pea [Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp] to amiprophos methyl (APM). The seeds from the two varieties were soaked in different concentrations of APM (4ppm, 6ppm and 8ppm) for 24, 48 and 72 hours, respectively. From the control experiment, it was observed that the diploid chromosome number was 2n=22.

The phosphate uptake, ATPase activities and 14CO2-incorporation were investigated in free living and immobilized cells of Nostoc calcicola under copper stress conditions. The maximum Cu concentration in free and immobilized N. calcicola cells was 60µM at which the immobilized cells were characterized by a faster rate of phosphate uptake than free cells. Immobilization was associated with decrease in vivo activities of ATPase(s), suggesting that the immobilized cells maintain sufficient ATP pool.

Horticultural crops are known for their high return per unit time and area. How ever, a significant proportion of postharvest loss of these produces is experienced in Ethiopia. This postharvest loss contributes to the reduction of profit from the produce and leads to food insecurity. This survey investigation and laboratory analysis was therefore conducted to study the causes and magnitude of post harvest loss of selected fruits in three different towns of Jimma Zone, South western Ethiopia from November 2010 to March 2011.

The paper aims to study the factors responsible for the incidence and promotion of corneal ulcers in the parts of eastern Uttar Pradesh and Bihar states of India. 248 patients with corneal ulcers were included in this prospective study from among the patients attending the out patient department of department of ophthalmology of a tertiary care hospital in India. All patients are drawn from the eastern parts of Uttar Pradesh and Bihar states. Patients with any other systemic and ocular diseases were excluded from this study, viral and protozoal corneal ulcers were also excluded.

Aims and Objectives: Primary mental abilities play a major role in learning process. The present study was done to understand perceptions of learners on their primary mental abilities of learning. Methods: An 8-item questionnaire with modified Likert-like scale was administered to 245 students in Mauritius while being in second year of graduate medical program. Data was arranged, analyzed, and classified, and percentages were calculated. Results: The learners recorded highest percentages for perception of having good verbal fluency and inductive reasoning (77.1% each).

Conservation agriculture offers a powerful option for meeting future food demands while also contributing to sustainable agriculture and rural development. CA methods can improve the efficiency of input, increase farm income, improve or sustain crop yields, and protect and revitalize soil, biodiversity and the natural resource base. Still there exists a wide gap between the technology available at the research level and its knowledge at farmer’s level.

The potential use of seasonal climate forecasts in farm and resource management has been studied in a number of cultural contexts around the world. Many of these studies reveal difficulties that smallholders encounter in accessing, interpreting and applying forecasts for their own benefit. This study looked at the awareness of and usage of climate forecast information in central Kenya in the aftermath of the 1997/98 El Niño event. Household surveys were conducted in Machakos District, Kenya, in January 2001.

Corn (Zea mays) Cob is rich source of cellulose, so this cellulosic material was utilized for ethanol production. The cellulosic material was pretreated with 1% H2SO4 at 1080 C Temp. by taking 1:5 proportion (solid : liquid). The pretreated cellulosic material was hydrolyzed with cellulase enzyme (conc. in FPU) at 600 C Temp., fermented by sacchromyces serevisiae 3090 at 300 C Temp. for 72 hrs. It was found that the hydrolysis time was increased at the interval of 12 hrs., the yield of reducing sugar and ethanol yield was increased i.e. 50.30% & 28.67 % resp.

In this study, assessment of rainfall variability on wetland pollutants dynamics was done. Results indicated monthly rainfall totals and anomaly increasing at non significant rate and similar faecal coliform numbers between months for all streams (p > 0.05). All streams except Concorp and Pepsi had similar Total Suspended Solids (TSS) concentration for the months (p > 0.05). Relationship of total rainfall with faecal coliforms was significantly negative and weak in Kyambogo, Banda and Outlet streams (p < 0.05).

This study investigates that detailed analysis of phytochemical compounds from ocimum sanctum by using GC-MS. The phytochemical compounds are to be docked with the receptor PB1F2 by Hex tool and calculate the docking scores. We can also focus on Genomic studies to identify the Coding regions and predict the structure. The Restriction sites present in the sequence are to be identified by NEB Cutter tool. This detailed study will focus on ocimum sanctum can act as herbal drug for swine flu.

Electrophoretic SDS-PAGE and RAPD analyses were performed to estimate genetic diversity in five Cicer cultivars. In SDS-PAGE, a total 36 polypeptide bands were detected, only 4 were monomorphic and the rest 32 were polymorphic with an average polymorphism of 88.88%. Jaccard’s similarity ranged from 0.25000 to 0.56000. A dendrogram constructed based on UPGMA clustering method revealed two major clusters, cluster 1 and cluster 2, comprising of two accessions each. The accession Shubhra occupies a distinct place as revealed in the dendrogram.

The local medicinal herbs used in combating malaria among the Urhobo people in Delta state, Nigeria were investigated in this study. The Urhobo people have a rich cultural heritage, which is reflected in the well-developed herbal medicine used to combat malaria and some other common ailments. The survey identified the parts of the medicinal plant used as drug, mode of preparation and mode of administration among the Urhobo people in Delta state. It was observed that some of these plants are used alone or in combination with other plants, which are either taken orally or used for bathing.

Enicostema axillare (Lam.). Raynal, syn. E.littorale Blume (Family) Gentinaceae is a perennial herb found throughout the greater part of India. Locally it is known as Chota chirayita and used in indigenous medicines in the treatment of fevers and as bitter tonic and forms one ingredients of many hypoglycemic marketed formulations. In the present study in vitro antimicrobial activity (Minimum Inhibitory Concentration by Micro-titre plate method of Chloroform, Ethyl acetate, Methanol, Petroleum ether extract of whole plant has been evaluated.

This research paper was aimed at investigating the extent of relationship between yield and yield-contributing traits, which will facilitate selection of high performing genotype(s) of local cowpea. Seeds of three varieties of locally grown cowpea were sown in a randomized complete block design (RCBD) in ten replications. The field study was done at the University of Calabar Experimental Farm, University of Calabar, Nigeria, during the 2008-2009 growing season. Correlation coefficients and path coefficients were estimated on yield and yield-contributing traits.

At the point, which it becomes more expensive to extend the service life of vehicle than owning and operating a new one, it becomes economic to replace it by a new one, present less operating costs, less out of working periods and more income. However the procedure of replacement vehicles, after determining the optimal economic lifetime, are very useful, where decision makers are facing with complex tradeoffs involving economic, environmental, or policy impacts of fleet management decisions or regulations. This paper reports a scientific concept, for replacing or choosing vehicles.





Rosane Cavalcante Fragoso, Brasil


Chief Scientific Officer and Head of a Research Group

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Luai Farhan Zghair
Hasan Ali Abed Al-Zu’bi
Fredrick OJIJA
Firuza M. Tursunkhodjaeva
Faraz Ahmed Farooqi
Saudi Arabia
Eric Randy Reyes Politud
Elsadig Gasoom FadelAlla Elbashir
Eapen, Asha Sarah
United State
Dr.Arun Kumar A
Dr. Zafar Iqbal
Dr. Ruchika Khanna
Dr. Recep TAS
Dr. Rasha Ali Eldeeb
Dr. Pralhad Kanhaiyalal Rahangdale
Dr. Nicolas Padilla- Raygoza
Dr. Mustafa Y. G. Younis
Dr. Muhammad shoaib Ahmedani
Saudi Arabia
United State
Dr. Lim Gee Nee
Dr. Jatinder Pal Singh Chawla
Dr. Devendra kumar Gupta
Dr. Ali Seidi
Dr. Achmad Choerudin
Dr Ashok Kumar Verma
Thi Mong Diep NGUYEN
Dr. Muhammad Akram
Dr. Imran Azad
Dr. Meenakshi Malik
Aseel Hadi Hamzah
Anam Bhatti
Md. Amir Hossain
Mirzadi Gohari