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Plagiarism Detection

IJCR is following an instant policy on rejection those received papers with plagiarism rate of more than 20%. So, All of authors and contributors must check their papers before submission to making assurance of following our anti-plagiarism policies.













October 2012

  1. Goldie Uppal, Vijay Nigam

    The antioxidant properties of ethanolic extract of Euphorbia hirta Linn was tested using standard in vivo and in vitro models. Euphorbia hirta Linn (Euphorbiaceae) is commonly used in traditional medicines for the treatment of various ailments. In anti-lipid peroxidation assay, extract showed a decrease in the absorbance which was comparable with the standard ascorbic acid. In DPPH free radical scavenging assay, there was a decrease in the absorbance with increase in concentration, which indicate the antioxidant activity of Euphorbia hirta Linn. In reducing power assay, there was an increase in the absorbance with an increase in the concentration of Euphorbia hirta Linn, which indicate the reducing capacity of Euphorbia hirta Linn. In nitric oxide free radical scavenging assay, there was a decreased in the absorbance with increase in concentration, which was comparable with the standard ascorbic acid. In anti-lipid peroxidation assay, the Euphorbia extract showed a decrease in the absorbance which was comparable with the standard ascorbic acid.

  2. Dr. Kh. Bimolata Devi

    Background: In the process of development of any nation or state, urbanization is an important aspect. The concept of urbanization is the transformation process of the rural agricultural population who moved to lived cities and towns and became an urban non-agricultural population. North East (NE) States of India comprises of seven states namely Assam, Arunachal PradeshNagaland and Tripura., Manipur, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Objective :To study the levels and trends of urbanization in North Eastern Region of India and to understand the state wise comparison of percentage of urban population and growth rate . Methodology: The present study is based on secondary data collected from various census publications of Directorate of Census Operations Registrar General serial, India New Delhi. The data were collected for the period 1951-2011 taking into account the various census years. Findings: In 1951 the urban population of NE region was 4,59,874 (4.48 percent of total population) which increased to 82,16,089 (18.26 percent of total population) in 2011.During the early period i.e 1951-1961 the decadal growth rate of urban population of NE region was increased by 139.83 percent and after that the decadal growth rate of urban population declined abruptly to 67.44 percent in 1961-71 and finally it touched at 37.58 percent in 2011 census year. In regard to both decadal growth rate and average annual exponential growth rate of urban population NE region for all the decades were as high as compared to all India figures. The percentage of urban population to the population in NE region is increasing over the census years, but still low than the national’s figures. Conclusion: It can be concluded that the overall process of urbanization in agro -based North East is very slow basically due to its location and infrastructural problems. Development of secondary sectors also not up to the mark in this region resulted in heavy dependence on agriculture sector.

  3. Okafor Friday Onyema and Fagbounmi Griffin Siji

    This paper presents a new approach to minimize congestion in data networks. The routing algorithm guarantees a loss-free delivery of data packets from congested sources, and a deterministic bound on the route length in arbitrary topology networks. This work shows that routing decisions using Local Greedy method are not optimal, and the performance of the algorithm can be improved substantially by using new look-ahead measures. The contribution of this paper is to propose a new metrics to find an optimal path to minimize congestion in networks .In the proposed method, time taken to find an optimal path is less when compared to Local Greedy algorithm. The objective is to minimize the congestion. The performance is studied computationally for various networks with different number of nodes under static traffic model. In all the experiments the proposed method shows better results.

  4. Pradeep D. Lokhande, Smita R. Waghmare, Harsh Gaikwad, S. A. Meshram and P. P. Hankare

    A green, simple, practical and efficient copper-catalyzed method forsynthesis of aromatic carboxylic acids has been developed. The protocol uses inexpensive CuCl2/DMSO as the catalyst/solvent and readily available acetophenone derivative as thestarting materials, and the corresponding aromatic carboxylicacids were obtained in moderate to good yields. The method is oftolerance towards functional groups in the substrates.

  5. Chiraz Chaffei Haouari, Afef Hajjaji Nasraoui, Donia Bouthour, Elisa Carrayol and Houda Gouia

    Glutamate (Glu) dehydrogenase (GDH), enzyme preferentially occurs in the mitochondria of companion cells of a number of plant species grown on nitrate as the sole nitrogen source. For a better understanding of the controversial role of GDH either in ammonium assimilation or in the supply of cadmium, we studied the localization of GDH in tomato (Solanum Lycopersicon 63/5F1) plants grown either on absence of cadmium (AC) or on presence of cadmium (PC). Production of GDH and its activity were strongly induced when plants were grown on presence of cadmium. The induction mainly occurred in highly vascularized organs such as stems and midribs and was likely to be due to accumulation of phloem-translocated ammonium in the sap. GDH was increased in the mitochondria and appeared in the cytosol of companion cells. Taken together, our results suggest that the enzyme plays a dual role in companion cells, either in the mitochondria when mineral nitrogen availability is low or in the cytosol when ammonium concentration increases under cadmium stress conditions.

  6. Sriramachandrasekharan, M.V. and T. Muthukumararaja

    Micronutrient deficiencies have been widely noticed in rice, wheat and other crops which causes low yield and increases malnutrition. Zinc deficiency remained a major problem all over country. Zinc deficiency can be overcome by addition of Zn fertilizer. But alternative strategy is use of efficient plant genotype that can more effectively grow on soil with low available zinc. With this background, a pot experiment was conducted to evaluate stress indices for identification of rice genotypes with higher yield in zinc stress soil. The treatment consisted of ten rice genotypes with two levels of Zn (0, 5 mg/kg) applied through zinc sulfate. The experimental soil was deficient in zinc. The results revealed that stress tolerance index (TOL) and stress susceptible index (SSI) had poor correlation with grain yield under Zn stress and Zn adequate condition. Both were associated with poor yield under Zn adequate condition and therefore could not identify genotypes which perform well in both conditions. But mean productivity (MP), geometric mean productivity (GMP) along with stress tolerance index (STI) identified genotypes which could perform well under both Zn stress and Zn adequate condition. This was supported by very strong relationship that STI had with YS and YP. Thus ADT 43, CO 45, ADT 46 and ADT 36 was identified that perform well both in Zn stress and non stress environment.

  7. Ramamurthy, V and Raveendran, S

    The aim of this study was to evaluate dietary dosages of Lyngbya hieronymusii on the immune response and disease resistance against infections due to the opportunistic pathogen Aeromonas hydrophilia, in fish fingerlings of Platycephalus gibbosus. A cyanobacterium, L. hieronymusii was incorporated into the diets of P. gibbosus fingerlings and different biochemical, haematological and immunological parameters were evaluated. Superoxide anion production, lysozyme, serum bactericidal, serum protein and albumin were improved in cyanobacteria treated groups compared with the control group. Survival was increased in the cyanobacteria treatment group upto 89% survivability in the 500 mg cyanobacteria/kg and 1 g cyanobacteria/kg, and 75% survivability in the 2g cyanobacteria/kg, respectively. These results indicate that L. hieronymusii stimulates the immunity and makes P. gibbosus more resistant to infection by A. hydrophilia.

  8. Sabyasachi Rout, Ajay Kumar, Manish K. Mishra, P.K. Sarkar and P.M. Ravi

    The hydrochemistry of groundwater of an estuarine aquifer was used to assess the quality of groundwater for determining its suitability for drinking and agricultural uses. The potability of ground water was estimated by considering the individual and/or paired ionic concentration, certain indices like alkali hazards (in terms of Sodium Adsorbed Ratio), % Na, Residual Sodium Carbonate, Permeability Index and hardness etc. Scientific interpretation of analytical data was done using hydrochemical computer program, WATCLAST, to classify ground water into different categories. With the help of Piper diagram hydrochemical facies like, Na-K−SO4-Cl, Ca-Mg–SO4-Cl and Ca-Mg–HCO3 were identified as dominating facies of the site. The factors responsible for their geochemical characterization were also attempted by using standard plot and it was found that the weathering was major factor controlling the groundwater chemistry of the study site although it is under heavy precipitation. After assessment of quality of groundwater, considering all the parameters and indices, the ground water of most of the locations were found to be suitable for irrigation and drinking purposes. However ground water of only a few locations was above standard prescribed levels by BIS (Bureau of Indian Standards) and WHO.

  9. Vedavathi, K. and Sitamaha Lakshmi, T.

    The iterative algorithmic approach for binary multiplication based on ancient Nikhilam Sutra is described. Nikhilam sutra, one of the Multiplication Sutra of Vedic mathematics is efficient in multiplying large decimal numbers as it reduces multiplication of two large decimal numbers to two smaller numbers. The proposed iterative algorithm is taken from Nikhilam Sutra and is further optimized by use of dropping least significant zeros of the binary numbers and performing bit shifting to take the advantage of bit reduction in multiplication.

  10. Dr Debarshi Prasad Nath

    Though known to the world as a champion of radical ideas, Annie Besant has today fallen out of favour of critics worldwide. Critics have claimed to find a chasm between her private and public selves which they have interpreted as an inconsistency, almost amounting to a case of double lives. However, much of the readings that have focused on the “inconsistency” of views of Annie Besant have failed to take into account the context in which the shifts in her career took place. Besant’s public image did not mask the divided self as some say, but rather it was the purposeful channeling of energies considered to be appropriately confined to the private world of women onto a much wider public canvas. Annie Besant’s conversion to the theosophical faith needs to be seen in the context of many women of the Theosophical Society became suffragists to promote the spiritualizing of politics, attempting to create a political role for women as a way to enter the public sphere.

  11. Dr. A. Sudhakaraiah, V. Rama Latha and E. Gnana Deepika

    In graph theory, a connected component of an undirected graph is a sub graph in which any two vertices are connected to each other by paths. For a graph G, if the sub graph of G itself is a connected component then the graph is called connected, else the graph G is called disconnected and each connected component sub graph is called it’s components. Circular-arc graphs have variety of applications involving traffic light sequencing, genetics etc. A dominating set D of graph G = (V,E) is a non-split dominating set if the induced sub graph < V-D > is connected. The non-split domination number ns(G) of G is the minimum cardinality of a non-split dominating set .In this paper constructed an algorithm for finding a non-split dominating set of an Circular-Arc graph. Also its relationships with other parameters is investigated.

  12. Kiruthika Lakshmi, P., Srisudha, S. and Gunasekaran, P.

    Chemometric statistical techniques were applied for the evaluation and interpretation of a large complex water quality data set of Vaigai river in South India, monitoring 20 parameters at four different sites in quarterly basis. Principal component analysis resulted in three principal components (PC) explaining 99.9% of the total variance in water quality. The factors indicate that the possible variances in water quality may be due to either sources of anthropogenic origin or due to different biochemical processes that are taking place in system. All datasets were subjected to compute correlation and water quality index (WQI). WQI exceeded WHO permissible limit of 100, indicating that the water samples were unfit for human consumption, rearing of wild life and can be used for irrigation. Regression analysis revealed greater influence of alkalinity and BOD in determination of WQI. This study illustrates the benefits of Chemometric statistical techniques for determination of water quality.

  13. Dipankar Oraw

    Wetlands are an incredibly important resource for wildlife, the public and to all of us as a social being. These productive and diverse ecosystems can be used to learn about many different topics including the water cycle, food chains, food webs, the importance of habitat, human impacts and how to get involved in conservation activities. It is widely accepted that wetland have a significant influence on hydrological cycle. Wetland has therefore become important elements in water management policy at national, regional and international level. There are many examples where wetlands reduce floods, recharge groundwater augment low flows. Wetlands are important repositories of aquatic biodiversity. Wetlands are said to perform ‘hydrological functions’ to ‘act like a sponge’ soaking up water during wet periods and releasing it during dry periods. Wetlands are also known as a 'House of Thousand Species'. This paper is an attempt to highlight the importance of wetlands on villagers through observation and case study method on Chanchal-I & Chanchal II blocks of Malda District of West Bengal (India).

  14. Palanikkumar, D., Nathiya, G. and Lakshmi, M.

    The effective selection and recommendation techniques are needed for increasing presence and adaption of web services in the real world. The collaborative filtering method collects the similar data from other web services and it predicts the current user value. The main assumption of CF is that the users and items have similar behaviors, they will rate or act on other items similarly. Collaborative filtering approach have many challenges, CF algorithms are required highly sparse data. A user collaborative mechanism is used to collect past web service QoS information from different service users. Then based on the collected QoS data a collaborative filtering approach is designed to predict web service QoS values.

  15. Jayati Bhattacherya and Kamala Bhattacharya

    Tourism involving travel to areas of natural or ecological interest typically under the guidance of a naturalist for the purpose of observing wildlife and learning about the environment and at the same time focus on wildlife and promotion of understanding and conservation of the environment is called wildlife tourism. The Kanha National Park was included amongst fine nine conservation schemes in the world. The policy of wildlife tourism management in Kanha National Park is based on a delicate balance between conservation on the one hand and education and entertainment that is ecologically and socio-culturally sustainable, on the other. The active participation of local people is crucial to the success of this strategy. Khatia village comes inside the buffer area. There is a sharp change is observed in the socio economic condition of the village which. is almost entirely controlled by Kanha National Park. Present author has discussed specially the related aspects of the impact of wild life tourism with particular reference to the recent prospects in the context of the socio-economic condition of khatia village in details.

  16. Subhasish Saha and Durba Deb

    The purpose of this study was to conduct an assessment of knowledge, attitudes and practices among peoples of Tripura, India. A total of 2400 peoples (Rural – 70% & Urban – 30%) from 24 location covering of Tripura were interviewed in their own languages in order to understand their knowledge, attitudes and practices toward disability. A questionnaire was used for the study. Implications for practice are presented.

  17. Dr. Sanatan Ghosh,

    Land resource provides basic human needs. Soil is the most important component of land resource. Physio-chemical properties of soil are analysed to determine the land quality. Puruliya is the western most district of West Bengal falling plateau fringe area. The main objective of the study is to determine the quality of land on the basis of soil parameters for sustainable land uses. Soil samples are collected in each block of the districts and analysed in laboratory. Different maps are generated using chemical properties of soil and land capability evaluation maps are prepared applying Azzi’s method in GIS environment. Four land classes are generated. Class-I & class-II land covers about 18% area and class-III & class- IV land covers nearly 82% area. Therefore 82% of the land fertility status is very low. So bio- fertiliser along with phosphorous and lime based fertiliser must be used for augmentation the soil fertility status.

  18. Vedapriya Dande Rajasekar, Mittal Anuj, Lavanya Krishnagopal, Kavita, V., Umamaheswari, K. and Balamuruganvelu. S.

    Background: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is an “Iceberg disease”. Worldwide there are about 150 million estimated cases of diabetes and is predicted to double by 2025. The rising prevalence of DM in developing countries is closely associated with industrialization and socio-economic development. Prevalence rates of diabetes are increasing rapidly in both urban and rural India. Hence this study has been undertaken to find at risk individuals before onset of the disease in our service area. Aim: To assess the risk of diabetes mellitus in adults ≥20 years by using Indian Diabetic Risk Score, in rural area of Pondicherry. Methods : A community based cross-sectional study conducted in a village under rural service area of Community Medicine Department. Data collected were entered and analyzed on SPSS software. Test applied were Simple proportion, Chi square test, sensitivity and specificity. Results: A total of 379 adults aged ≥ 20 years participated in the study, of which 200 (52.8%) were males and 179 (47.2%) were females. By using IDRS score 22.4% were with low risk, 48% with moderate and 29.6% were found to have high risk score, among them 1.2%, 15.4% and 34% were known to have diabetes respectively. Performance of IDRS and BMI for diagnosing diabetes mellitus showed, sensitivity and positive predictive value 56.71%, 33.92%, and 29.85%, 22.22% for IDRS and BMI respectively. Conclusion: IDRS is the better tool to detect undiagnosed diabetes when compared to BMI. It is an easy and cost effective tool which can be applied to mass for screening high risk individuals. GTT has to be done among subjects with high risk score (IDRS>60) to detect early occurrence of diabetes.

  19. M.C. Menkiti, S.M. Obiorah, C.C. Okoye and O.D. Onukwuli

    23- central composite design(CCD) optimization and kinetics of coal washery effluent (CWE) coag-flocculation by Afzelia bella seed has been studied at room temperature via standard bench scale jar test. Afzelia bella coag-flocculant (ABC) was produced according to work reported by Ghebremichael. The combined effects of pH, dosage and settling time on the particle removal was studied using surface response methodology. Kinetic data generated were fitted with specified kinetic models for the evaluation of functional coag-flocculation kinetic parameters. The optimal values of pH, dosage and settling time were recorded at 6,300mg/l and 30min,respectively. The results of the major kinetic parameters recorded were 2, 7x10-5 l /mg.min and 1.34min for order of reaction, coag-flocculation reaction rate constant and coagulation period, respectively. The minimum removal efficiency recorded was > 95% at 3 mins of coag-flocculation. The results demonstrated that ABC can be applied as a coag-flocculant in the treatment of water at the conditions of the experiment.

  20. Dr. Dalwinder Singh, and Kewal Singh,

    The present study was conducted to find out the health related physical fitness differences among boys of kandi area. In the present study, the subjects for data collection were drawn from the different government schools of kandi areas of Punjab state. Random sampling technique was used to select the subjects. The sample consisted of one thousand and five hundred seventy five (N=1575) boys of Kandi areas of Punjab state. To measure maximal functional capacity and endurance of the cardio-respiratory system of the subjects, the 9-Minute run test was applied. To evaluate the level of fatness in school age boys, the skinfold fat caliper was used. To assess the abdominal muscular strength and endurance of the subjects, modified sit–ups test was applied. Sit and reach test was used to evaluate the flexibility (extensibility) of the low back and posterior thighs of the subjects. The Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) was applied to find out the significant differences among various age groups/classes of kandi area boys. Scheffe’s post-hoc of test was applied to see the direction and significance of differences where ‘F’ ratio was found significant. The significant differences were observed among various age groups of Kandi area. The class 9th demonstrated significantly better maximal functional capacity & endurance than class 8th whereas class 10th exhibited significantly better on maximal functional capacity & endurance than class 8th and class 9th. Class 8th demonstrated better body composition than class 9th and class 10th. Similarly class 9th demonstrated better on the said variable than class 10th though not significantly. Class 9th exhibited significantly better abdominal muscular strength & endurance than class 8th. Similarly class 10th demonstrated significantly better than class 8th and class 9th on the said variable. Class 9th showed significantly better flexibility (extensibility) of the low back and posterior thighs than class 8th. Similarly class 10th demonstrated significantly better flexibility than class 8th and class 9th.

  21. Mehrdad Shahidi

    The interaction between play as a unique phenomenon and culture is one of the controversial issues in Interdisciplinary Sciences. Two broad perspectives, biological and cultural views, have discussed play as an inherent universal aspect of human being or as a socially situated cultural activity. In addition to biological notion, the cultural aspects of play are strong enough to deduce that play is a social and cultural ‘pathway’ for socialization. Language, values, moral virtues, power, individualistic and collectivistic believes, autonomy, and a sense of community, as cultural components, can be conveyed through this pathway from one generation to newer generation. A simple analysis of the content of new e-gaming has revealed that action, power, speed, aggression, imagination, feminism, masculinism, and terror are just some of cultural concepts that convey through this pathway and form the way of children’s socialization. The present paper was focused on the relationship between these cultural components and play. This purpose was followed through the following topics: first, culture and its characteristics, and then cultural and social aspects of play (culture within play or play within culture). These topics were discussed based on current findings in social and cultural studies.

  22. Theriappan, P1 and Aditya K. Gupta

    The development of in vitro propagation of plants holds tremendous potential for genetic manipulation of crops and other applications. In the present study, attempts have been made to develop a simple, reliable and reproducible protocol for micropropagation from different explants of Brassica oleraceae L var botrytis. Callusing at a frequency of 100% was observed when hypocotyls segments derived from 6-days-old seedlings of cauliflower were cultured on MS medium supplemented with 2,4-D (1mg/L) and Kinetin (1mg/L). Three months old calli were regenerated at a frequency of 25% when subcultured on MS medium supplemented with just kinetin (1mg/L) alone. Regenerated plants grew well when transferred to soil.

  23. Shamaki B.U (b) S., Sandabe, U.K., Abdulrahman, F.I and Ogbe, A.O and Geidam, Y.A.

    The phytochemical and antibacterial activity of different organic solvent extracts (methanol, Ethyl acetate and N-butanol), of the wild mushroom- Ganoderma lucidum was evaluated at different concentrations 200mgml-1, 150mgml-1, 100mgml-1, 50mgml-1 and 25mgml-1. The antibacterial activities of the extract were investigated using the disc diffusion method. All the test microbes showed resistance against methanolic and N-butanolic fractions. However, they all showed susceptibility to ethyl acetate extract fraction except Streptococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli and Enterobacter aeroginosa that showed resistance. The Ethylacetate extract fraction exhibited broad spectrum of activity by acting against both gram positive and gram negative bacteria. The inhitory effect of the test extract was compared with a standard antibiotic-AmpicloxR (Ampicillin + Cloxacillin).The extract showed its potentials as an antibacterial agent that should be exploited.

  24. Shetti, A. A. and B. B. Kaliwal

    Imidacloprid (I - [(6-chloro-3-pyridinyl)-methyl]-N-nitro-2-imidazolidinimine), is a chloronicotinyl insecticide used to control biting and sucking insects. Enrichment cultures from soil samples were made to isolate imidacloprid degrading bacteria. Soil isolates were tested for their ability to degrade imidacloprid in minimal salt medium (MSM) and tryptic soya broth (TSB). Further plasmid was isolated and curing was performed with acryflavin to establish the role of plasmid in degradation. Two soil-free stable enrichment cultures imi-01 and imi-05 were obtained. Strain SP-01 isolated from the enrichment cultures degraded 38 and 69 % of imidacloprid in MSM and TSB respectively in four weeks as confirmed by HPLC analysis at 0, 7, 14, and 28th day of incubation to determine imidacloprid concentration. Soil isolate SP-01 was identified as Brevundimonas Sp. MJ 15 by morphology, biochemical characters and 16S rDNA sequencing. Further a plasmid was detected in Brevundimonas Sp. MJ 15 and was cured in third generation. The cured cells showed 14.80% degradation compared to 58% degradation shown by non cure cells in TSB. Present investigation revealed that Brevundimonas Sp. MJ 15 was able to degrade imidacloprid in MSM and TSB. Further plasmid curing revealed that the genes responsible for imidacloprid degradation are located both in plasmid and chromosome.

  25. Chiraz Chaffei Haouari, Afef Hajjaji Nasraoui, Donia Bouthour, Elisa Carrayol and Houda Gouia

    Glutamate (Glu) metabolism and amino acid translocation were investigated in the control and cadmium stressed leaves of tomato (Solanum lycopersicon) using 15N-ammonium and 15N-Glu tracers. Regardless of organ type, 15N-ammonium assimilation occurred via glutamine synthetase (GS; EC, both in the control and stressed plants, and it did not depend on Glu dehydrogenase (GDH; EC The 15N-ammonium and ammonium accumulation patterns support the role of GDH in the deamination of 15N-Glu to provide 2-oxoglutarate and 15N-ammonium. In presence of cadmium, excess 15N-ammonium was incorporated into asparagines that served as an additional detoxification molecule. In the presence of MSO, glutamate, alanine and -amino butyrate of roots tissue continue to become labelled with 15N under Cd treatment. Free ammonia accumulates rapidly in both leaves and roots in response to MSO. The labelling kinetics of amino acids in roots of tomato plants in the presence of cadmium show that continued assimilation of 15N-ammonium can occur when the GS/GOGAT cycle is inhibited. GDH protein is more abundantly in the mitochondria of cadmium stress plants than control. These findings open, therefore, new perspectives toward a better understanding of the function of GDH, particularly in relation to cadmium stress.

  26. Ushadevi, T. and Panneerselvam, A.

    The culture filtrate of Aspergillus clavatus isolated from mangrove environment grown in corn meal broth was extracted and antimicrobial potential was tested. And filtrates were extracted with four different solvents, such as ethanol, ethyl ether, ethyl acetate and methanol. Their antimicrobial potential was tested against eight pathogenic bacteria and two fungi. The antimicrobial activities were evaluated by agar well diffusion method. The results of the screening revealed the strongest antibacterial and antifungal activities by the ethyl acetate extract followed by methanol, ethanol and ethyl ether. Crude extract showed the weakest inhibition. A.clavatus showed minimum inhibitory activity against Salmonella typhi, Salmonella paratyphi B and one fungal pathogen, Cryptococcus neoformans. But, the extracts showed maximum activity of inhibition against the other bacterial pathogens such as Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Klepsiella pneumoniae, Proteus vulgaris, and Candida albicans. Influence of nutrients and physico-chemical parameters on the production of antimicrobial compounds was investigated so as to find out the optimum culture condition for maximum antimicrobial activity was performed. Based on this investigation, corn meal liquid medium, 9 days of incubation, 30oC temperature, pH 8, salinity 3% and the dextrose as carbon source were considered to be the optimum conditions for the maximum production of antimicrobial compounds, in vitro condition. Chromatogram of GC-MS analysis of the extract of A.clavatus showed the presence of 5 sets of major peaks and the components corresponding to the peaks were determined.

  27. Sunam Chatterjee, Mousumi Dey, C. Prakasam & Biplab Biswas

    The landscapes on the earth are more or less sculptured with the foot points of human civilization. The anthropogenic activities changed the natural landscape significantly with the passage of time. Presence of human being on earth and his use of land had profound effect on the natural environment and vice versa; which results into an observable change in the land use and land cover over time. Information of land use land cover in the form of maps and data is very important for spatial planning, management and utilization of land. Land use land cover scenario in India has undergone a radical change since the onset of Green Revolution. Remote sensing provides scientific and systematic information for change detection and monitoring of human uses and bio-geographical coverage of land. The present study attempts to identify the spatio-temporal changes of land use land cover in Purbasthali region over the time span of 86 years, using the topographical maps and satellite images of the years 1918, 1973, 1990 and 2004. We have adopted digital and visual land use land cover classification method to produce series of land use land cover maps. The study reveals that agricultural land use has dominance over the other Land use Land cover categories and it covers almost half of the study area but, very recently it is decreasing at a slow pace. Vegetation cover of the region is almost wiped out; Built-up land is extending quite usually with growing population pressure. But recently, due to river bank erosion of river Bhagirathi along the eastern margin of the region it has been shifted to some other areas. The major negative changes occurred in current fallow category due to proficiency in agricultural practice, farm mechanization, and other socio-economic causes.

  28. Jegatheesan, M., M. Senthil Kumar and M. Eyini

    Laccase is the chief ligninolytic enzyme produced by the white-rot mushroom fungi and it has several biotechnological applications including removal of toxic organo pollutants, dye degradation and in melanin synthesis. There is a growing need for isolation and identification of new laccase producing organisms to be used in industries. This paper reports that the increase in laccase production and activity in Pleurotus florida, an oyster mushroom species, in the presence of PAH (Anthracene) by using media engineering techniques and Statistical design experiments involving Response Surface Methodology. Central composite design was applied to optimize the media components and to evaluate the effect of peptone, malt extract and CaCl2 on laccase activity. This statistical design experiment aimed to reduce the number of experiments and to obtain more information on the mutual interactions between the variables. Central composite design led to 20 sets of experiments. When the optimized amounts of nutrients (Peptone, Malt Extract and CaCl2 was 1, 1, 0.1g respectively) were used as supplements to the basal salt medium, laccase activity obtained was increased ten fold (from 2.20 IU/ml to 22.6 IU/ml) over the control treatment using basal salt medium. The interaction between the three supplements as revealed by the RSM indicates that laccase activity was promoted when basal salt medium was supplemented with peptone, malt extract and CaCl2were in the ratio 1:1:0.1. The significant increase in laccase activity using response surface methodology demonstrates the bioprospecting potential of this isolate as a good source of laccase enzyme for industrial applications.

  29. Rajesh Chivane, Vijay Yeul, Seema Shrivastava

    Wardha Valley Coalfield is known to be the oldest coalfield in Maharashtra state and is ideally situated in the centre of India. The properties of coal fly ash are strongly dependent on the geological origin and the combustion process of the coal. It is important to characterize fly ash in detail to ascertain its potential uses as raw material in the production of high value products. A study conducted for the characterization of Wardha valley coal ash sample using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDX). Both the surface and internal structure of fly ash particles were analyzed. The elemental concentrations, as determined by EDS, were consistent with X-ray diffraction data.

  30. Yatoo, Ghulam Mohiuddin and Nathar, Varsha Nitin

    Mature seeds of apple (Mallus pumila) Mill. (Cv. Golden delicious) are dormant and do not germinate unless their dormancy is removed by several weeks of moist-cold treatment. We investigated the effect of short-term growth regulator (NAA, BAP, Kinetin and 2,4-D) pre-treatment on breaking of apple embryonic dormancy. Embryos excised aseptically from non stratified Cultivator ‘Red Delicious’ apple seeds were placed in a solution of various growth regulators at different concentration for different time period before germination in Murashige and Skoog’s media in order to remove embryonic dormancy in them. It was observed that only Kinetin pre-treatment at lower concentrations (5, 10, 15 and 20 mg/l for 6-12 hours) proved to break embryonic dormancy of apple. At higher concentration of Kinetin pre-treatment i.e. 40, 60, 80 and 100 mg/l for the time period of 2-4 hours, the apple embryos were transformed to callus. The germinated apple plantlets after one month of germination were hardened in plastic cups contained sterile garden soil, farmyard soil and sand (2:1:1) and finally transferred to green house. The plantlets showed 90 % survival rate. The objective of this study was to remove embryonic dormancy of apple seeds by various growth regulator pre-treatements and enhance germination in a shorter period of time instead of going for stratification for several weeks. This could be very useful in plant breeding programme by shortening the breeding cycle and introducing the apple to tropical regions where prolonged winters are not observed. Copy Right, IJCR, 2012, Academic Journals. All rights reserved.

  31. Mudasar Ahmad, Vaseem Raja, Parvaiz Ahmad, Gazala Rizvi

    The efficacy of three fungal and one bacterial bioagents viz., Trichoderma harzanium, Trichoderma viride, Gliocladium verns and pseudomonas fluorescens were evaluated in vitro conditions against pea root rot pathogen. Among the bio-agents, Trichoderma harzanium proved superior over other bio-control agents by exhibiting a maximum of 17.28 radial mycelial growths as against 89.00 recorded in check. Trichoderma harzanium maximum mycelial growth inhibition of 76.33 and minimum of 66.33 per cent by pseudomonas fluorescens. Zone of inhibition was observed only in Pseudomonas fluorescens within a week’s incubations at 28±2 0C. Soil application based formulation of Trichoderma harzanium, Trichoderma viride, Gliocladium verns and pseudomonas fluorescens effectively control the root rot of pea plant under field condition.

  32. Pratiksha Pradhan and Gireesh Babu K

    The present study emphasizes on the decolorization of reactive dyes by the bacteria isolated from paper industry waste water. The isolate VBH1 was selected based on its maximum decolorization of 150mg/l of Reactive red 31and Reactive yellow 81. Based on phenotypic characterization and phylogenetic analysis of 16S rDNA sequence, the strain VBH1 belongs to the genus Streptococcus. The optimal conditions for the decolorization of dyes by the isolate VBH1 for 150 mg/l of dyes remained shaker with glucose as carbon supplement and tryptone as nitrogen supplement at pH 8.0 and temperature 35ºC. On physiochemical parameters optimization, 100% decolorization of Reactive red 31 and Reactive yellow 81 was achieved within 22h. Although the degraded product formed was non-toxic as compared to the parent dyes, scanning micrographs taken after dye decolorization revealed drastic changes on the bacterial cell morphology.

  33. R. Samuel Selvaraj, K. Padma, C. P. Sachithananthem and G. Kanmani Rajaselvi D. B. Milton Boaz

    Observed Ozone Concentrations are valuable indicators of possible health and environmental impacts. They are also used to monitor changes and trends in the source of Ozone and its precursors. The influence of meteorological variables is a confounding factor. The paper examines Ozone concentration and meteorology in Chennai at Koyambedu which is a major big Bus terminus. We were the first researchers measuring Ozone and meteorological parameters in this site. We have made an effort to understand seasonal variation of Surface Ozone and meteorological parameters. This will be very useful for further research and future researchers. A non-linear regression model has been designed to forecast hourly average ground level Ozone concentration on the next day in Chennai using meteorological data. For this purpose, a number of regression models were considered. The selection of final model was based on extensive analysis and literature. One day hourly forecast of Ozone Concentration was made by the meteorological parameters which are very closely correlated to ozone.

  34. Rouf. A. Bhat, Gowhar.H. Dar, Arshid Jehangir, Basharat. M. Bhat and Yousuf.A.R

    The increasing municipal solid waste (MSW) generation along with high fraction of organic, recyclable and other types of wastes is the current scenario in religious places and many tourist resorts of Kashmir valley in India. As a response to this problem, we carried out a study on municipal solid waste (MSW) generation and present scenario of municipal solid waste management (MSWM) during Yatra season (July-August 2011) in Pahalgam. The purpose of study was to evaluate the quantity, composition of MSW generated by Yatries, to recommend appropriate management practices. The study was based on three sites with marked differences in their physical and biotic features. The generation of municipal solid wastes (MSW) during Yatra season was too high, which could alter all environmental parameters if proper disposal could not occur at right time. The maximum net weight of MSW was observed at site3 (442.17 Kg/day), while as minimum was observed at site1 (55.92Kg/day). Among the constituents of solid wastes the net weight (%) was dominated by Food wastes (43%) followed by glass (19%), cardboard (13%), while as rubber and leather contributed almost 0 %. Analysis also showed that the maximum (382.07Kg/day) total net weight was contributed by compostable wastes followed by recyclable (221.14Kg/day), combustible by 37.91Kg/day and inert material contributed 12.11Kg/day. The average net weight observed during study period was 108.87 Kg/day/site. Increasing MSWM problems and its disposal strikes environment and health hazard prevailing scenario of waste handling practices and disposal is exhibited along with its associated problems. These insights into generated waste and management practice in Pahalgam health resort allow making suggestions for improved collection, transportation and disposal methods. A primary conclusion is that the recyclable and biodegradable waste is a major fraction having suitable properties for recycling and composting.

  35. R. Sathya, T.Ushadevi and A.Panneerselvam

    Totally 34 different kinds of marine Actinomycetes isolates were obtained from marine soil. Among them five predominant Actinomycetes cultures were used for plastic degradation such as Streptomyces sp (2), Pseudonocardia sp, Actinoplanes sp, Sporichthya sp. Ten - days heat treated plastic films were inoculated in to the yeast extract broth with Actinomycetes cultures were incubated with shaking condition for different time interval at 37oC. After completion of incubation time the plastic film weight was measured and find out the degradation capacity. The weight of the plastic film was gradually reduced by the action of Streptomyces.

  36. Zubair A. Malik, M.S. Panwar and M.K. Parmar

    The degree of hazard due to landslide in any region is difficult to assess manually. Landslides are considered as one of the most destructive geological processes causing not only the enormous damage to roads, bridges, houses but even cause loss of life. Though, landslide hazards cannot be completely prevented but their intensity and severity can be minimized by taking effective mitigation measures and by planning for disaster preparedness. For this purpose, landslide hazard zonation maps are prepared. The landslide hazard zonation is the spatial prediction of landslide potential areas and they are useful for planning and implementation of various developmental schemes in hilly areas. The main aim of this study is to prepare the landslide hazard zonation of Rudraprayag District. The Landslide hazard evaluation factor(LHEF) rating scheme have been used to prepare landslide hazard zonation (LHZ) of this region. LHEF Rating scheme is an empirical approach, which demarcates hill-slopes into zones of varying degree of stability on the basis of their relative hazards. The inherent and external causative factors responsible for slope instability has been taken input parameters and then integrated in GIS environment to arrive at landslide zonation map of the area. The landslide hazard zonation map classifies the area into four classes of landslide susceptible zones i.e., very high, high, moderate and low hazards.

  37. Kennedy Ole Kerei and Teresia Njue

    Most work done to advance sustainable production and marketing of woodcarvings in Kenya is unsystematic and scattered. Therefore, the review was aimed at synthesizing information on production and marketing of the woodcarvings. The woodcarvings industry has a rich history in the country. However, the production and processing of woodcarvings has not fully embraced newer technologies and innovations. The production technologies applied are ineffective and inefficient. This state has often compromised levels of precision and artistic making the industry unable to handle the threat from machine-made products. The market access strategies applied include cooperatives, direct marketing, collective action, contractual arrangements and e-commerce. Collective action including cooperatives and self-help groups is highly applied to market products. Cooperatives are preferred due to their associated benefits in terms of higher site prices hence more profits as a result of bulk marketing. Self-help groups are small associations and are increasingly being preferred as an alternative to cooperatives. Contractual arrangements and e-commerce are least applied strategies. Contractual arrangements often result into income stability and improved efficiency. E-commerce is the least applied although it leads to reduced transaction costs and improved information flow. This, therefore, calls for concerted efforts in terms of technical capacity building for actors in the woodcarvings value chain to apply effective and efficient production and marketing technologies and innovations.

  38. Ikhwanuddin, M., Talpur, A. D., Zulizah, O., Hidayah, A. M.1 and Shamsuddin, A. A. and Abol-Munafi, A. B.

    The study has been conducted to determine the effect of the androgen hormone, 17α-Methyltesterone (MT) on survival rate, growth rate and the sex ratio of tiger shrimp, Penaeus monodon (Fabricius,1978) Postlarvae (PL). Five different doses of MT 200, 400, 600, 800, 1000 mg/kg feed were incorporated in the commercial diet of P. monodon PL for 50 days from PL3 till PL53 and a control without MT. The highest survival rate 68.0% ± 4.6 of shrimp PL was archived in control treatment compared to the MT treatment doses. The highest dose of MT1000 mg/kg feed produced the highest body weight (BW) of 0.26g ± 0.1 and TL of 31.99 ± 3.8. Highest concentration of MT 1000 mg/kg feed did produce highest 76.6% male population among survivors was significantly different among the treatments. The study concluded that MT beside with the production of male population of P. monodon PL could also act as a growth promoter with the increased hormone dose but it adversely decreased survival rate.

  39. Sermakkani, M. and V. Thangapandian

    Biologically synthesized nanoparticles have been widely using in the field of medicine. Research in nanotechnology highlights the possibility of green chemistry pathways to produce technologically important nanomaterials. The synthesis, characterization and application of biologically synthesized nanomaterials have become an important branch of nanotechnology. Fresh leaves of Cassia italica was used for the synthesis of silver (Ag) nanoparticles. The present study revealed that the phytosynthesis of silver nanoparticles from 1mM AgNO3 solution through the leaf extract of C. italica as reducing agent as well as capping agent. Characterization of newly synthesized silver nanoparticles was observed using UV-vis spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and High Resolution Transmission, Electron Microscope (TEM) studies. TEM image divulges that silver nanoparticles are quite poly-dispersed. The extra-cellular synthesis of Ag nanoparticles moves towards extracellular level. The above silver nanoparticles were found to be effective against E. coli and C. albicans. The effect of silver nanoparticles on the growth of bacteria and fungus varied. The important outcome of this study would help to formulate value added products in biomedical and nanotechnology based industries, when commonly available plants are properly screened medicinal plants.

  40. Sowmya, H.V., Ramalingappa and Krishnappa, M

    The Trichoderma sp. and Aspergillus nidulans were isolated from soil sample of local landfill in Shivamogga district for check the efficiency of polyethylene degradation. Degradation was monitored by observing weight loss and changes in physical structure by Scanning Electron Microscopy. Organisms were grown on polyethylene without any treatment and polyethylene, which was UV irradiated and incubated with nitric acid at 80oC for 06 days before cultivation. Organisms were able to degrade treated polyethylene more efficiently than untreated polyethylene. Both of these organisms may act as solution for control the problem caused due to polyethylene contamination in nature.

  41. Dr. V. E. Nethaji Mariappan and Prathiba Princeton

    Industrialization poses a great threat to human kind by the way of generating deleterious products followed through rapid urbanization and population growth activities. Different methods of waste management emit a large number of substances, most in small quantities and at extremely low levels. Land filling was the one of the method used for the discarding of industrial waste in Chennai, and the majority of the landfill sites are open dumping areas, which causes severe environmental and social threats. As a result, the hazardous waste generation has tremendously increased. Therefore an environmental assessment was the need of the hour. A field based study was taken up on five land fill sites namely the Madarpakkam, Sathyavedu village, Menallur village, Nemalur village, Pondavkkam village that were within the 10km buffer zone of the landfill site Gummidipoondi in Tamil Nadu, India and the sites were assessed for environmental parameters on air such as SO2, NOx and SPM, ground water and soil on physical, chemical and associated factors. Overall results has showed that air, soil and water quality were within the prescribed limits of the International standards that could be due to buffer distance of 10km from the core region. A transect survey of environmental parameters would have been better to identify environmental impacts of disposal methods could be considered by decision makers in future to suggest the most environmentally and economic method to the policy planners.

  42. Zia Fatma and P. H. Pathak

    The egg parasitoids of the genus Trichogramma have been used successfully as inundative biological control agents against a range of agricultural pests mainly lepidopterans and are the most widely used natural enemies in biological control worldwide. Parasitoids depend on a series of adaptations to the ecology and physiology of their hosts and host plants for survival and are thus likely highly susceptible to changes in environmental conditions. Temperature is one of the most important environmental factors influencing physiology and behavior of insects including parasitoids. The aim of this study was to describe functional responses of Trichogramma chilonis Ishii on Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) infesting pigeonpea at four temperatures viz. 12, 17, 22 and 27oC that represent a common range of daytime temperatures in northeastern Uttar Pradesh during October (When plant starts flowering) to December (when pods starts maturing) and when Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) populations can exceed the Economic Injury Level (EIL) and natural enemies can be important for their control.

  43. Sullimada Uthaiah Ponnamma and Kiragandur Manjunath

    Justica wynaadensis (Nees) T. Anders (Acanthaceae) is a small branched shrub and finds potential to be used for the treatment of hypercholesterolemia and atherosclerosis. Micropropagation was attempted with nodal explants on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with growth regulators. Maximum shoots were produced in vitro on MS medium supplemented with 3 mg/L BA, with an average of 24.92±0.30 shoots/explant. Rooting was induced in the shoot initiation media itself and did not require a separate rooting media. The rooted plantlets were transplanted to pots containing peat, vermiculite and soil mixture (1:1:1), and maintained in the shade house at a survival rate of 83%.

  44. S.V. Kachare and Sumia Fatima

    Present study deals with Ethno botanical investigations among rural population in Marathwada. Marathwada region comprising seven districts, Aurangabad, Beed, Jalna, Latur, Nanded, Osmanabad and Parbhani form a part of Vast Deccan Plateau of India, located 7005 – 780 E longitude and 1705 - 2005 N longitude An ethno botanical investigations has been carried out to record the indigenous knowledge of the ethnic communities of Marathwada. Marathwada have good association with plant resources. Authors have collected the information, for this authors visited villages such as Ambajogai, Parli-Vaijnath, Degloor, Nanded, Mahur, Daheli, Saradgaon, Kakhandi, Loha, Loni , Kinwat, Anandwadi etc. Photos of local in habitants (medicinal men) also taken. The aim of study to disseminate this knowledge for benefit of poor people, as plants are easily available locally and utilized by local healers in day today life. So it must be preserved and propagated

  45. G. Silambarasan, T. Ramanathan and K. Kathiresan

    Marine cyanobacteria were isolated from water samples of the three mangrove site in Kurusadai island, south east coast of India. Totally 12 species of cyanobacteria were recorded in which one species was heterocystous and 11 were non- heterocystous, belonging to 5 families. The species such as Oscillatoria tenuis, Oscillatoria cortiana, Oscillatoria salina and Lyngbya majuscula were identified. Among the sites, mangrove isolates of oscillatoriaceae alone contributed maximum number of cyanobacterial species (5) and minimum (1) by Nostocaceae and Synechococcaceae. In order to study the effect of physico chemical parameters on cyanobacterial abundance correlation study was done between these two factors. Salinity, temperature and pH exhibited positive correlation whereas nutrients such as nitrate, nitrite, phosphate and silicate showed negative correlation with cyanobacterial abundance.

  46. Dr. S. Raj Kumar and N. Srividhya

    Capital Markets across the world are flourishing and lot of investment is being done to improve the market infrastructure. Clearing and Settlement is the post trading process which is now undergoing a lot of changes to reduce the transaction cost both in domestic and cross border settlements. The regulatory institutions for securities in each country/region are coming up with different standards to harmonize and standardize the clearing and settlement space. Harmonization results in reduction in cost and interoperability. These financial institutions are looking for a vendor who can give them the solution with these standards at a lower cost and lesser time. Hence the IT firms should be more proactive and position their product according to the market needs. By analyzing the current trends and challenges in the market, they can identify the possible opportunities and come up with the solution even before the customers approach them. This study also would help them to design their marketing strategy in clearing and settlement space. The geography wise trends help them to design the strategy for each market separately. The study also analyses whether there is correlation between number of trades in a particular region and the IT spending in that region. If correlation is present between them, then by analyzing the trend in number of trades, share volume and trade value one can say what will be the IT spending in that region. Qualitative analysis of the current trends and challenges are very important for an IT industry because the trends, regulations are some of the factors which drive the change. Hence the current trends and challenges are analyzed and areas opportunity for TCS is identified and recommendations are given finally.

  47. Sembiyan, R and Visvanathan, G

    The study was intended to find out the social intelligence of college students in Cuddalore, Villupuram, Nagapattinam, Thanjore, vellore and Thiruvannamalai Districts of Tamil Nadu, India. Random Sampling Technique was used to compose a sample of 1050 college students Mean, Standard Deviation and t value were calculated for the analysis of data. The result revealed that the locality, type of family and type of colleges had no significant difference but, gender and type of institution exhibited significant difference in respect of their social intelligence of college students.

  48. Shadrack Kiprotich Saina

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the roles of teachers in the formulation and implementation of school-based innovations in Secondary Schools. This paper examines the various roles of teachers in the formulation of school based education innovations. The paper also investigates the various innovation implementation strategies employed by schools. The variouschallenges that school management go through in trying to formulate and implement innovations in their schools have also been highlighted. The study was conducted in Nandi North District. Simple random sampling technique was used to select 20 schools out of 50.From this, a total of 140 teachers participated in the study. Primary data was collected by use of questionnaires while document analysis formed the main source of secondary data. The collected data was analyzed by use of descriptive statistics and presented in form of frequency tables.The study found that teachers’ roles in the formulation of school based education innovations are not recognized It was also found that school innovation implementation strategies were inappropriate in the management of schools.The study also found out that there were various constraints to formulation and Implementation of school based education innovations. It was recommended that teachers be regarded as partners in education management. The study recommended that schools need to come up with prudent measures in regard to innovation formulation and implementation. The study also recommended the need for management of secondary schools and the Ministry of Education to conduct regular self-appraisals on their weaknesses and strengths with a view of minimizing on the constraints and challenges realized during the formulation and implementation process of school innovations.

  49. S. Srinivasan, C. Shrihari, G. Thillai Saravanan, K. Vignesh, and B. Imthias

    Most of the leading manufacturing sectors are facing the problem of devoting more time for inspection and controlling the dimensional specifications of a product manufactured by them. This is due to the unavailability of controlling methods because most of the industries do not provide the control plan to the operator. In order to overcome this drawback, the operator at the work centre must be provided with both Work Instructions as well as Control Plan. This paper presents a method which combines both Work Instructions and Control Plan.

  50. R. Uma and Dr. R. Samuel Selvaraj

    The annual frequency of tropical cyclonic disturbances (≤ 63 knots) and the annual frequency of cyclonic and severe cyclonic storms (34 to 63 knots) over the north Indian Ocean (comprising Bay of Bengal and Arabian Sea) is analyzed using the Fractal Construction Technique. Recognizing and quantifying chaos in time series represents an important step towards understanding not only the natural behavior of the system but also for the improvement of short term forecasts. An attempt is being made to find the fractal geometry of climate and to predict its periodicity on different temporal scales. Lyapunov exponent, Maximum Lyapunov characteristic exponent and Lyapunov time for the cyclonic disturbances including depression, cyclonic storm and severe cyclonic storm over the north Indian Ocean has been estimated.

  51. Poonam Yeul and Seema Shrivastava

    Chitosan is produced commercially by deacetylation of chitin, which is the structural element in the exoskeleton of crustaceans such as crabs and shrimp & cell walls of fungi. The degree of deacetylation (%DD) can be determined by NMR spectroscopy, and the %DD in commercial chitosans ranges from 60 to 100%. A common method for the synthesis of chitosan is the deacetylation of chitin using sodium hydroxide in excess as a reagent and water as a solvent. This reaction pathway, when allowed to go to completion yields up to 98% product. This review explores the Chitosan properties, modifications & applications.

  52. Sarojini R., Deepika K. and Rangabhashiyam, S.

    In the current study the Glucoamylase production was carried out by Aspergillus niger on the solid state fermentation of Agricultural residues. The Agricultural residues, subjected as the substrate for glucoamylase production are Ricebran, Cotton seed flour, Coconut oil cake, Wheat bran, Groundnut oil cake, each in a separate conical flask. Aspergillus niger was incubated in those different agro residues for 5 days at 37ºC for finding the suitable substrate favouring the better enzyme expression with optimum characteristics features. The cultural conditions were optimized for the enzyme production, 20% [50/250ml-flask] was found to be optimum volume of the medium. With comparison of all the five agro residues “Ricebran” showed high yield of (7µg/ml) Glucoamylases in SSF. Optimum enzyme activity was observed at 45 ºC at pH 5.2. The kinetic studies of Michaelis Menton parameters includes the estimation ofVmax and Km, were 20(µg/ml.min), 10(g/l).





Rosane Cavalcante Fragoso, Brasil


Chief Scientific Officer and Head of a Research Group

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