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November 2012

In the present study we evaluate the intertidal distribution of polychaete communities allied with the physicochemical parameters and to impact on the ecosystem health to presence of heavy metals contents are influenced with occurrence of the polychaetes. Totally 828 of individuals belonging to eight polychaete genus were collected from the four dissimilar stations of around Vellar estuaries. Among this populations ranged from 8.81 - 17.27%. In terms of species individuals establish all the station varied between 1.57 (S4) - 6.03 (S3) for the responsibility of physicochemical parameters.

A study was conducted to assess the cytogenetic changes in an air breathing fish, Channa punctatus subjected to the polluted water of River Cooum. A control group of fish was maintained without any treatment. The fishes were exposed to Cooum water as test samples for 96 hours. The opercular movements were counted at an interval of 1 hour, four times a day for both the control and experimental. The tissues of gill and kidney were then subjected for the study of chromosomal aberration.

In this present study the ability of Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus in dinitrogen fixation associated with sugarcane suggests that the endophyte is of considerable in cane yields as well as sugar recovery. The endophtic bacterium CDZ-8 fixed about 17.26 ± 0.42 Amount of “N” fixed (mg/g of malate) in our study. All the twenty isolates of Gluconacetobacter were graded into three gategories on the basis of their dinitrogen fixing efficiency of 15 (mg/g of malate), above 10- 14 (mg/g of malate) and below 10 (mg/g of malate).

In this present study a detailed survey for the occurance of Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus populations from the rhizosphere of sugarcane coastal saline soils of cuddalore district of Tamilnadu. A total numper of 20 Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus strains were isolated. The results of the present study also revealed a marked variation in the population of Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus observed. A range of 0.57 percent to 1.14 percent of the total bacterial population was observed in the survey.

Our current knowledge on planetary bodies largely depends on remote sensing and rarely by samples investigation. Meteorite fall (fresh sample) is rare to observe. Sulagiri is one such phenomenon that occurred in India recently. In this study an attempt has been made to understand mineralogy, chemical composition and reflectance spectra of Sulagiri meteorite.

The slum dwelling women’s are not only economically and socially backward but also a neglected section among the society. The environmental conditions of the slum area affect the health status of the slum dwellers automatically. But there are also other factors that controlled the health status. Women do not get proper food four times. They consume cheap prices low calorie food. There are several matters like early age of marriage, early age of pregnancy, given birth to many children’s, small gap between pregnancies etc. which affect their health a lot.

The effects of cycloheximide on the changes in activity of glutamate dehydrogenase-NADH dependent (NADH-GDH) and NAD+-dependent (NAD+-GDH), and glutamine synthetase (GS) were studied during the senescence of tomato seedlings in the presence or absence of cadmium. The GDH and GS1 enzymes seemed to be synthesized at the presence of cadmium. Cycloheximide-treated leaves and roots showed an increase in the expression immunostaining intensity of mRNA band gdh and gs1, suggesting an increase in neosynthesis of enzymes and genes activation.

In the present study effect of sublethal concentration of lead (0.08 and 0.10 mg/L of 96h LC50 value) on the tissue profile of Clarias gariepinus was studied. Clarias gariepinus when exposed to sublethal concentration of lead for 10 days showed various changes in the tissue parameters. The protein and carbohydrate levels were decreased in higher concentration of lead. The acid phosphatase was increased in muscle and gill but decreased in the liver. The alkaline phosphatase increased and decreased in different concentration of lead.

This study examined the nature of causality, the impact and relationship between foreign direct investment (FDI), export, and economic growth in Nigeria. Granger causality analysis was used to test the hypotheses causal link between foreign direct investment and economic growth; export and economic growth, while, correlation analysis and Ordinary Least Square (OLS) were used to determine the relationship and the significant effect of FDI and export on economic growth. Our data were extracted from Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN) for a period of 29 years (1981-2010) both years inclusive.

In the present investigation attempts have been made to develop roasted linseed powder and analyzing its physiochemical properties and proximate composition and to optimize bengal gram flour, roasted linseed powder and gingelly seed powder with other ingredients using Response Surface Methodology (RSM) for acceptable omega 3 rich savory snack (Omapodi) preparation by considering carbohydrate, protein, omega 3 fatty acids and overall acceptability as a response variables.

In the present investigation attempts have been made to process boiled amaranth grain (amaranthus cruentus) into flour and analyzing the physiochemical properties and proximate composition of flour and to develop fiber rich chapatti by the addition of optimized proportions of Wheat flour (WF), Boiled Amaranth Grain Flour (BAGF) and Water(W) with other ingredients using Response Surface Methodology (RSM) for acceptable Chapatti considering Carbohydrate, Protein, Fat, Fiber, Diameter, Product weight and overall acceptability as a response variables.

The concept of s-unitarily similar matrices is introduced. Some theorem on s-unitarily similar matrices are given.

Giant Pseudoaneurysms of visceral arteries are rare but carry a significant risk of morbidity and mortality if left untreated. We are reporting a case of giant pseudoaneurysm of splenic artery secondary to pancreatitis in a middle aged female patient which was treated successfully by surgical excision with low postoperative morbidity.

Coscinium fenestratum (Gaertn.) Colebr., (Menispermaceae) is a critically endangered, medicinal plant. Mature leaf were used as the explants for the initiation of callus and cultured into three different media, Murashige and Skoog (MS), Woody plant medium (WPM) and B5 medium with varying concentrations of Thidiazuron (TDZ). MS medium was found to have a superior proliferation rate. The frequency of callus formation reached 95% with a mean fresh weight of 2854.76 ± 0.30 mg for explants cultured on MS basal medium supplemented with 0.75 mg/l TDZ.

This study focused on determination of haemoglobin levels in blood of female geophagists and identification of helminth ova in geophagic materials as a possible route for transmission of helminth infections amongst non-pregnant female geophagists. Sixty eight non-pregnant female geophagists, between the ages of 18 and 49 and 5 non-pregnant women between the ages of 18 and 45 (control group) were recruited for the study. Of the 68 non-pregnant female geophagists that were enrolled for the study, 9% of the women were diagnosed of severe anaemia, 35% were anaemic and 56% were normal.

The effect of batch co-digestion of the wastes emanating from ethanol production process with some animal and plant wastes on the biogas yield was studied. The wastes from the processing of some starch feedstock and from their fermentation wort were utilized for the biogas production studies. The wastes constituted: (i) process wastes from starch extraction (ET) and (ii) fermentation wort (ETP). They were studied alone (ET-A) and (ETP-A) and in combination with some animal wastes (cow dung (CD) and swine dung (SD) and plant wastes (field grass (FG) and glycerol (GL).

Biogas production from the pure wastes emanating from ethanol production process was studied. The wastes from the processing of some starch feedstock and from their fermentation wort were utilized for the biogas production studies. The wastes constituted: (i) process wastes from starch extraction (ET) and (ii) fermentation wort (ETP). They were studied alone as ET-A and ETP-A. The biogas production capabilities of the wastes were in terms of (i) biogas yields (ii) onset of gas flammability and (iii) effective retention time.

The debate in economics whether financial development causes economic growth or whether it is a consequence of increase in economic activity seems unending. This paper examined the effect as well as the causal relationship between financial sector development and economic growth in Nigeria. This study focused on two focal variables, depth of the financial sector (M2/GDP) ratio of broad money stock to GDP and level of financial intermediation ratio of private sector credit to the GDP PC/GDP.

This study examined the impact of indirect material inventory on the profitability of brewery companies in Nigeria. A sample of two brewery companies listed on the Nigeria stock exchange was used for this study. Regression analysis was applied to annual data sourced from annual report and accounts of the sampled companies for the period 1989-2008. The result indicates that indirect material inventory has significant influence on the profitability of Nigeria brewery Plc and Aggregate Company.

India’s economic progress forecasts an increasing demand of energy to retain its momentum. Being in the category of high energy consumer countries with substantial energy deficit, it obviously requires a dependable and durable resource backbone to support it. Among the many options that can be used and relied upon, Central Asian States, seem to have not only proximity advantage but more importantly resource potential to ensure durability in the Indian economic development. This article examines the possibility and appropriateness of central Asian energy resources and market for India.

The decomposition efficiency of Eisenia fetida for vermicomposting was evaluated by using a variety of wastes such as Domestic waste, Agricultural waste, Sago waste, cow dung and poultry dropping in different compositions. This paper reports the recycling of nutrients by vermicomposting of employing earthworm (Eisenia fetida). A total of six vermicomposting units were established and dynamics of chemical and biological parameters has been studied for 42 days.

Rivina humilis L. is a herbaceous plants commonly found in wastelands of gardens and plains. In the present study, preliminary phytochemical screening and in vitro antioxidant activity of ethyl acetate, chloroform and methanolic leaf extracts of Rivina humilis was investigated. Phytochemical analysis of the leaf extracts of R. humilis revealed the presence of carbohydrates, flavonoids, alkaloids, quinones, terpenoids, coumarins, steroids, tannins, saponins and cardiac glycosides. The results showed that the phytochemical properties of the leaves can be used for curing various diseases.

The opportunistic and ubiquitous Aeromonas spp., is receiving growing importance since its implication in a wide spectrum of human diseases few decades ago. The enteric pathogen A.hydorphila, is the most commonly associated pathogen with acute diarrhoea, with a similar prevalence world-wide.

This paper has identified projects as the ‘cutting edge” of development and they represent important and tangible symbols of sustainable change and modernization in an economy. The objectives of this paper include to: explore the concept “project” and it’s cycle; identify the socio-political factors that negatively affects project planning through implementation in Nigeria; highlight tools that facilitates effective project planning, management and implementation; and proffer general recommendations for the effective and efficient planning and implementation of projects in Nigeria.

The non-oil sector in Nigeria is so disarticulated while it’s sectoral linkage to the economy are so weak. Oil and gas dominate national output while the other manufacturing and production sectors that drives export in the economy is decidedly so small in terms of share of gross output, contribution to economic growth, foreign exchange earnings, government revenues and most importantly, employment generation.

Given the important contributions of the brewerysector to the Nigerian economy, this research deems it necessary to evaluate the effect of raw materials inventory management on the profitability of brewery firms in Nigeria. A cross sectional data from 1989 to 2008 was gathered for the analysis from the annual reportsof the sampled brewery firms. Measures of profitability were examined and related toproxies for raw materials inventory management by brewers. The Ordinary Least Squares (OLS) stated in the form of a multipleregression model was applied in the analysis.

Gundruk, a typical indigenous vegetable product of Nepal was prepared from leaves of mustard (Brassica juncea) and cabbage (Brassica oleracea capitata) in different fermentation containers viz. glass jar, wooden box, earthenware pots and plastic jars which were evaluated sensorially and analyzed chemically. Sensory analysis revealed higher acceptability for gundruk prepared in glass jar compared to others.

Forest provides a means of livelihood for rural communities in the developing countries. It plays a vital role in global food security, providing food, fodder, fuel and medicine. Throughout the developing world, women make a significant contribution to forestry. The present paper attempts to study the organic linkages between women and forest resources. Indigenous women’s knowledge plays an important role in the management, conservation and sustainable use of forest resources.

By exploring the Science Teacher program students’ misconceptions, this study is aimed to eliminate their misconceptions about geometric optics with conceptual change texts. At the first stage, the data were obtained by applying a three-tiered multiple choice test containing 19 questions, improved for Agri Education Faculty Science Teaching Department 90 sophomore students and a classic exam related to the subject in autumn season. To determine misconceptions concerning the geometric optics, randomly chosen 10 sophomore students were interviewed with 10 open-ended questions.

The present study is based on the synthesis of silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) by “cleaner and greener” approach for environmental clean-up. Our way of Green synthesis methods include hydrolysis of protein solid waste, extraction of bio molecule, Synthesis of silver nanoparticle and anti-bacterial application. Proteolysis bacteria isolated from marine environment was identified as Bacillus sp. CJ2 and used for the hydrolysis of protein solid waste, which resulted in bio-molecule rich broth production.

With the rapid development of economy in Tianjin Binhai New Area (TBNA), the regional cooperation has been strengthened in the Areas around the Bohai Sea. As an important part of the Circum-Bohai economic circle, Shandong Peninsular Urban Agglomeration (SPUA) has the regional cooperation advantages in every aspect with TBNA. So it is important to study the regional cooperation level between them. In this study, the clustering analysis was conducted on the regional cooperation level between 8 cities belonged to SPUA and TBNA by the non-linear mapping.

A highly intense (27,000 cells mL-1) bloom of the nitrogen fixing cyanobacterium Trichodesmium erythraeum was observed in Burmanallah region of Port Blair in South Andaman during summer (March 2012). Hydrographical parameters were studied and nutrients like Nitrate, nitrite, phosphate and silicate were measured. It was found out that an increase in water temperature has initiated the bloom. Increase in salinity was also found to be a factor which had contributed to the bloom.

Heavy metals were determined from waste dumpsites in Gboko metropolis, Benue state, Nigeria. The mean pH values of the soil samples were found to be 7.70 and 7.15 for Gboko North and South respectively. The analysis of heavy metals indicate that samples from Gboko North show mean concentrations (mg/kg) of heavy metals as; Pb (0.966), Ni (0.514), Cd (0.298), Al (0.223), Cr (0.092), As (0.051).

The Detroit branch of Boston Consulting Group predicts that, by 2014, one-third of world demand for automobiles will be in the four BRIC markets (Brazil, Russia, India and China). What started as an exploration of new markets for car sales in the early 90s has gone on to become the mainstream market of the new millennium. Supported by attractive macro-economic factors such as growing economic activity, urbanization, rising household incomes, and developing credit markets the BRIC countries currently make up for the top 7 automotive markets globally.

Diversity as “difference, unlikeness, variety and multiformity. Exploration of assumptions, beliefs and attitudes concerning diversity would provide us insights on the preferences of the members of an organization for similarities or differences, homogeneity or heterogeneity, otherness or inclusion. Of course, it is not always necessary that individuals and groups look at them in a dichotomous way and instead feel comfortable with both. The purpose is to explore the existing notions of members of an organizations and examine whether they consider diversity as adversity or advantage.

Forest Communities (about 28% of Kenya’s population) represent a critical section of Kenya’s overall population. Many of these people interact on a daily basis with forest resources around them. The knowledge about their perceptions and attitudes pertaining to forest resources may make it possible to contextualize their influences on sustainable management of forest resources. The missing link in this paradigm could be the inadequate or little levels of incorporation of community based forest management strategies in planning for sustainable utilization of forest resources.

Due to increased pollution activities in the world today, it is important to embrace the sustainable development principle. The principle of sustainable development is that the integration of economic, social and environmental concerns. Sustainable development recognizes that the economy and the environment are closely interrelated. Much economic activity uses up materials and resources, including forests and minerals, and creates waste products. Yet many economic activities, including agriculture, fishing and tourism, are also dependent on a healthy environment.

The IR vibrational spectra of the ceramic test samples were recorded and discussed which servesas the molecular fingerprint to give proof of identity without recourse to any other analytical method and yields basic information on the changes in the interatomic bonding. The possible use of ceramic rejects in the clayey body draws particular attention. The IR assignments of the raw samples are almost alike despite the different compositions and show stretching and bending modes of kaolinite at different absorption frequencies of 3694 cm-1 and 913 cm-1 respectively.

The main objective of this thesis work is to optimize the machining performance in precision turning operations. In finishing operations, surface roughness is a major concern. Hence, to quantify the machining performance in precision turning operations, the quality of a machined surface is becoming more and more important to satisfy the increasing demands of sophisticated component performance, longevity, and reliability. The objective of this paper is to analyze the performance of precision turning using conventional lathe on Ti6Al4V under dry working conditions.

The quality of a machined surface is becoming further and more significant to satisfy the increasing demands of sophisticated component performance, longevity, and reliability. The objective of this paper is to analyze the performance of precision turning by means of conventional lathe on Ti6Al4V under dry working conditions. Various parameters that impinge on the machining processes were identified and a consensus was reached regarding its values.

Waste management is one of the most common and challenging problems in the world. The steel making industry has generated substantial solid waste. Mild steel slag is a residue obtained in steel making operation. This paper deals with the implementation of mild steel slag an effective replacement for stone or aggregate. Mild steel slag which is considered as the solid waste pollutant can be used for road construction, clinker raw materials, filling materials, etc. In this work, mild steel slag is used as replacement for aggregate or stone, which has highest content in concrete mixture.

Ten water samples from six randomly selected boreholes, three natural spring water and one sachet water from Nnewi in Nnewi North Local Government Area of Anambra State, Nigeria were collected. Physico-chemical parameters and heavy metals were determined using standard analytical procedures. The result of the physico-chemical analysis were obtained in the following range; pH (6.38-7.42), temperature (23-260C), conductivity (30.22-222.22 µS/cm), sodium (0.46-23.00mg/l), potassium (0.07-2.49mg/l), chloride (15.57-36.03mg/l), alkalinity (20-110mg/l) and hardness (45-275mg/l).

Computational assessment of the binding interactions of drugs is essential for enhancing the discovery of new drugs. In this perspective approved drugs for Leukemia Imantinib and Tretinoin and Garcinol a bioactive component of Garcinia indica was docked into inhibitor binding cavity of Nuclear Factor kappa B receptor and Tyrosine kinase receptor to understand their mode of binding interactions in silico. Lamarckian genetic algorithm methodology was employed for docking simulations using AutoDock 4.2 program.

In the area of Sexual and Reproductive health, the onset of reproductive roles does not entitle the young women to their maternal and child health services or family planning services unless they are married and have children less than five years. High rates of Urbanization in developing countries have produced innumerable slums and squatters with very poor living conditions. The Global disease burden of Reproductive Tract Infections (RTIs), including Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs), is a major health concern.

Objective: The objective of our study is to develop an expert system for Management of Head Injury Patients (MHIP) to automate treatment planning support for severe head injury patients. Methods: A study was conducted among the Head injury Patients of Government General Hospital (GGH), Chennai, India. The necessary information were recorded and the risk factors were identified by various multivariate statistical models using SPSS package, with all these information together with the opinion of the Neurosurgeon on important clinical factors an Expert system MHIP has been developed.

Carbamate insecticide, carbaryl (1-naphthyl-Nmethylcarbamate), is highly toxic with a wide range of activity and known to be metabolized by microorganisms belonging to a variety of bacterial genera by interacting with different components.

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of agro-waste substrates like banana peel powder and coir powder at varying environmental parameters of pH (4-9) and temperature (20-50ºC) on the cellulase production by Trichoderma reesei. The enzyme production was measured by the amount of glucose liberated in IU/ml by using dinitrosalicylic acid method. The substrates were pretreated with alkaline pretreatment and autoclaved. The maximum activity of the enzyme was assayed at varying pH with temperatures being constant and varying temperatures with pH being constant.

Lichen has a remarkable property of absorbing inorganic cations from the natural substrates on which they grow in amounts which are in excess of any expected requirements. We examined 20 sexicolous lichens which are known to fix metal ions found in Hilly areas of Himachal Pradesh of India for their metal fixation property. The mechanism by which Lichens take up cations is of considerable interest.

Background: HIV/AIDS is a worldwide problem while most of its affects are felt by the poor and the less educated adults. Young adults are at greatest risk given their risky sexual behavior. Discussion: In this paper adult health education and its role in the fight against HIV/AIDS is discussed. Successful programs in other African countries are explored and different approaches to HIV/AIDS adult education are presented. Take Home message Adult health education has a crucial role to play in the fight against HIV/AIDS especially in preventing HIV spread.

One of the concerns in education sector today is developing effective performance indicators in terms of level of application and importance. The purpose of this study was to establish the performance indicators applied in the management of secondary schools. Its objective was to identify key performance indicators perceived as critical in secondary school management and the level of application and importance in their use. The study population consisted of 200 secondary school managers out of which180 were selected by saturated sampling technique after using 20 for a pilot study.

During the last few years it is noticed that everybody is getting concern about natural dyes. Mainly the sources of natural dyes have three categories viz. plants, minerals and animals, but plants take great role for obtaining the natural dyes. Due to its less pollution and less side effect, natural dyes are used more often in food products as well as other important regular uses. Methanolic extract of different seven dye yielding plant parts like Acacia catechu (L.f) Willd., Basella alba Linn. var.

Today, India has been facing two most vital problems which are directly related to agriculture, the first one is to meet the swelling demand for food and other agricultural products, and the second is enervating the widespread poverty in rural areas by the ever increasing population. The good performance in agriculture can diminish levels of rural poverty and meet increasing demand of agricultural products (Ahluwalia, 1978). Agricultural productivity is a measure of the efficiency with which inputs are used in agriculture to produce an output.

This is a study on application of Retail Analytics regarding to the retail outlet in Tiruchirappallai, Tamil Nadu , South India using data mining technique. The scope of this paper is using mining technique to identify the products or products of particular category which has association that is products which are likely to buy with other products as a bundle of item sets. This is defined by association rules with the help of support and confidence metrics, thereby finding the frequent market basket bundle item sets.

The interactions of electromagnetic waves emitted by radiator with the biological tissues are studied. The photon of electromagnetic waves (EMW) are scattered by the different tissues inside the body and created the phonon. In this process, energy is transferred from one tissue to another and in every step; energy is absorbed by the tissues.

The biochemical components like protein, carbohydrate and lipid were estimated quantitatively in the tissues of liver, kidney, muscle and gill of control and insecticide treated fishes. The fishes were treated with the sublethal concentration of 6.6 ppm for 1, 2, 3, 10and 20 days. The protein, carbohydrate and lipid level of 20 days. The protein, carbohydrate and lipid level of liver, kidney, muscle and gill of the control fish was very high when compared with the treated ones. In treated fish the protein content of liver, kidney, muscle and gill were greatly reduced.

The study investigated the strategic management practices of small business enterprises in Cross River State of Nigeria. The objectives of the study are; to determine the relationship between strategic management practices and performance of SBEs; to determine the relationship between strategic management practices and market share of SBEs; To determine factors affecting strategic management practices of SBEs. Cross sectional survey design was adopted. The population of the study was hundred and two (102) owners/managers of the selected organizations.

At the heart of the success of any school improvement process is teachers' willingness to change and improve their knowledge, attitudes and practices. The role of school leadership is crutial in combining professional and accountability measures for effective collaboration of teachers in this regard. Using a case study design, the study explored the role of school leadership in mediating teacher appraisal for development. A purposive sample of two schools and nine participants were selected for the study.

The study investigated the impact of transformational and transactional leadership styles on performance of manufacturing organizations in Cross River State of Nigeria. The objectives of the study are; to determine the relationship between transformational leadership style and organizational performance; to determine the relationship between transactional leadership style and organizational performance. Cross sectional survey design was adopted. The population of the study was made up of senior and junior workers of the three selected organizations in Cross River State.

Objective: To see the prevalence of malnutrition and its severity. Setting & Design: A cross-sectional survey of the nutritional status at HIHT, Rishikesh Branch. Participants: All the patients between the age group of 6 months-6 years who attended pediatrics OPD were included in this study. Results: In the present study 27.38 % children were under weight for their age.

Cloud computing is one of today’s most attractive technology areas due to its many advantages like Highly scalable, on-demand, web-accessed IT resources with major cost / cash and flexibility. Various companies around the world adapting cloud computing as a means to increasing efficiency and reducing cost of their IT services. In this research paper efforts have been made to analyze the use of hybrid cloud computing model with security and scalability in business information system. There are many challenges in using cloud computing.

In this research work, data consisting number of pupils enrolment in primary schools, number of students enrolment in secondary schools, number of successful candidates, number of failure candidates, capital expenditure, recurrent expenditure covering 2002-2011 was obtained and analyzed to identify the level of educational achievement recorded under democratic dispensation, using Regression analysis.

Treatment of vitamin A (10IU/ml for 72 hours) to the tail amputated tadpoles of the Indian tree frog, Polypedates maculatus led to regeneration of abnormal tails from 20% abnormally regenerated tails ectopic limbs developed. A biochemical investigation revealed an elevation in the specific activity of acid and alkaline phosphatase in the regenerating tail of the control group in comparison to the original tails.

In spite of lot of research work in last few years, much information still lacks in our knowledge about migration. Expectancy table procedure gives the expectancy of various demographic events such as to determine the probable life time earnings of a person in a given industry or in a given occupation. Expectancy tables of migration gives information on the expected number of moves a person may make during his remaining life time. In the present study, we have tried to find out the nature and pattern of migration expectancy characterized by age and sex.

Green gram (Vigna radiate L.) is also known as mung bean or golden bean belongs to the Family Leguminosae. Green gram is a short duration crop and mainly cultivated as a rainfed crop under Rice fallow condition and irrigated crop. The low productivity under rainfed condition is due to soil moisture deficit, uneven rainfall, low soil fertility and poor crop management. To overcome this problem, seed researchers like Henckel as early as 1964 recommended the seed hardening techniques to alleviate the moisture stress condition.

The aquatic fungi are commonly found in water bodies’ especially rich biodiversity in lotic water bodies. The selected study sites of water samples and decaying debris were collected in the same study area and kept for screening and incubation respectively. The conidia developing on decaying debris were screened using microscope. The collected water samples revealed aquatic fungi. In this contribution of occurrence and abundance of aquatic fungi were enumerated. A total of 30 species belongs to fifteen genera were identified.

Background: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a vital health problem in blood transfusion throughout the world. A good number of studies in northern Nigeria were amongst people infected with HIV/AIDS; hence information is very scarce on the prevalence of HBV infection among blood donors in Nigeria. Objectives: The necessity for information about this silent killer among these apparent healthy blood donors was the center for this study.

Adolescence stage is a period where biological factors are mainly recognized like brain development, increase in height, weight gain, motor skills and hormonal changes in puberty. This is the stage where adolescents’ cognitive development is increased. They are able to memorize many concepts, they become very creative, they reason logically and are very imaginative. Their social development also improves a lot especially in developing relationships with members of opposite sex.

IT careers are often characterized by hard work, long hours and tight deadlines. Coupled with these high stressed careers, personality traits like high ambition, a strong sense of time urgency, hostility, distrust and anger could play havoc on the physical and psychological well-being of the professionals. Managing stress by mobilizing and enhancing internal coping strategies and learning and employing appropriate methods of responding to stressful situations are assumed solutions to the ever increasing demands of IT field.

Disease has always been a great topic of concern in aquaculture industry. Antibiotic sensitivity, bacterial resistance is an issue that needs to be considered while treating the disease. Various steps were taken to find out possible alternative methods to minimize the antibiotics use in the aquaculture industry for disease management. Probiotics, feed additive and natural products such as herbals, sea weeds and good management practices in disease control have proposed for better production without having adverse effect. In the present study, five different Vibrio spp.

A Study was conducted in Kanayakumari district to find out the efficiency of water use for paddy and banana and the relationship between the characteristics of the respondents and the efficiency of water use. The study reveals that 60.67 per cent of the respondents had low water use efficiency and 25.33 per cent of them had medium water use efficiency in paddy. Only 14.00 per cent of them had high water use efficiency in paddy. This study also shows that 61.33 per cent of them had low water use efficiency followed by medium water use efficiency (21.33 per cent) in banana.

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