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December 2014

  1. Philip Chimee Onuoha, PhD, RN and Oneikah Sergeant Richards, MSN, RN

    Purpose: To determine the knowledge, self-efficacy and breast cancer screening practices of Primary Health Care Nurses (PHCNs)in SVG. The effects of interpersonal and situational influences on PHCNs’ participation in breast screening activities were also examined. Methods: This study utilized a non-experimental, descriptive survey design. Quota proportionate sampling was used to select 62 PHC Nurses working in the 9 health districts of SVG. The instrument consisted of researchers’-developed questionnaire consisting primarily of objective-type items which assessed knowledge of breast cancer, self-efficacy and breast cancer screening practices. Microsoft Excel 2007 and IBM PASW (SPSS) Version 22 were used to determine and confirm the results of this study. Findings: With 62 of the targeted 70 nurses responding, PHC nurses had poor knowledge of breast cancer. There was no statistically significant relationship between levels of awareness of breast cancer and respondents’ age, experience or professional qualification. Implications for practice: Continuous education and training are required to increase nurses’ levels of awareness of breast cancer. Organizational support and policies are essential in ensuring consistency and standardization of breast cancer screening practices. Replication of this study will provide greater insight into the phenomenon.

  2. Dr. Vijayalakshmi, G. N.

    Background: Currently, laparoscopic appendectomy is widely practiced for the management of acute appendicitis. It is not clear whether open or laparoscopic appendectomy is more appropriate. Aim: Our aim is to compare the safety and advantages of laparoscopic versus open appendectomy. Methods: 120 patients were analyzed, out of which 60 patients underwent laparoscopic appendectomy (LA) and 60 patients underwent open appendectomy (OA). Comparison was based on length of hospital stay, operating time, post operative morbidity, requirement of post operative analgesia as well as resumption of regular diet. Results: the median length of stay was shorter after LA which was 3 days where as in OA it was 5 days (P < 0.05). The operative time was shortened (OA:25 minutes (median), LA 30 minutes (median) with (P = 0.29)) for patients undergoining open appendectomy compared to laparoscopic appendectomy which is not significant. The rate of wound infection and complication (LA 3%, OA 8% , P <0.05), was significantly lower in patients undergoing LA. There was no mortality. Conclusion: LA is safe and superior to OA with respect to early discharge, lesser post operative pain, decreased wound infection, early return to work, lesser hospital stay and better cosmetic results.

  3. Dr. Asima Banu, Dr. Pravesh Bharadwaj and Dr. Manasa, S.

    Aim: To compare levels of Streptococus mutans in saliva samples of HIV infected individuals and non-HIV-infected control individuals. Materials and Methods: Subjects were selected from those attending the Department of microbiology of a tertiary care center A total of 100 individuals, 50 HIV-seropositive individuals and 50 HIV-seronegative control individuals, men and women, ages 15 yrs and older were selected for the study and divided into 2 groups-Group 1- 50 HIV-seropositive individuals, Group 2- 50 HIV-seronegative control individuals. All the saliva samples were collected using Spitting method. After collection all the saliva samples were cultured using mitis salivarius bacitracin (MSB) agar which is a selective media for the isolation of Streptococcus mutans. Obtained values were analysed using the Mann-Whitney U, Wilcoxon W and Z-tests. Results: Results showed that S. mutans levels were higher in HIV-infected individuals than in the non-HIV-infected control individuals (p = 0.000). Conclusion: It can be suggested that HIV infection accelerates colonization of S. mutans bacteria.

  4. Omaima A. Abd Elsied and Mahdi H. A. Abdalla

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a protozoal parasitic disease caused by Leishmania donovani complex, and transmitted to man by the bite of infected female sandfly. The parasite infects the macrophages in the liver, spleen and bone marrow producing many haematological abnormalities. VL is a major public health problem in Sudan. The aim of this study was to determine the haematologic and haemostatic changes among VL patients in Sudan. One hundred subjects were enrolled: 50 patients with established diagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis who were admitted to Tropical Disease Hospital, Sudan; and 50 age and sex matched healthy individuals as controls. Complete blood count was performed by automated cell counter (Sysmex KX-21N); D-Dimer was measured using i-CHROMATM system (Boditech – Korea); APTT, PT and TT were measured using coagulometer (Sysmex CA 50). Patients included 30 male and 20 female, there median age was 10 year, with minimum age of 1 and maximum of 51 years. All patients were anaemic, 70% (35/50) were leucopenic, 62% (29/50) were thrombocytopenic and 44% (22/50) were pancytopenic. APTT, PT and TT were prolonged among patients when compared to controls (p value = 0.000, 0.001 and 0.000 respectively). Mean D-Dimer level was significantly higher among the cases when compared with the controls (p value 0.000). In conclusion, our study shows that the haematologic and haemostatic features of Sudanese VL are, generally, similar to the picture seen in other areas worldwide.

  5. Dr. Karthik, R., Dr. Vineetha, K. R., Dr. Raut, C. G., Dr. Nazim Shaik and Manjunatha

    Introduction: Arthropod-borne viruses or arboviruses are one of the major public health problems worldwide. Out of many arboviruses, chikungunya virus (CHIKV) and dengue virus (DENV) are the two most rapidly spreading arboviruses. Serological investigations in Southern India indicate that the two viruses can co-exist in the same host. Many risk factors for chikungunya virus (CHIKV) and dengue virus (DENV) infections are the same or similar. OBJECTIVES: The present study is conducted to know the seroprevalance of dengue and chikungunya co infection and its clinical correlation. Materials and Methods: The blood samples collected from patients were sent along with details of the patient, clinical findings, and investigations done from various Bangalore city hospitals from the month of January 2013 to December2013, to check for the presence of IgM antibodies in serum against Dengue or Chikungunya were subjected to an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) test to detect the presence of immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibodies against both CHIKV and DENV. Results: Out of 4296 serum samples studied 205 (7.6%) samples were positive for both Dengue and Chikungunya. Majority of the cases were from the age group of 11-20 years (31.21%). A seasonal peak was seen in the months of June to August. Of the total number of affected cases, 89(43.41%) were females and 116 (56.58%) were males. Fever and was seen in almost all the cases (99 %), thrombocytopenia in 92.17%, and myalgia in 56.1% of seropositive cases. Chills, headache, arthralgia, vomiting were observed in 60.48%, 48.8 %, 40.4% and 35.6% seropositive cases respectively. Features of dengue complications like hypotension, hypoalbuminemia, rising hematocrit and hemorrhagic manifestations were seen in 7.8%, 1.4%, 2.4% and 7.3% cases respectively. Conclusion: With the urbanization that is occurring in India, the incidence of dengue infection is increasing dramatically. With the expectation that cases of co infection with DENV and CHIKV will become more prevalent in the future due to increased transmission of both viruses in various areas of India, enhanced surveillance to clinically and diagnostically differentiate CHIKV and DENV infections is needed for early recognition of virus invasion and local transmission, better patient care, and timely control measures. With clinical examination of CHIKV/DENV coinfected patients has not yet allowed the identification of specific or severe symptoms, such observations should be interpreted with caution. Our findings may add to the recognition of CHIKV/DENV coinfections and suggest that tests to detect the presence of both viruses should be carried out in individuals showing clinical signs of an infection with either CHIKV or DENV.

  6. Sreenath, K., Thaha Rashid, P. T.,Bhabatosh, D., Subrato Kishore, D. B., Gojen Singh, Kh, Ramesh Singh, L. and Lekhachandra Sharma, K.

    Gallstone disease remains one of the most common medical conditions and leading cause of hospital admissions for gastrointestinal problems. The association between gallstone disease and metabolic syndrome has already been proved by previous studies. The aim of this study is to find out the relation between metabolic syndrome and gallstone disease and post operative complications after cholecystectomy in patients with gallstone diseases. We conducted a cross-sectional study among 100 patients with gall stone diseases during the period from october 2012 to September 2014 in the department of Surgery, Regional Institute of Medical Sciences Hospital, Imphal, Manipur, India. We found out that metabolic syndrome was associated with 36% gallstone disease and the patients with metabolic syndrome have higher chance of getting multiple, cholesterol stones and post operative wound infection compared to those who do not have metabolic syndrome. So we recommend that extra care should be given to patients with metabolic syndrome to prevent post operative wound infection or related complications.

  7. Svetlana Velizarova

    97 children with different forms of TB and latent TB infection were examined at the University children hospital for pulmonary diseases – Sofia. The children were tested with TST and QFT. Only 9,3% of the children had negative TST and 72,2% reacted with sizes of the infiltrate above 15mm. With QFT 55,7% had positive results. We discovered that the largest share of the children who reacted to both TST и QFT is in the highest age groups. TST sensitivity is 77,7%, while forQFTis 88,9%, which shows greater diagnostic possibilities of QFTGIT. WithQFT 21(55,3%) of the children without BCG scar reacted positively and 33(55,9%) of the children with BCG scar reacted positively, which supports the statement for the efficacy ofQFTintube in cases with compulsory BCG vaccination.In conclusion, we think that QFT GIT together with TST increases the diagnostic possibilities in children with suspected TB disease, as well as for therapy control

  8. Dr. Singh, D. P., Dr. Hemant Mahur, Dr. Kripa Shanker Jhirwal, Dr. Mayank ameta and Dr. Dilip singh mudghal

    Lymphatic filariasis is caused by Wuchereria bancrofti, Brugia malayi, Brugia timori and are transmitted to man by the bites of infective mosquito. The thread like adult parasite reside in lymphatic channel and lymph node, where they remain viable for more than two decade manifesting as asymptomatic to acute and chronic symptoms like lymphangitis, lymphadenitis, elephantiasis of genitals, legs and arms or as a hypersensitivity state like tropical pulmonary eosinophilia or as an atypical form such as filarial arthritis. We report a 21 year old female residing in Udaipur, a city in south Rajasthan, presenting with filariasis, a region from where no indegenious case of filariasis is reported (National Filaria Control Programme and Recent Strategies, 2010).

  9. Dr. Mrugank M. Bhavsar, Dr. Akhilesh M. Chhaya and Dr. Rama Upadhyaya

    Aims and Objectives: Our aim of the study is to compare dexmedetomidine and esmolol as a hypotensive agent in patients posted for middle ear surgery. Material and Methods: 60 patients (ASA physical status I–II), age group of 18–55 years scheduled for middle ear surgery were recruited for study. 30 patients to group E to have Esmolol whereas remaining patients were named “D” have Dexmedetomidin. Group D (n=30) were pre-loaded with Inj. Dexmedetomidine 1 µg/kg over 10 minutes followed by maintenance with 0.4-0.7 µg/kg/hr. Group E (n=30) received Inj. Esmolol 1 mg/kg pre-loading followed by maintenance with 0.4-0.7 mg/kg/hr as per hemodynamics. patients’ cardio-respiratory parameter were continuously observed and recorded. They were also observed for surgical field, time to eye-opening and requirement of another hypotensive agent. Observation and Results: We have observed stable hemodynamics in group D as compare to group E. We have also observed significant less time for eye opening, less requirement of muscle relaxants and inhalational agent and other hypotensive agent. Conclusion: Dexmedetomidine is better option with good stability of hemodynamics and lesser requirements of inhalational and neuromuscular blocking anaesthetic drugs with better post operative outcome.

  10. Dr. P. Kumudha, Dr. R. Vinodha and Dr. D. Bobby

    Introduction: In any community mother and children constitute a priority group. They comprise approximately 71.14 percent of the Population of the developing countries. Hypertensive disorders complicating pregnancy contribute greatly to maternal morbidity and Mortality. The present study was undertaken to assess the severity of pregnancy induced hypertension in the antenatal mothers at Government Raja Mirasudhar Hospital, Thanjavur. Aim and Objectives: To study early assessment of severity of pregnancy induced hypertension by estimating platelets, liver enzymes, peripheral smear and haematocrit values and early detection of HELLP syndrome. Materials and Methods: The study design was cross sectional study. This study was carried out in the Department of Physiology Thanjavur Medical College, Thanjavur. The study was carried out in 40 normotensive pregnant women, as control and 40 pregnancy induced hypertensive women, as study group. Both groups were correlated with age, parity and period of gestation. The subjects were collected from antenatal clinic, in patients ward and labour room from Department of obstetrics & Gynaecology, Raja mirasdhar Hospital, Thanjavur. The subjects were categorized as normotensive control, mild pregnancy induced hypertension and severe pregnancy induced hypertensive group by the presence of varying degrees of blood pressure and proteinuria. The presence of associated features of HELLP syndrome (Hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes – SGOT, SGPT > 70 U/L, LDH > 600 U/L) was assessed in patients in all the three classes of Thrombocytopenia. Results: Statistical analysis was done by using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) X version. The results were analyzed by the Chi - Square test and ANOVA study. The mean age of control group ,study group was 24.95  3.55 yrs,24.78  3.59 yrs respectively. The mean gestational age in the control group, study group was 34.45  3.37 wks. 35.45  3.71 wks respectively. In normotensive control, the mean systolic & diastolic BP was 116.70  6.19, 75.80  5.04 mmHg respectively. In mild PIH, the mean systolic & diastolic BP was 144.21  6.24, 94.41  4.35 mmHg respectively. In severe PIH, the mean systolic & diastolic BP was 168.55  12.62, 113.64  6.38 mmHg respectively. In severe PIH the mean platelet count was 1.3900  0.5909 lakhs / mm3.The test results has shown significant reduction in platelet count in the mild & severe PIH (P < 0.0005). The mean difference in the SGOT, SGPT, LDH value in the normotensive control, mild & severe PIH were significant (P < 0.0005). The mean SGOT, SGPT, LDH in normotensive were 27.58  9.28, 18.12  7.03, 322.20  84.46 U/L respectively. The mean SGOT, SGPT, LDH in mild PIH were 32.42  17.64, 23.61  14.61, 560.72  224.50 U/L respectively. The mean SGOT, SGPT, LDH in severe PIH were, 90.60  122.62, 76.85  82.64, 801.73  281.38 U/L respectively. These liver enzymes were markedly elevated in severe PIH. In the Haematocrit estimation the mean difference between these groups were significant (P < 0.0005). Hct % were raised in mild PIH, reduced in severe PIH, with normal results in control group. The mean Hct % in normotensive, 35.65, in mild PIH, 36.27  4.5%. In severe PIH, 29.18  4.75%. The peripheral smear study for hemolysis was significantly present in PIH when compared with normotensives (P = 0.011). The platelet estimation between control, mild PIH & severe PIH were statistically significnat (P value = 0.013). All degrees of thrombocytopenia were present in severe PIH & mild thrombocytopenia was present in mild PIH. Out of 10 cases of thrombocytopenia 6 cases were present with features of HELLP syndrome. Conclusion: The progression of PIH from mild to life threatening diseases cannot be predicted. The aim of this study to draw attention to the life threatening complication such as hepatic dysfunction, haematological abnormalities and HELLP syndrome that may occur in cases of preeclampsia. The early diagnosis and early assessment of severity by platelet estimation, peripheral smear study, liver enzyme assays & urine analysis for proteinuria would be the most effective approach to enhance both maternal and fetal well being, as well as the successful outcome of pregnancy.

  11. Khater Balatone Gezira and Esam Mohamed AbdulRaheem

    Study Design and Objective: This was a descriptive cross sectional study aimed to evaluate the behavioral and psychological status of University Students in the period preceding regular exams. Materials and Methods: Questionnaires included several questions were filled by 189 students of both sexes and different university colleges. The data collected was analyzed using SPSS program. Results: Level of concentration during exam periods decreased in 30.7% of students. About 16.9% of students were nervous before exam and about 56.6% were scared. Sleeping hours were irregular in 59.3% of students. About 40% of female students reported menstrual cycle disturbances. Conclusion: Caffeine consumption and lack of regular exercise can aggravate stress-related changes in university students during the period preceding exams.

  12. Hiba BadrEldin Khalil, Hala Gabr Metwally, Elshazali Widaa Ali, Ahmed Mohamed Taha, Elshibli Mohamed Elshibli and Imad Mohammed Fadl-Elmula

    This study aimed to assess the in vivo engraftment and proliferation of purified human haemopoietic stem cell infusion or combined infusion containing haemopoietic stem cells plus mesenchymal stem cells in albino rats through intravenous and intraperitoneal infusion. Twenty female albino rats were used for human cells engraftment, whereas 10 served as a control group. 20 to 40 ml of cord blood samples and length of 12 cm of umbilical cords for Wharton jelly samples were obtained from 10 newborns delivered after full term following ethical consent. Ficoll Paque was used to obtain the mononuclear cells from cord blood samples while trypsin enzymatic treatment was used for Wharton jelly samples. Purification of CD34+ cells was done using RosetteSep and EasySep techniques. The expression and count of CD44+, CD34+and CD45+ cells was analyzed using flowcytometer. The study confirmed the success of in vivo engraftment, self renewal and proliferation of immune isolated human umbilical cord HSC/CD34+ by albino rats and differentiation to CD45+ cells, beside the highly increase of the harvested mononuclear cells from the spleen and bone marrow without any case of GvHD within 3 weeks period. Moreover, best engraftment obtained from the infusion that contains CD34+ cells and MSCs.

  13. Muriungi, S. K., Kipturgo, K. M., Kihara, M. and Matheka, C. W. and Ndetei, D. M.

    Objectives: to determine the co-morbidity between anxiety and risk of alcohol and drug abuse among students at the Kenya Medical Training College Methodology: A Social Demographic, BAI and the WHO ASSIST questionnaires were administered to 3107 consenting KMTC students, of whom 1181 (group A) were in Nairobi campus and the remaining1926 (group B) were in peripheral campuses across the country. Results: Prevalence of anxiety in groups A and B were 24.4% and 23.6% for moderate anxiety and 32.1% and 31.5% for severe anxiety. The risk of abuse of all the substances had similar levels except in alcohol which had a significant difference between the 2 groups (p=0.016). There was significant association between co morbidity of anxiety and risk of abuse of; alcohol (p=0.040, P=0.036 in group A and B respectively) and tobacco and cannabis (p=0.022 and p=0.024 in group B respectively). Conclusion: Anxiety and risk of alcohol and drug abuse was prevalent and significantly co-existed among the KMTC students. These findings were similar to those from other regions of the world among college students. This calls for appropriate interventions to promote prevention, control and clinical practices.

  14. Nabila El-sayed Saboula and Marwa Ahmed Shahin

    Background: Female dyspareunia is a sexual dysfunction manifested as pain in reproductive organs combined with sexual intercourse. It can alter a woman’s sense of sexual competency and identity. The study Aimed: At identifying risk factors to dyspareunia and evaluates the effect of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) on women with dyspareunia. Subjects and Methods: A quasi experimental study (A pre-post-test) was used. The study was conducted at two Maternal and Child health centers (MCH) and family planning out-patient clinics (FPOC) teaching hospital at Shebin-El-Kom - Egypt. Subjects consisted of 200 women (100 cases of dyspareunia and controls) to detect the risk factors of dyspareunia. The 100 cases with dyspreunia received. CBT: The cases were followed up for 12 weeks. Five tools were used to collect pertinent data. Results: This study revealed that, the mean maternal age of the women with dyspareunia were 24.74±4.01. Most of them with dyspareunia were had intermediate level of education (60%), were lived in rural community (78%) and not had enough income (56%).The common risk factors for dyspareunia were related to demographic, reproductive and obstetric history. There was statistically significant difference of women with dyspareunia before and after receiving CBT therapy regarding sexual performance, marital relationship, and psychological status and severity of sexual pain. Conclusion: CBT is an effective therapy in managing dyspareunia for improving sexual performance, marital relationship particularly with their husbands, psychological status and eliminating pain.

  15. Dr. Bibhuti Bhusana Panda, Dr. Manoj Kumar Hansda and Dr. Hement Kumar Sahoo

    Assault cases in the casualty of hospitals are increasing day by day. So the present study was done on the various assault cases reported to the casualty of IMS & SUM Hospital, Bhubaneswar, Odisha, India from August 2013 to May 2014, with the aim and objective of obtaining information regarding the current scenario of assault cases in this locality and its fate in this particular hospital. We found that the assault cases contributed 18.46% of all medico-legal cases reported within this period. Males outnumbered females as per the number of assault cases. Age group commonly involved was 21-30 year (31.67%). Most of the cases took place in street (40%), followed by work place (31.67%) and home (21.67%). Police information from the casualty department was given in all cases. In most number of cases the injuries found were due to blunt force (65%), followed by sharp force (18.33%). In majority of cases (56.67%) the injuries were reported as grievous in nature. Majority of patients (66.67%) were discharged within one day of hospital stay. Majority of the patients were completely cured (46.67%), followed by left against medical advice (36.66%). No fatal cases reported in this study period.

  16. Birhanu Ayana, Matthew McCartney, Birhanu Zemadim, Simon Langan, Bharat Sharma, and Tesfaye Balemi

    Poor Rainwater Management (RWM) practices and resultant problems of land degradation and low water productivity are severe problems in the rural highlands of Ethiopia. The current study was undertaken at Meja watershed, which is located in the Jeldu district of Oromia region. The study investigated rainwater management practices and associated socio-economic and biophysical conditions in the watershed. The existing RWM interventions, their extent, and the nature of changes in Land Use and Land cover (LULC) conditions were mapped and evaluated. Results indicated that with few exceptions of RWM practices potentially practiced, there were mainly poor and inefficient rainwater management practices in the watershed under the study. Results also indicated that over the three decades between 1990 and 2010 there was an increase in the extent of cultivated land and large expansion in eucalyptus plantation at the expense of natural forest and grazing lands. The overall effect leads to inadequacy of water for household consumption, livestock and for intensifying agricultural production via small scale irrigation systems. Deforestation and poor resource management resulted in soil degradation, reduction of hydrological regimes and water productivities in the watershed.

  17. Sharma, D. K., Nandini Sharma and Rana, S.

    Bacterial leaf blight disease of okra caused by Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae is an emerging disease and great threat for production of okra in Rajasthan. A survey was conducted to know the status of bacterial leaf blight of okra in terms of its incidence and severity and to characterize the pathogen causing the disease. Eighty nine seed samples of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L.) Moench were collected from 15 major okra growing districts of Rajasthan and subjected to dry seed examination. All the seed samples were categorised as asymptomatic, bold discoloured and heavily discoloured seeds collected during 2011; 2012 and 2013 growing seasons of okra. The samples were collected from farmer’s field, market and farm storage (houses). Eighty nine seed samples of okra belongings to 15 districts of Rajasthan, India revealed asymptomatic (15.25-83.75%), bold discoloured (07.5-54.25%) and heavily discoloured seeds (02.25-34.75%) in dry seed examination. The discoloured seeds included brown black or water soaked symptoms and such seeds on incubation yielded the bacterium. At seedling stage, seedling shows failure or delayed seeds germination, bacterial oozing and rotting that resulting collapse of hypocotyls and cotyledonary leaves that resulting seedling mortality. So the seed losses seed germination, seedling are symptomatic that increase seedling mortality. High incidence of pathogen was found in Jhalawar, Jaipur, Kota, Sawai Madhopur and Bharatpur. Twenty four bacterial isolates were obtained from the infected seeds and plant material collected from field during the survey. Pathogenicity test on host plant leaves confirmed the bacterium was Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae (PSS) but HR test (hypersensitivity test) in tobacco leaves with pathogen isolates showed weak positive reaction of tissues where infiltrated. The causal bacterium was also characterized by biochemical tests and results of the all the tests revealed that the causal organism of leaf blight disease of okra was Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae.

  18. Mehani, M., Salhi, N., Valeria, T. and Ladjel, S.

    Essential oils have many therapeutic properties. In herbal medicine, they are used for their antiseptic properties against infectious fungal diseases, dermatophytes, those of bacterial origin. The aim of our study was to determine the effect of antifungal essential oil of Eucalyptus camaldulensis plant. Eucalyptus is an herb used in traditional therapy. The test adopted is based on the diffusion method in solid medium (sensitivity). This method determines the sensitivity or resistance of the organism vis-à-vis the study sample. The analysis obtained by hydrodistillation of plant samples of an essential oil in a clear yellow color with a return of 0, 99%. Our study reveals that essential oil of Eucalyptus camaldulensis extracted have significant antifungal activity and can successfully replace antibiotic that show their inefficiencies against resistant microorganisms.

  19. Rachitha, P. and Farhath Khanum

    T-2 toxin is a member of trichothecene mycotoxin. The major toxic effect of T-2 toxin is that it inhibit protein synthesis which is followed by a secondary disruption of DNA and RNA synthesis. T-2 toxin affects the actively first through skin and it causes heamatotoxicity, neurotoxicity, reproductive toxicity, genotoxicity and it can decrease antibody levels, immunoglobolines and certain other humoral factors. In addition, in this review article discussed about outbreaks of T-2 toxin and its biosynthesis, toxicokinetics regulatory matters related to its use as a potential warfare and treatment.

  20. Rajalaxmi Mohanty and Patra, A. K.

    The primary productivity of Bay of Bengal at Paradip has been assessed both spatially and seasonally. The maximum GPP was noted during summer season and minimum in rainy season. The annual mean GPP varied from0.077+0.008g^c m^3 h^(-1)to0.996 + 0.16 g^c m^3 h^(-1). The NPP value varicd from 0.016+ 0.002 g^c m^3 h^(-1) to 0.845 + 0.072 g^c m^3 h^(-1)and showed an increasing trend from the month of September 2011 to February, 2012. The community respiration (CR) ranged from 0.027 + 0.003 g^c m^3 h^(-1) to 0.499 + 0.046 g^c m^3 h^(-1) and exhibited a systematic seasonal variation with maximum and minimum value during summer and winter respectively. The Correlation coefficients (®) of NPP, GPP and CR with certain physicochemical parameters have also been established.

  21. Abhishek Ghosh, Bandyopadhyay, A.K. and Deepa Roy

    This study is done to inquire the change in livelihood situation of the people belonged to Hura block of Purulia district. The study revealed that successful implementation of the NREGS has increased the mean annual income by 51.52 to 112.97 percent over the previous situation of without NREGS. This enhanced the socio-economic status of the beneficiary households as well as boosted their self-esteem and self-confidence. The average wage earned by the NREGS worker varies from Rs.85 to Rs.120 per day depending upon the phase of work. The wage rate increases with the advancement of phase of work. Around, 85 percent of the respondents utilize the increased income in building new houses or in daughter’s marriage. The biggest problem confronted by the beneficiaries is untimely payment of wages followed by the distance of work place from the residence. According to the implementing agencies the most severe problem is lack of adequate and devoted administrative and technical staff resulting in procedural lapses.

  22. Ningthoukhongjam Indira Devi, Ngasepam Romen Singh, Chabungbam Bijayalakshmi Devi, and Shomorendra, M.

    Fish enjoys a very special consideration and place in human civilization from time immemorial. Fish is one of the most important sources of food. As India occupied 9th position in fresh water mega biodiversity. The study of Utra Lake in Manipur was carried out during March to September, 2014. A total of 42 Icthyo-faunal species belonging to 32 genera under 15 families and 6 orders were reported during my study period. Order Cypriniformes has got maximum number of fish i.e.22 species wish is followed by Perciformes with 7 fish species and order Beloniformes with only 2 species. All the collected fishes were recognised as ornamental, commercial, aquaculture etc. Among these fishes most abundant fishes in Utra Lake are Channa punctatus, Anabas testudineus, Glossogobius giuris, Trichogaster fasciatus followed by Esomus danricus and Channa orientalis was least abundant.

  23. Sujana, G. and Harinatha Reddy, A.

    DNA damage, due to environmental factors and normal metabolic processes inside the cell, occurs at a rate of 10,000 to 1,000,000 molecular lesions per cell per day.[1] While this constitutes only 0.000165% of the human genome's approximately 6 billion bases (3 billion base pairs), unrepaired lesions in critical genes (such as tumor suppressor genes) can impede a cell's ability to carry out its function and appreciably increase the likelihood of tumor formation and contribute to tumour heterogeneity. The vast majority of DNA damage affects the primary structure of the double helix; that is, the bases themselves are chemically modified. These modifications can in turn disrupt the molecules' regular helical structure by introducing non-native chemical bonds or bulky adducts that do not fit in the standard double helix. Unlike proteins and RNA, DNA usually lacks tertiary structure and therefore damage or disturbance does not occur at that level. DNA is, however, super coiled and wound around "packaging" proteins called histones (in eukaryotes), and both superstructures are vulnerable to the effects of DNA damage. Cells annot function if DNA damage corrupts the integrity and accessibility of essential information in the genome (but cells remain superficially functional when so-called "non-essential" genes are missing or damaged). Depending on the type of damage inflicted on the DNA's double helical structure, a variety of repair strategies have evolved to restore lost information. If possible, cells use the unmodified complementary strand of the DNA or the sister chromatid as a template to recover the original information. Without access to a template, cells use an error-prone recovery mechanism known as translesion synthesis as a last resort. Damage to DNA alters the spatial configuration of the helix, and such alterations can be detected by the cell. Once damage is localized, specific DNA repair molecules bind at or near the site of damage, inducing other molecules to bind and form a complex that enables the actual repair to take place. Dynamic programming can be useful in aligning nucleotide to protein sequences, a task complicated by the need to take into account frame shift mutations (usually insertions or deletions). The frame search method produces a series of global or local pair wise alignments between a query nucleotide sequence and a search set of protein sequences, or vice versa. Its ability to evaluate frame shifts offset by an arbitrary number of nucleotides makes the method useful for sequences containing large numbers of indels, which can be very difficult to align with more efficient heuristic methods. In practice, the method requires large amounts of computing power or a system whose architecture is specialized for dynamic programming. The BLAST and EMBOSS suites provide basic tools for creating translated alignments (though some of these approaches take advantage of side-effects of sequence searching capabilities of the tools). More general methods are available from both commercial sources, such as Frame Search, distributed as part of the Accelrys GCG package, and Open Source software such as Genewise. The dynamic programming method is guaranteed to find an optimal alignment given a particular scoring function; however, identifying a good scoring function is often an empirical rather than a theoretical matter. Although dynamic programming is extensible to more than two sequences, it is prohibitively slow for large numbers of or extremely long sequences [2]. Sequence alignment is a way of arranging the sequences of DNA, RNA, or protein to identify regions of similarity that may be a consequence of functional, structural, or evolutionary relationships between the sequences [3]. Aligned sequences of nucleotide or amino acid residues are typically represented as rows within a matrix. Gaps are inserted between the residues so that identical or similar characters are aligned in successive columns.

  24. Dr. Najm Abdullah Alzubaidy, Munam Fadil Muslih and Diyar Sagban Alwan

    This study was conducted in the college of education for pure science at Diyala university in Iraq. The experiment included planting tomato seedlings, class (Genan) in the field according to design of R.C.B.D. The experiment included eight treatments resulted from the interaction between the inoculation factor with Trichoderma harzianum and Mycorrhiza, Glomus mosseae fungus, and the factor of the addition of Humic acid. Each treatment repeated three times. The results showed that the individual application of the inoculation with T.harzianum and G.mosseae led to a significant increase in the number of flowers, number of holding flowers, content of nutrient in leaves. The results also showed that the individual addition of organic fertilizer with Humic acid led to a significant increase in same features. The results of interaction treatments between inoculation with bio-fertilizers and organic fertilizer also showed a significant increase in all studied features and excelled in all treatments that reached to 70.66, 43.00, 4.45%, 0.540%, 3.85% with increase of 96.27, 115, 34.03, 82.43, 52.17% in the number of flowers, number of holding flowers, the concentration of N, P, K elements respectively compared to the control treatment.

  25. Semila Pushpam T.N., Paul Raj, K. and Ebanasar, J.

    The turbidity and pH are two key factors in any aquatic ecosyatems. The present paper highlights the seasonal variations of turbidity and pH in Tamiraparani River (West) from June 2011 to May 2013. Twelve stations were selected for the study. The study reveals that high turbidity of 5.5 NTU was found in Station 9 (S9) during the months June-Aug (2011 and 2012), Sept-Nov (2011and 2012) and Mar-May (2013), and low turbidity of 0.2 NTU was found in stations S1, S3, S4, S5 during Dec to Feb (2011, 2012) and Mar-May (2012).The pH was found to be acidic (below 7) in all the seasons. However, higher pH level was found during bothmonsoon seasons in all the station studied. The fluctuation in pH due to rain water influx is also discussed. The turbidity and pH was found to be significantly correlated (r=0.6780) in the 7th degree polynomial fit and the relationship established and discussed.

  26. Kahsay Tadesse, MAWCHA and Mewael Kiros, ASSEFA

    Aflatoxin contamination of groundnut is a serious problem in most groundnut-producing countries where the crop is grown under rainfed conditions. Field experiments were conducted at two locations to determine the effect of soil solarization on Aspergillus spp. inocculum in the soil and to evaluate the effect of soil solarization and time of planting on Aspergillus spp. seed invasion and yield of groundnut varieties. Soil samples were taken in three rounds and analyzed for aflatoxigenic population. Soil solarization reduced fungal inoculum and increased groundnut yields. Individual and total cfu g-1of soil was determined before, after solarization and at harvest. Four Aspergillus species namely, A. flavus, A. parasiticus, A. niger and A. terreus were identified and their densities were significantly (P<0.05) reduced at after solarization. In the solarized plots, A. flavus and A. parasiticus were found reduced by 53.8 and 45% cfu g-1 at Ramma and 36.4 and 44% cfu g-1at 5 and 10 cm soil depths at Mayweyni, respectively, after soil solarization in the solarized plots than the nonsolarized plots. At harvest, Fusarium spp., A. flavus and A. terreus were detected. Three Aspergillus species namely, A. flavus, A. niger, and A. parasiticus were isolated from seed samples plated on Czapek-Dox Agar medium. Early planting of the varieties showed the lowest level of seed infection by A. flavus (22.8%).

  27. Kahsay Tadesse, MAWCHA and Mewael Kiros, ASSEFA

    Groundnut is the most important rich source of protein, minerals and vitamin. Pre-harvest contamination is influenced by soil moisture and temperature. Field experiments were conducted in northern Ethiopia, at two locations to determine the effect of soil solarization on yield and yield components of groundnut varieties, and to determine Aspergillus spp. inoculum in the soil. Soil samples were taken in three rounds and analyzed for aflatoxigenic population. Soil solarization reduced fungal inoculum and increased groundnut yields. Individual and total Cfu g-1of soil was determined before, after solarization and at harvest. Four Aspergillus species namely, A. flavus, A. parasiticus, A. niger and A. terreus were identified and their densities were significantly (P<0.05) reduced at after solarization. In the solarized plots, A. flavus and A. parasiticus were found reduced by 53.8 and 45% cfu g-1 at Ramma and 36.4 and 44% cfu g-1at 5 and 10 cm soil depths at Mayweyni, respectively, after soil solarization in the solarized plots than the nonsolarized plots. At harvest, Fusarium spp., A. flavus and A. terreus were detected. Pod yields were found increased by 265.6 kg ha-1 and 182.22 kg ha-1on solarized plots at Mayweyni and Ramma respectively. Increase in yield related parameters (14.8% increase in number of seed per plant and 71.4% increase in number of pods per plant) were found from early planting dates as compared to later planting time at Mayweyni. Generally, yields varied across locations; mean pod yield in Mayweyni was 360.9 kg ha-1higher than the yield in Ramma.

  28. Nandakumar Singh Haorongbam, Jayashree Rout and Laxmi Narayan Sethi

    A short term pre-monsoon field study has been conducted to determine the soil fertility status in Silcoorie Tea Estate of Cachar district, Assam, North East India. Soil samples were collected from six different sections of the tea estate. Physico-chemical properties of the soil, i.e., texture, moisture content, bulk density, water holding capacity, total nitrogen (N), total phosphorus (P), total potassium (K), soil organic carbon (SOC), soil organic matter (SOM), pH, electrical conductivity, C:N ratios from four different depths were analyzed. The soil of the tea garden is sandy clay and silt loam in texture with acidic pH (~4.2). The average SOC, SOM content, total N, K and P contents of the soil were found to be quite lower than the critical value considered ideal for tea cultivation. Lime treatment and/or organic base fertilizer for maintaining the active acidity level, proper nutrient management practices like retention of pruning litters, shade tree droppings and weed mass, use of bio-fertilizers are recommended to achieve sustainable productivity.

  29. Laura, J. S., Narender Singh, Rajdeep Kudesia, Anil Kumar, Ajit Singh, Reena Antil, Pawan Sindhu and Surender Kumar

    This investigation describes the present status, distribution and various factors affecting growth of Salvadora oleoides Decne in Haryana. Population survey was carried out based upon questionnaire method. 150 people in the age group of 20 to 65 years from educational background were involved in questionnaire. Survey concluded the high risk of extinction of Salvadora oleoides in all the districts. Risk was observed due to anthropogenic disturbance and destruction of the natural habitat of the species. Besides this invasion by exotic species was also a major cause of decline in population of Salvadora oleoides. Present investigation reported that Salvadora oleoides was present as dominant species only in some groves situated in south west districts of Haryana. Salvadora oleoides in Haryana is now characterized by restricted distribution only in some major groves.

  30. Ratiba Wided Biara and Boumediene Touati

    A part of the Algerian Sahara is a vast region, on which scattered oases where life is possible are grafted, as consequence of water presence. These oases that verge consistency, involve combining homes by their rich architecture, unfortunately at risk of extinction. The protection of this heritage goes exordium by seeking a balance between preserving the historical and cultural identity, and especially the improvement of living conditions of people who inhabit it. Indeed the life standard in these regions is inadequate, hence many villages scattered across the Sahara ksour are dependent on electricity supply in the north. The latter constitutes the major disarray because of the low density, the fundamental mismatch of tissues, and their situations at the expense of depression at the bottom of the slope. Consequently, the electrification of houses and infrastructure is quite difficult and sometimes virtually impossible. It is now appropriate to introduce solar energy that is able to contribute to solving energy problems in many regions of southern Algeria, where all conditions for using solar energy are available. The use of renewable energy in southern Algeria is a strategy for the development of the citizens’ life. This will integrate them into their surrounding contexts in order to stabilize them, namely to safeguard the vernacular heritage in transmitting collective memory.

  31. Singh, P. K., Arvind Kumar, Raj Kumar, Rajni Rani and Sachin Kumar

    Experiment was conducted, during rainy season of 2006, 2007 and 2008 with NPK (20 kg N, 60 kg P2O5 and 40 kg K2O/ha), half recommended NPK, Biozyme granule @ 20, 30, and 40 kg/ha alone and along with half recommended NPK and Biozyme crop+ spray @ 200 and 400 ml/ha alone and along with half recommended NPK. At 60 DAS, Biozyme crop+ spray @ 400ml/ha + half of recommended NPK resulted highest number of trifoliate leaves (28.13 leaves/plant), leaf area (1814.21 cm²/plant), LAI (5.945), and total chlorophyll content (1.99 mg/g leaf fresh weight) which stood 3.57, 2.97, 3.17 and 16.13 % higher over recommended NPK, respectively. Similarly, 400 ml Biozyme crop+ with half of recommended NPK maintained, 9.01, 6.27, 5.41, 12.91 and 3.42 % higher branches/plant, pods/plant, seeds/pod and seed yield/plant and increased the seed yield by 8.54%, straw yield by 26.43% and biological yield by 17.13%, respectively over recommended NPK. Biozyme spray 400 ml/ha increased N uptake by 12.17, P uptake by 4.59 over recommended NPK. Higher Nutrient Harvest Index and Physiological Efficiency Indices observed under sole treatments of Biozyme.

  32. Roy T. S., Tohin, M., Chakraborty, R., Mondal, A. and Amin, R.

    The experiment was conducted at Agronomy research field of Sher-e-Bangla Agricultural University, Dhaka, during 10 November 2012to 10 March 2013 to observe the response of seedling tuber weight and plant spacing on performance of potato. Four weight of seedling tubers viz., 40 ± 2, 30 ± 2, 20 ± 2 and 10 ± 2 g and three plant spacing viz., 60 cm × 25 cm, 60 cm × 20 cm and 60 cm × 15 cm were used as treatment and laid out in Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD)with three replications. Results revealed that, plant height, stems hill-1,and Leaf Area Index, Total Dry Matter plant-1 and Total Dry Matter m-2 and Crop Growth Rate increased with increasing seedling tuber weight. The highest tuber yield ha-1 both gross and marketable was recorded in the tuber weight of 30 ± 2 g and the lowest from smaller seed tuber of 10 ± 2 g. The highest number of stems and leaves hill-1, LAI, TDM plant-1, tubers hill-1, single tuber weight, tuber weight hill-1, gross and marketable tuber yield ha -1were observed in the wider spacing of 60 cm × 25 cm and the lowest from closer spacing of 60 cm × 15 cm. However, combindly the highest gross and marketable tuber yield was observed in the treatment combination of 40 ± 2 g seed tuber with the plant spacing of 60 cm × 25 cm. But economic point of view, the seedling tuber weight of 30 ± 2 g with plant spacing of 60 cm × 20 cm was more profitable than those of other treatment combinations.

  33. Canciyal, J., Mogalekar, H. S. and Jawahar, P.

    Seaweeds are considered as ecologically and biologically important component in the marine ecosystems. Seaweeds make a substantial contribution to marine primary production and provide habitat for near shore benthic communities. Present status of seaweed diversity and temporal variation in their abundance along Tuticorin coastal waters were investigated. Fortnightly seaweed sampling was conducted for the period of five months from July 2014 to November 2014. Seaweed showed significant variation in its abundance and ranged from minimum 248 numbers of seaweed during September month to 953 numbers during November. In total 86 seaweed species belonging to 14 orders, 22 family and 36 genera were recorded. Rhodophyceae represented as dominant seaweed phylum with 32 species belonging to 7 order, 11 family and 18 genera followed by Chlorophyceae (27 species belonging to 3 order, 7 family and10 genera) and Phaeophyceae (27 species belonging to 4 order, 4 family and 8 genera). Caulerpa and Ulvawere were dominant genera along the Tuticorin coast followed by Gracilaria, Sargassum and Padina. Temporal variability in various diversity indices were calculated by using PRIMER v6 software. The calculated value ranges of biodiversity indices were: Shannon–Wiener diversity (H’) ranged from 3.91 to 4.38, Margalef’s species richness (‘d’) was from 11.32 to 15.18, Pielou’s evenness (J’) was in the range of 0.9727 to 0.9858 and the Bray-Curtis similarity found maximum between July and August (89.92%) followed by August and November (88.11%). Higher values for biodiversity indices indicated healthy nature of seaweed ecosystem along Tuticorin coastal waters. Present research report can provide basic information for commercial exploitation of seaweed resources along Tuticorin coastal waters.

  34. Etukudo Mbosowo, M., Roberts Eneni, M. I. and Ilesanmi Omotayo, B.

    Growth studies of Bush mango- Irvingia wombolu Mildbr was investigated using In vitro techniques with full, half and one quarter strength mineral components of Murashige and Skoog medium. This research was designed into 2 experiments. Experiment 1 was aimed at assessing the best medium strength and concentration of plant growth regulator for optimum growth of explants (axillary bud) of the species, using the concentration levels of 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5mg/l of kinetin (Kin) and indole butyric acid (IBA) for shoot and root initiation, respectively. Experiment 2 was aimed at assessing the growth performance of explants of the species using the best medium strength (one quarter strength with 3mg/l kinetin) for further growth studies. In experiment 1, significant (P< 0.05) increase in shoot length of axillary bud explants was recorded in one quarter strength medium, while those of half and full strength media showed no significant increases. In experiment 2, leaf primordia of 1-2 layers as well as seedling and stump sprout explants were effective for optimum regeneration of the species. This study shows that optimum growth response of Irvingia wombolu explants can be achieved at lower medium strength (1/4 MS).

  35. Asit B Mandal, Kanti Meena, Raju Mondal, Pranit Mukherjee and Sourav Dutta

    Mesta is one of the most important lingo-cellulosic bast fibre crop providing high amount of biomass, however, fibre yield is exceedingly low. It is a multipurpose crop having both domestic and industrial uses and prospects immensely in biofuel manufacturing, carbon trading and subsequently in maintenance of soil fertility. Unfortunately predominant use of synthetic fibres globally reducing its demand drastically. It is a very hardy crop owing to its vigorous growth with considerable drought tolerance. As it is grown as an orphan crop virtually under near zero management no serious efforts has been made to genetically improvise its productivity except some sporadic efforts through exploration to collect diverse germplasm and selection of superior stocks. Meagre efforts have been made to make superior lines even through hybridization. Deployment of modern tools and techniques as embodied in the frontier science like plant biotechnology is virtually nil. The present article narrates the till date achievements made through some systematic scientific interventions and efforts have been made to display diverse avenues through, which this important crop can be improvised endowed with premium quality fibre and other trait enrichment and thus to harness the benefits of this green technology with concurrent attainment of farm prosperity in a remunerative-scale.

  36. Avinash Chauhan, Rana, B. S. and Sapna Katna

    Bombus haemorrhoidalis Smith is a native bumble bee pollinator exhibits an annual life cycle but for commercial rearing, year round rearing is intended. Colonies of B. haemorrhoidalis first reared under laboratory conditions and then shifted in the field for further development. Sexual forms were isolated and mating was done artificially in the laboratory. Laboratory mated queens were allowed to start the progeny under controlled conditions. Out of total experimental queens, 83.33 per cent queens started rearing brood and raised the population upto 150-180 workers and thus for the first time in the country successfully reared the bumble bees for more than fifteen months without undergoing hibernation. Different pests were also recorded.

  37. Dr. Harathi, P. B. and Dr. Radha, R.

    Invertebrates are dependent on cellular and humoral immune defences against microbial infection. Scylla serrata is an important commercial species of crab, but the fundamental knowledge on its immune defense related to the immune-associated reactions is still lacking. This study was undertaken to determine the antibacterial activities of serum from the mud crab, Scylla serrata against three different bacterial strains. Bacterial cultures were treated with different volumes serum from Scylla serrata and the growth was monitored by optical density at 450 nm. In addition, the serum was treated with protease to determine the mechanism of antibacterial activities. Treatment of bacterial cultures with serum from mud crab, Scylla serrata resulted in a volume-dependent decrease in bacterial growth. Cultures of M. lysodeikticus, exhibited strong growth inhibition by serum of Scylla serrata, while cultures of Vibrio furnissi and Vibrio damsel were nearly completely obliterated for 24 h by only 10% (v/v) serum. The antibacterial activity of Scylla serrata serum occurred very rapidly, as 18% of M. lysodeikticus growth was inhibited by a five min exposure to serum. Furthermore the bacteriolytic activity detected in the presence of phosphate buffer was significantly higher than that observed with, thereby indicating the suitability of phosphate buffer for assay of bacteriolytic activity.

  38. Naitali, F. and Ghoualem, H.

    In the activated sludge wastewater treatment process of many metazoan scrubbers are associated to organic colloids and organ metallic present in wastewater. Some agencies may use the carbon and the nitrogen component drugs to feed or use it as a source of energy. The study of the biological degradation of micro pollutants (secondary pollution), including the pharmaceutical compound reveals a great importance for the process of degradation and environmental. In this work we are interested in the study of the effect of three drugs (NSAIDs, hormone and a corticosteroid) rejected at the same time, in wastewater on the most abundant metatozoans according to the method of the design of experiments (23 factorial) and study some parameters directly linked pollution has this kind of micro-organisms. The results obtained show that: studied medicines interfere with the process of nitrification and they have an adverse effect, in certain doses, on the metazoan present.

  39. Khadijeh Gholamzadeh, Nayyereh Khajeh, Safiyeh Mohammadi, Amir Ghafouriyan Frood Mitra Mohammadi and Shahab Houshmand

    Nowadays, regarding to motor vehicle roll in air pollution in major cities, evaluating the contaminant from vehicles is a critical. Therefore, in this study the contaminant of hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide produced by Pride Saba and 405 Peugeot were checked during the years 2006-2010. Primary data was collected from light vehicles inspection centers. Also it is used for statistical analysis and compared mean values by Excel software and Duncan's multiple range test at a confidence level of 5% (p <0.05). The results showed that peugeot, compared to Pride, produces more carbon monoxide significantly, while it creates lower levels of pollutants, hydrocarbons and carbon dioxide. The decline in the emissions of hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide, unlike carbon dioxide, of both vehicles were inspected among 2006-2010. Since carbon dioxide, are not among the pollutants measured in safety inspection centers, Pride Saba is a better vehicle in point of energy and environmental standards compared Peugeot 405. We hope to solve air pollution problem in the near future by regularly review and improve the technical performance of domestic vehicles.

  40. Atikah Nurhayati, Ine Maulina and Titin Herawati

    This research was aim to analyzed floating-net fish farmers’ adaptation strategy in reservoirs Cirata at Cianjur, West Java. The research was motivated by floating-net farmers’ social economic condition experiencing public water resource quality degradation in Cirata reservoirs, from fish farming production process to fish products marketing. The research was done with survey method and simple random sampling. And it used SWOT (strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats) analysis with quantitative description approach. With SWOT analysis, the result showed that floating-net fish farmers in Cirata reservoirs adaptation strategy is on second quadrant in facing threats, so they were advised to use the strengths to maximize long-term opportunities by diversifying fish farming, cooperating with input production owners (S2, S3, S4, S5, O1, O3, O4, O6), improvinh knowledge and skills in fish farming (S6, S7, O5, O1, O2, O6) and increasing floating-net fish farming productivity (S1, S2, S8, O2).

  41. Zubair A. Malik, Aatif Hussain, Kaisar Iqbal and A. B. Bhatt

    Species richness, diversity and distribution pattern of tree species were studied along a disturbance gradient in three mixed broad leaved forests. The forests were selected on the basis of varying disturbance intensities and were categorized into highly disturbed (HD), moderately disturbed (MD) and least disturbed (LD). A total of 34 tree species (belonging to 30 genera and 21 families) were reported along the disturbance gradient. Both tree species richness and diversity markedly declined along the disturbance gradient from LD to HD forests. Maximum species richness (20) was reported from LD while minimum (11) from HD forest. Shannon Wiener index (2.30-3.34), Margalef’s index (2.59-4.11), Menheink’s index (1.60-1.99) were maximum in LD and minimum in HD forests. Species richness and diversity indices showed significant negative relation with disturbance. Diversity-dominance (d-d) curve showed high equitability in LD forest while high dominance in MD and HD forests. More than 90% of tree species showed contagious distribution that is the most common distribution pattern in nature but it did not show any definite trend along the disturbance gradient. Low maturity value and contagious distribution of species denote the early successional status of the studied forests. The present study reveals that the anthropogenic disturbance causes disruption of forest structure and changes species composition which ultimately leads to reduction of tree species richness and diversity which is a major forest component.

  42. Formeluh Abraham Toh, Josepha N. Foba-Tendo and Christopher M. Agyingi

    Palm oil is one of the most important vegetable oils and sustainable waste management remains a challenge in its production. Most of the nutrients are retained in the crop residues and vast potentials exist to tap the biomass waste and high organic-content of palm oil mill effluent (POME) as nutrient and renewable energy sources. This work was aimed at developing an integrated waste management scheme for multiple or value-added products for palm oil mill wastes using Green Valley Oil Palm Plantation as a case study. The work was done through field surveys, sampling, characterization, and anaerobic digestion of palm oil mill wastes from the plantation. The feasibility of anaerobic digestion of POME and empty fruit bunches (EFB) in the presence of boiler ash was investigated using laboratory-scale experiments. Single stage batch anaerobic digesters were operated with a retention time of 25 days under mesophilic conditions. Biogas generated burned with a blue/yellow flame, indicating a methane content of at least 50%. Anaerobic digestion of EFB and POME for energy and nutrient recycling is feasible with optimal compositions of EFB to POME ranging from 1:4 to 1:5. The EFB, POME and boiler ash contain nutrients: nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), potassium (K) that would supplement fertilizer inputs for greater productivity.

  43. Gopi Krishna, S., Sudarsanam, G. and Penchala Pratap, G.

    Whole plant of Toddalia asiatica were selected to evaluate antioxidant activities and invitro cytotoxic activity using commonly accepted assays. They were extracted with chloroform, methanol and petroleum ether respectively and selected for the best antioxidant and cytotoxic results. Flavonoids, such as quercetin, rutin, and antioxidant BHA (Butylated Hydroxyanisole) were included and used as standards in this study. For all the assays concentrations of samples are maintained from 62.5 to 1000 µg/ml. Each sample under assay condition showed a dose-dependent antioxidant effect of DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl radical), FRAP (Ferric reducing ability of plasma) and LPO (Lipid peroxidation inhibitory activity). Among the crude plant extracts, Methanol extract showed stronger IC50 values in antioxidant studies in DPPH and LPO methods. IC50 of Methanolic extract in DPPH is 500 ±0.00 followed by Pet.ether and Chloroform, IC50 of Pet.ether extract in LPO is 300±0.00 followed by Chloroform and Methanol. Overall FRAP absorbance range is 0.051 – 0.472, all the extracts showed moderate reducing power. The extracts also showed dose dependent cytotoxic effect on normal (Vero) and cancer cell lines (HaCaT,A549,HeLa,HT-29) when analyzed by MTT assay. Of the different crude extracts, extracts demonstrated maximum cytotoxicity to cancer cell lines, CTC50 values ranging from 116.67± 5.8 to 710 ± 10, and all the extracts showed high toxicity toward normal cell line Vero. Nearly all cancer cells could be killed by extracts, where as small fractions of cells from cancer cell lines showed resistance even at much higher concentrations.

  44. Jerry Mechery, Praveen Kumar, C. S., Deepa Nair, K. and Sylas, V. P.

    Hydrogen energy is the finest choice as it is the only clean carbon neutral fuel which can in the long run substitute the present petroleum based economy. At present commercial production of hydrogen relies on fossil fuels only, so biologically produced hydrogen is becoming the centre of attraction. This study has endeavoured to determine the capability of facultative anaerobic bacteria to produce biohydrogen through anaerobic fermentation. The bacterial seed inoculums were collected from different biogas plant slurry. The pure bacterial colonies were isolated through standard microbiological methods. The anaerobic fermentation was carried out with glucose as substrate in air tight erlenmeyer flask. The identification and characterisation of bacteria were performed by standard methods, which revealed that the strains belonged to Enterobacter sp., Citrobacter sp., Proteus sp., Providencia sp.and Klebsiella sp. The gas chromatographic results revealed that hydrogen gas evolved from all the samples with maximum production with Enterobacter sp. (27.08%) followed by Citrobacter sp. (25.81%), Klebsiella sp. (18.25%), Providencia sp. (7.19%) and least for Proteus sp. (0.45%).

  45. Singh, K. K. and Bandana Negi

    The experiment site was conducted under mist chamber at Horticulture Research Center, HNB Garhwal Central University, Chauras Campus Srinagar (Garhwal), Uttarakhand, India. The different length stems cuttings (20, 35 and 50 cm) of Ticoma stans L treated with IBA solutions at 500, 1000 and 1500 mg. L-1 by Quick dip method. Treated cutting were planted carefully in the root trainers. For preparing rooting media one part sandy soil and one part of FYM Were mixed thoroughly. Among all the treatments, highest number of sprouted cuttings (100%) was recorded under C1L2, C2L2, C3L2 (35 cm long cutting treated with 500 ppm, 1000 ppm and 1500 ppm concentration of IBA respectively) treatments, length of sprout (10.18 cm) was found under C3L3 (50 cm long cutting treated with 1500 ppm IBA) treatment. diameter of sprout (0.26), number of leaves on new growth (5.59), height of plant (72.44 cm), number of primary roots (18.66%), length of root (10.53 cm), diameter of root (0.11 cm), fresh weight of root (0.79 gm) and dry weight of root (0.094 gm) were found under C3L3 (50 cm long cutting treated with 1500 ppm concentration of IBA) treatment.

  46. Ifat Ara Begum

    Coronary Artery Disease (CAD), also called coronary heart disease is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in developed /western countries and is emerging as an epidemic in developing countries. The role of micronutrients and trace elements in the pathogenesis of the CAD has been recently reported. Experimental and clinical studies indicate that zinc deficiency may predispose to CAD. Though this deficiency is more common in Third World countries, the dietary zinc intake is still below recommendations among certain population groups in industrialized countries even. The continued discoveries of the unique protective properties of zinc warrant further research in the role of zinc in endothelial cell metabolism and atherosclerosis. But the best way to deal with CAD, of course, is to prevent it and prevention of development and progression of atherosclerosis would play the major role here undoubtedly.

  47. Sobana, R. M. and Dr. Josephine Nirmala Many

    Sports accomplishments are determined by a progressive training program, adequate physical fitness, a well balanced diet and sound mind. Team sports like hockey and football are physically demanding contact sports with high intensity sprints, place a unique physical and mental demand upon its players, which when understood will enable a more scientific approach to performance. This study aimed to analyze and compare the nutritional, physical fitness and anxiety profile of the hockey and football players. About 43 and 38 male collegiate hockey and football players were selected during an intercollegiate tournament and assessed through anthropometry, diet survey, Aapherd physical fitness tests and Marten’s SCAT Scale for anxiety. The results showed that the majority of the hockey players were staying in hostel and were from low income families. Except height and muscle mass, a non significant difference was observed in other anthropometric measurements between the groups (165±15, 170.55±6.08cm and 52.51±7.47, 49.99±8.63 Kg). The muscular strength, agility and flexibility were better in hockey players. 47% of the football players were found to be less anxious than hockey players (25%). A significant difference in anxiety was found between the groups. Periodical nutrition and psychological counseling by trained professionals is essential along with regular training to improve the player’s health, nutritional status, physical fitness and to reduce anxiety inturn promote their athletic performance.

  48. Neeraj Sharma and Shashi Kant

    The present study deals with impacts of fragmentation in vulnerable sub-tropical forest ecosystems of Jammu Siwaliks. The landscape analysis was performed with the objective to estimate and analyze the areas subjected to landscape dynamics by computing landscape indices using remote sensing and GIS techniques. The remotely sensed data derived vegetation map was used as input to fragmentation analysis. The classified map was evaluated for classification accuracy based on 750 field derived points laid separately for northern dry mixed deciduous (370), Himalayan sub-tropical scrub (280) and Himalayan sub-tropical pine forest (100) for quantitative sampling. The landscape parameters viz., fragmentation, porosity, patchiness, interspersion and juxtaposition have been evaluated for disturbance regime viz-a-viz biodiversity assessment and to evolve the conservation strategies thereof. The forest cover accounted for about 36% of the total area, whereas 33% of landmass was recorded fallow barren. It was observed that biodiversity levels are different in various fragments and with the changing fragments and patch size there is change in species richness and diversity. The spatial information generated thereof serves a vital input for effective forest management and in developing viable conservation strategies.

  49. Gaurab Gogoi and Prof. P.K Borua

    Development of plant in vitro regeneration protocols has significantly contributed to research investigations and rapid propagation in commercial scale. However, due to considerable variations among plants, the technique encounters various hurdles. Major challenges are encountered during the micropropagation of woody plants, due to their range of secondary metabolites. Tissue and media browning, systemic contamination, vitrification, shoot tip necrosis (STN), tissue fasciations, somaclonal variations are some of the commonly encountered problems. Researchers in the recent years introduced various novel and unique protocols to eradicate these challenges, like nanosilver mediated sterilization, various new culture media for woody plant propagation, discovery of many new natural PGR having better properties like tapolins, diethyl aminoethyl hexanoate (DA-6), thidiazuron (TDZ) etc. have contributed immensely to the development of the subject. Although the basic concept of plant tissue culture remains same, the interpretation is subjected to development from time to time.

  50. Satpal, Manju, Rawat, S. S. and Singh, K. K.

    The present investigation was carried out at Horticultural Research Centre, Department of Horticulture, Chauras Campus, H.N.B. Garhwal University, Srinagar (Garhwal), Uttarakhand, India during the year 2012-13. The experiment consisted of thirty six treatment combinations, which comprised of concentrations of IBA viz; 200 ppm, 400 ppm, 600 ppm and control, type of cuttings viz; Softwood, Semi-hard wood, Hardwood cuttings and three planting times viz; November 20, December 20 and January 20. The experiment was replicated thrice with 10 cuttings in each treatment and a total of 360 cuttings were tested. The cuttings were planted in polythene bags (1 kg capacity). The results indicated that among the various treatment combinations, T2C3S2 (December planting time, 600 ppm concentrations of IBA and semi-hardwood cutting) treatment combination was recorded superior. Thus, it can be suggested that semi-hardwood cuttings of Lemon (Citrus limon Burm.), cv. Pant Lemon-1 planted in December after treatment with 600 ppm concentrations of IBA is an effective way to improve propagation under valley conditions of Garhwal Himalaya.

  51. Jothivel, N. and Paul, V.I.

    Seasonal variations of physico-chemical parameters such as rainfall, temperature, alkalinity, nitrite, nitrate, phosphate, sulphate and fluoride were studied from two different coastal water bodies of south east coast of India viz., Uppanar estuary, Cuddalore and Periyavaikal area of Killai region, Cuddalore District, Tamilnadu southeast coast of India for one calendar year. The results significantly increased levels of most of the parameters at Uppanar estuary than Killai backwaters throughout the year. There were significant variations among the parameters at various months / seasons within each of the study sites also. The spatio-temporal variations observed among the physicochemical parameters of the two study sites indicate the ecological degradation of Uppanar estuary.

  52. Hussien A. Elsayed, Seham A. Shaban, Hoda S. Ahmed and Mohamed F. Menoufy

    Experimental study to evaluate the effect of hydrotreating CoMo/γ-Al2O3 catalyst for upgrading heavy gas oil (HGO). Hydrodesulfurization (HDS) and hydrodearomatization (HDA) activities were conducted in a continuous flow micro trickle-bed reactor at the temperatures, pressures, liquid hourly space velocity (LHSV) and hydrogen-to-feed ratio of; 3500-4500C, 40-75 bar, 0.5-1.0 h-1, and 400 LL-1 respectively. This work identifies and measures the key parameters in hydrodesulfurization, and at conversion levels above 95 and 90 %, respectively. The experimental results fitted with the Power Law model yielded reaction orders of the first order reaction for HDS and HAD, and activation energies of 31.4 and 36.9 kj/Mol respectively.

  53. Dibofori-orji, A. N., Nwajei, G. E., Uduebholo, M. I. and Nwajei, R. I.

    Water, fish and earthworm samples collected from Enerhen and Otokutu areas along the Warri River were analytically treated and analysed for trace metals using atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS) of Model Perkin. Elmer 311 A. A total of twelve sample points were mapped out in both Enerhen and Otokutu areas. This study was carried out for a period of six months (July – December). The results obtained showed that all the metals analysed were detected and varied from one point to another. Lowest trace metal values were obtained in water samples whereas highest mean metal values were recorded in fish samples. This is an indication that vertebrates accumulate more metals than invertebrates. Chromium, lead and iron concentrations in water exceeded the WHO limits for drinking water indicating that the water is not fit for drinking. Also, Cadmium, Copper and Lead mean values in the fish and earthworm in this study far exceeded the recommended Daily Intakes Set by Food Standards Australia New Zealand. A critical look at the results further revealed that earthworm accumulates copper levels more than the fish. This is because earthworm is a bioindicator for the availability of Copper in ecosystems. Highest mean concentrations of iron were obtained in water, fish and earthworm in that order. These elevated iron levels are attributed to activities of the Delta Steel Company located around Warri.

  54. Dr. Srilakshmi, B., Dr. Syeda Azra Tasneem, Dr. Tripura sundari, M.

    Dysfunctional uterine bleedind is a common gynecological disorder which Usually ends up in hysterectomy and causes both psychological & physiological stress. Medical management with hormones and NSAIDs has their inherent side effects Hence an attempt is made to medically manage them using ORMELOXIFENE, a Selective estrogen receptor modulator.

  55. Wang Yong-mei, Yao wan-ye and Jiang xue-li

    According to economic-technical optimization objective of distribution network to which distributed generation is added, a multi-objective model is proposed in this paper. The model contains DG construction investment and operation fee, network loss, reliability, as well as environmental factor. and then puts forward the multi-objective quantum particle swarm optimization (QSPO) algorithm, and the distributed power supply after installation position and capacity for the comprehensive planning research. The result proves that QPSO has advantages of speedy searching for the optimum and keeping the population diversity. Compared to Particle Swarms Optimization (PSO), QSPO shows high efficiency and robustness.

  56. Atul S. Choudhary, Neha Khatri-Valmik and Seema Singh

    Mining high utility info data from an internet an online on a daily basis it get tough as a result of great amount of information. User’s queries area unit submitted to go looking engines that area unit usually in natural languages and simply of 1 or 2 words. Sometime it's tough to obtaining needed data to the computer program per user’s demand .For that numbers of techniques area unit accessible in recent year with their blessings and downsides. vital factor is that technique ought to be discovering needed data from varied forms of information sources. Different types of Sources square measure text, images, audio, video etc. simple thanks to manage all this kind of knowledge sources is to model them within the style of graph so it's doable to use recommendation algorithmic program thereon. The planned system uses algorithms for predicting user’s interest and subsequently it combines outcome of all algorithms to supply economical results. the thought of graph construction for information sources as a result of that it's doable to handle great amount of knowledge simply.

  57. Masahiro Arakawa, Keita Sugiura, Shingo Muramatsu and Keiichi Kitazume

    Prediction of human behavior in a disaster is a useful role in the design of urban structures such as department stores, schools, and office buildings. In this study, we develop a mixed reality game system linking a multi-agent simulation for behavioral evaluation of evacuees. We use a multi-agent simulation to evaluate the behavior of persons evacuating a floor given as many rules as possible. We use the mixed reality game to evaluate the complex and distinctive behavior of individual players in the game. This paper presents the characteristics of the developed game system, and presents the performance of the game system as a case study using an actual floor layout. In addition, we evaluate the effectiveness of emergency exit signs to manage the evacuees’ escape from the floor.

  58. Al-lssa, S.A. and AL-Ghulikah, H.A.

    A series of 1,2,4-triazole,2-aryllidine hydrazono benzoazole and 3-chloro-2-azetidinone derivatives were synthesized via reactions with different reagents. Reactions were carried out by green synthesis method such as microwave technique andgreen catalysts.The structure of the prepared compounds have been characterized on the basis of their elemental analysis and spectral data.Some of the new compounds were screened for their antimicrobial activity.

  59. Mr. Suresh A. S.

    Options are considered risky for investors and speculators due to fluctuation in the direction of price movements. An investor has to face the risk of profits where it may be extremely high or loss, here investors fail in choosing profitable options. The study is made to minimize the risk of investors by using straps option combination strategy in choosing profitable investment strategy and to know how the option combination strategy would be profitable when market moves up or down. The study has considered the securities of both increasing and decreasing prices, so that it would be possible to give suggestions for investors that how in both cases they can make profits.

  60. Viriri Piason and Anna Mangezi

    The aim of the study was to explore how sports sponsorship impact on building company image. Benefits such as creating long lasting relationships with the stakeholders as well as the community and building company image are also discussed. Challenges of sports sponsoring are also considered such as inappropriate image conveyed by sports entities as well as ambush marketing. The last objective of the study assesses attitudes of spectators towards the sponsorship. In carrying out the study, the researcher used a descriptive research design with 150 respondents who were grouped as 70 management and 80 spectators chosen at a football match. Management were selected using judgemental sampling technique and spectators were selected using systematic sampling. Primary and secondary data were used. Conclusions were based on results from questionnaires and interviews. Findings of the research confirm that sponsorship objectives vary depending on the sponsored entity and these include enhancing brand image, increasing market share , sales growth and also to generate visibility and publicity. The results indicate that sports sponsorship can be used as a tool for building brand image of a company. The researcher recommends companies to use sports sponsorship as it has a positive impact on building company image as well as increasing sales and encouraging loyalty from customers thereby increasing purchasing intention. Companies are also recommended to select a sports entity that best suits their products and services.

  61. Bydavid Gichuhi Warwathe and Dr. Okonga, B.

    Since independence, Cooperative movement in Kenya has experienced tremendous growth and is actually ranked first in Africa (Sacco Societies Regulatory Authority, 2011). Through the support of the government, the movement has produced some of the biggest players in provision of saving and credit services both to the rural and urban population in Kenya. Since the formalities involved in the formation of the SACCOs are simple, and due to their popularity, the government has continued to register more of these forms of organizations. Although Cooperatives have been there for a long time, poverty is still prevalent amongst the rural population in Kenya. The research objective was to explore the role of Savings and Credit Cooperative Societies in creating wealth for their members in Limuru Sub County of Kiambu County in Kenya. Wealth created to the individual member was measured by the asset such member acquired since joining the SACCO. Descriptive research design was applied. The study population comprised of members of SACCOs in Limuru Sub County where a random sample of five percent of all the members were investigated. Both primary and secondary data was used as sources of data. Primary data was collected using a semi-structured questionnaire distributed to the sampled group. Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) was used to analyze the data. Descriptive statistics especially, frequencies and standard deviations was applied. Inferential statistics especially regression analysis was run to help establish, trends and relationships, and which made it easier for the researcher to understand and interpret implications of the study. Pie charts and tables have been used to represent data in a pictorial format, which could be easily used and understood by other users. The research findings established that SACCOs play an important role in wealth creation in the Sub County. The most among the four variables tested, loans acquired by members from the SACCOs contribute most to the wealth creation of such a member. The research recommended that women and youth be encouraged to join SACCOs in the region. The conclusion of the research was that all the independent variables contributed positively to the dependent variable.

  62. Ntui, Aniebiet Inyang and Orim, Faith Sylvester

    University libraries set up their services to enhance the teaching and research missions of the institutions, particularly for students. Students are increasingly expected to use library services while at university. Users attitude have an effect on their use of library services. This study sought to compare users’ attitude towards various library services in Cross River University of Technology and University of Calabar libraries. Multistage non probability sampling technique involving purpose and accidental sampling was adopted for this study. A total sample of five hundred and thirty one (531) registered library users was drawn from a population of three thousand, two hundred and thirty six (3236). Five null hypotheses were formulated to guide the study. A validated 30- item questionnaire was developed by the researcher to collect data for the study. Independent t-test was used to test the hypotheses at 0.05 level of significance. The summary of the findings showed that there is a significant difference in library services offered to users in between users’ attitudes toward lending services in Cross River University of Technology library and University of Calabar library. It is concluded that academic universities can influence users’ attitude towards utilization of library services. It was recommended among others that the use of attractive posters in each section of the library describing the services and user instruction workshops should be marketed using flyers and pamphlets, promoting library services.

  63. Sarath Chandran and Pankaj Roy

    The main objectives of the present study were to show the spatial distribution of Primary Health Centres in the Haripad Block of Kerala and to investigate the patients’ perception regarding the services provided by the Primary Health Centres. Spatial distribution of Primary Health Centres was shown with the help of GIS mapping. Out of eight Primary Health Centres of the Block, five of them were selected by lottery method of simple random sampling for the present study. A pre designed schedule was used for the generation of primary data. The collected information was compiled, tabulated and analysed by using standard statistical methods. The main factors affecting the utilization of primary health care services in Haripad Block were easy accessibility, availability of medicine etc. The major problems of all sampled Primary Health Centres were the less number of doctors, absence of doctors from services, the lack of sanitary facilities and other infrastructure such as inpatients room, lab, bed etc.

  64. Madukwe, H. Y., Akinmosin, A., Akinyemi, S. A., Adebayo, O. F., Aturamu, A. O. and Ojo, A.O.

    Major elements geochemical study of the Ishara sandstone of the Ise Formation in the Dahomey Basin, southwest Nigeria, was carried out to infer their provenance, maturity and tectonic setting. This study is based on the analysis of outcrop samples located between latitudes 60571 and 60591N; and longitudes 30391 and 30411E. On the basis of whole rock geochemistry (i.e. major elements), the sandstones are considered as continental sands which can be classified as lithic arenites. The ternary plot of Na2O-K2O-(Fe2O3+MgO) depicts ferromagnesian potassic sandstones suggesting acid igneous rocks and gneisses as probable source rock which are common components of the south western Precambrian Basement Complex. The negative correlation of SiO2 with the other major oxides is ascribed to the relative abundance of quartz. The positive correlation of TiO2 and Fe2O3 with Al2O3 implied their association with clay minerals. The relative depletion of Na2O, K2O, TiO2, Fe2O3 and MgO were noticed but SiO2 and CaO were relatively enriched. The bivariate plot of SiO2 versus Al2O3+ K2O+ Na2O depicted that the sandstones were formed under semi-humid/humid conditions and mineralogically immature. The index of compositional variability (ICV) and log (K2O/Na2O) ratios also showed that the studied sandstones are mineralogically immature. Weathering indices such as chemical index of alteration (CIA), chemical index of weathering (CIW) and plagioclase index of alteration (PIA) suggest that the source materials underwent moderate weathering. The weathering trend suggests that the sandstones were once rich in plagioclase before alteration to smectite. The ternary plot of SiO2/Al2O3, MgO and Fe2O3 indicated that the studied samples were deposited in the non marine and deltaic settings. This observed trend is supported by the binary plot of Fe2O3 versus MgO. The high Al2O3/TiO2 ratio and low MgO values indicate these rocks are derived from felsic igneous source. The observed trend is further corroborated by the discriminant function plot which shows studied sandstones in the field of felsic igneous source. The plot of K2O/Na2O versus SiO2 shows most of the studied clastic sediments in the field of active continental margin (ACM) and few samples in the field passive continental margin (PCM) which suggests syn-rift faulting.

  65. Abraham Gebregiorgis Berhe, Mohammed Seid Ali, Getachew Firde Teklegiorgis

    The purpose of this study was to assess the perception of external auditors towards internal audit practices of private sector in Ethiopia. There were 63 audit firms registered in Federal Office of Auditor General in 2013. 140 questionnaires were distributed to external auditors from which 43 were collected. Descriptive statistics was employed to analyze the data using statistical package for social science (SPSS). The study found that independence of internal auditors was not maintained in Ethiopian private sector. Furthermore, the proficiency of internal audit function is low which negatively affects their contribution to quality audit services. It also found, internal audit functions in private sector mainly provide assurance service but, their consulting role is minimal.

  66. Dr. Yassin Ibrahim Abdulkadir, Adem Mohamed, Kibret Desalegn and Teshome Desta

    The present study was aimed to investigate the two aquaculture pond waters of physio-chemcial parameters and microbial analysis at Alwarkurichi village, Tirunelveli district. The physio-chemcial parameters are pH, conductivity, dissolved oxygen, BOD (Biological oxygen demand), calcium, magnesium, total hardness, chloride, phosphate, nitrate, and total dissolved solid were tested by Tamilnadu water supply and Drainage broad, District water testing laboratory, Palayamkottai. Subsequently, the water samples microbial colonies were identified with standard methods. They are Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Vibrio cholera as more dominant in the two ponds. Hence, the identified three pathogenic bacteria were treated with some commercially popular chemicals at various concentrations. The antibacterial activity of three compounds Sodium chloride, Formalin and Copper sulfate was studied against three pathogenic bacteria using agar well diffusion method. The growth suppression rate exhibited by Copper sulfate vial higher at 0.08mg/10ml when equivalence to others. When compared to copper sulfate, size of the acquired growth distinct was less when examined with ampicillin. Copper sulfate was identified as the most efficacious against absolutely the three pathogens.

  67. Girma Tegene, Adonay Habtu and Hagos Gebreziher,

    The main purpose of this study is to assess the effectiveness of training provided in the Northern Command Training Center that is found in a place called Edaga Hamus – in Northern eastern parts of Ethiopia. Methodologically, this study is based on mixed/qualitative and quantitative/ approach of study. The subjects of this study include 125 individuals who participated in the training, 18 immediate commandants of the participants and 1 Deputy Commander of NCTC- interviewed and 10 instructors participated on Focus Group Discussion (FGD). Totally, 139 respondents were the subjects of this study. Operationally, the study was based on analysis of the primary data sources collected using structured questioner, semi-structured interviews with key informants, FGD and analyses of documents and personal observation. The findings of this research showed lack of proper design of curriculum based on systematic training need assessments. shortage in establishment of suitable mechanisms that help to trace factors that causative for less effectiveness of the training and lack of practicing appropriate training management system as key factors that contributed for less effectiveness of the training program launched by the center. The study recommends making curriculum revision with assistance of professionals. Launching of different capacity building programs for trainers in systematic and serious mode of training is very critical. Establishing relationships with universities that are available around the training center such as Adigrat university and working together on capacity building of the trainers specially on learning methodology and curriculum development and methods of training quality are important. It is also good to find ways to assist the learning and teaching process with IT and modern training simulators and to establish mechanisms that help to collect feedback from unit commanders about the practical performance of the trainees after they returned back to their units.

  68. Adonay Habtu, Girma Tegene and Hagos Tikue

    This study assesses the participation of women in public administration, specifically in Tigray by taking Woreda Tahtay Machew as case study. Basically, primary data source was employed to gather first-hand information to achieve the objectives of the research. The sources of primary data were women employees in town and rural institutions. The study area consists of 31 public institutions and nineteen rural kebeles having 1669 government employees who have diploma and above, 995 are males and 674 are females. The researchers selected 8 public institutions through lottery method sampling from the town district and purposively were selected three rural kebeles from the 19 rural kebeles institutions. From 134 women employees, 84 were selected from the town districts, and 67 were selected from 108 women employees on the rural kebeles. As to the finding, there are two conflicting value systems with regard to the participation of women on the public administration. The state value system including the laws and polices promote the empowerment of women at all levels. On the other hand, the cultural value system restrain women’s from being part of the decision making process. The participation of women in public administration of woreda Tahtay Machew is still at infant level, but the rate has been increasing from time to time due to different measures taken by the government.

  69. Banerjii Anuradda

    The following research investigates the identity negotiations in the life of a Facebook user. The important research question is ‘how’ a young active Facebook user alters or extends his circle of significant other. With respect to the data collected and analyzed, it was interesting to observe that the process of significance developed between the user and his significant other is primarily due to Facebook chat. Facebook “events” and “messages” were extensively used for effective computer mediated communication. The results showed that there was a clear gender related differences with respect to reasons of high social activities on Facebook. These findings were later correlated with NEO-PI-R personality test.

  70. Dr. Suman Lata

    In-service training plays a crucial role in teacher’s development. The National Policy on Education, (1986) stipulated that “Teacher education is a continuous process and its pre-service and in-service components are inseparable.” UNESCO (1986) also stresses the importance of In-service education and observes, “In–service training is on the whole as effective as pre-service training, if not more so in its effect on quality”. Professional development of a teacher begins with Pre-service and gets renewed through In-service programs. It does not mean that there is a simple linearity between the two. There are elements of ‘change’ and ‘continuity’ in teacher education system, which necessitate renewal, and up gradation of skills and competencies. In-service courses are offered to teachers to upgrade knowledge and pedagogical skills. In-service courses are also offered to prepare teachers for new roles. It can be offered through long or short-term orientation or enrichment programs. The present study has been carried out to study of the role-played by DIETs in improving the knowledge and skills of in-service elementary school teacher’s. The main findings are: In-service training program organized by DIETs helped to improve the teaching learning process, refreshing knowledge and improving teaching skills among teachers. Majority of the teachers opined that the content covered during In-service training was appropriate and according to their need, these programs improve the communication ability and self confidence in teachers.

  71. Dr. Hiralal Khatri

    The physical well-being of an individual is related closely to his status of nutrition. Good nutrition is essential in childhood for optimal growth and performance in school. Under nutrition retards physical and mental growth which in turn, lowers efficiency in education and work. So, nutrition is one of the most important factors in the vital activity of man. Macro nutrients i.e. proteins, carbohydrates and fats are the most important nutrients required by the body and should be supplied in adequate amounts in the diet. The main objective of the study was to determine the macro nutrients status among government and private school boys of Delhi. The study was conducted on 700 adolescent boys of govt. and private schools. Out of which 350 children were taken from government schools and 350 from private schools. For obtaining the data on dietary intake i.e., One day recall method recommended by Norris(1949), ICMR (1951), Acheson et al. (1980), Chawla, (1992), was used. The researcher found that the macro nutrients status was found higher in both govt. and private schools than ICMR (Indian Council of Medical Research) recommendation. Macro nutrient status was found higher in private school boys in comparison of govt. school boys. As a preventive measure it is strongly suggested that these growing boys rationalize their fat intake.

  72. Norazlan Hasbullah, Prof. Dr. Abdul Jumaat Mahajar and Dr. Mad Ithnin Salleh

    The Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) has been widely established and most applicable to be used in any research dedicated to predict intention and behavior. Though it is one of the most cited theory in predicting intention, however recently, this theory has evidenced many attempts to deliberate and diversify its three main constructs of Attitude, Subjective Norms and Perceived Behavioral control. This article discuses on the evidence of the extension of the theory, invented by many researchers in an effort to better predict and understand intention by using additional relevant external factors.

  73. Gebrekiros Hagos Belay

    The study examined the determinant factors for the use of Information Technology in decision making. Questionnaires were prepared and administered in selected business Organizations. Data were interpreted and analysed using the appropriate statistical methods and application software. Descriptive statistics technique, logit model with support STATA 12 was used to analysis and interprets the survey data.The use of information technology in business organization affected by Age of manager, experiences of business organization, gender of manager, experiences, training, affordability, Organization size, education, sales volume determinant factors of Information Technology use. The results show that the organization under study use Information Technology in their Decision Making operation but not the modern one in terms of the use of decision support IS and Executive Information system.

  74. Megi Marku

    The dollar and euro reflect at best their countries destinies and they are the rulers of the world. With a difference of about 200 years with each other these two coins are the focal point of the finance and by their performance depend the economic performance of the major part of the world. The fact that European nations created a union between them is always considered as a rivalry against the United States, and once that EU emitted the common European currency, it was described as a challenge to the dollar. The beginnings of the euro haven’t been so good given that has there was a depreciation of its currency against the U.S. From this fact the whole world had the impression that the EU wouldn’t last for a long time, but with the passing of years it was showed that this assumption was fair enough since the euro continues to be valued higher than the dollar. The purpose of this topic is to demonstrate the advantages and disadvantages of each of the currencies in the global economy. Also, a comparative analysis is made between the two currencies to see which of them is likely to rule the world in the future.

  75. Dr. Falguni C. Shastri

    The influencing factors may include advertisement, friends, parents, etc. the buying behavior and spending pattern of students go hand in hand. Once they decide what to buy, they automatically decide how much to spend. When they decide what to buy-advertisements, friends, parents and various other factors play a very important role. Prominent among them are advertisements and friends. Advertisers through television can reach a whole spectrum of consumers.

  76. Mahnaz Manshouri, Nader Rahnama and Mojtaba Babaei Khorzoghi

    Flexibility is an important component of physical fitness which is essential to varying degrees in different sports. It becomes even more important as it not only enhances athletic efficiency but reduces the risk of injuries as well. The objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of regular Pilates exercises on flexibility and the volleyball serve skill in female, college students. For the purposes of this study, 22 female students were randomly selected and assigned to the following two groups of equal numbers: the experimental group (age: 20.64; height: 161 cm; weight: 56.27 kg) and the control (age: 20.09; height: 161.82 cm; weight: 57.18 kg). Over the six-week period of study, the experimental (Pilates) group participated in three sessions of Pilates exercises and one session of volleyball exercises each week. The control, however, participated only in the one volleyball exercise session on a weekly basis. All the subjects were tested for their flexibility and volleyball serve skills before and after the study period. The results showed that Pilates exercises had a significant effect on the subjects’ flexibility at the 0.05 probability level and improved their volleyball serve skills. Based on the results obtained from this study, Pilates exercises may be recommended for improving flexibility and sports skills.

  77. Weldie Assefa Shamie, Tesfu Asmachew Mesfin and Araya Kahsu Mebrahtu

    Climate change can be exacerbated by human induced actions such as: the widespread use of land, the broad scale deforestation, the major technological and socioeconomic shifts with reduced reliance on organic fuel, and the accelerated Uptake of fossil fuels. Farmers’ knowledge about their soils and their management constitutes a complex wisdom system, which if integrated with modern soil science, could provide the necessary synergy for sustainable agricultural development and to adapt climate change. The very purpose of this research was to assess the perception of farmers on the prevalence of climate change/ climate variability, the strategies they adapt to mitigate it and the barriers they face to use their traditional practice (indigenous knowledge). A survey study was undertaken in two Tabias (Mayliham and Genfel) of Tigray Region to ascertain on how farmers use their indigenous knowledge to adapt climate change. It was found that farmers understand that there is a clear change of the climate indicators such as river volume, start date of rain, access of fodder, increase in pests and invasive plants etc. The finding further reveals that farmers are enriched with numerous long-aged practices of climate change adaptation. The researchers have further ensured that though farmers are endowed with such indigenous knowledge, very small attention is given by the government and development agents on this regard. So the concerned bodies should give room for these practices while they are formulating and implementing policy (especially agricultural policy). Further, awareness creation campaign, for farmers, and pre-warning system should be established.

  78. Fatin.M.Jarallah, BDS. MSc.

    Backgrounds: An association between periodontitis (PD)and rheumatoid arthritis (RA) has been considered many years ago. RA is considered as an autoimmune disease whereas periodontitis has an infectious etiology with a complex inflammatory response. Porphyromonasgingivalis is a common pathogen in periodontal infection. The specific abilities of P. gingivalis to citrullinate host peptides can induce autoimmune responses in RA through development of anticycliccitrullinated peptide antibodies and trigger autoimmune responses in subjects with RA.The aim of this study was to detect the effect of Rheumatoid Arthritis drugs on Periodontal Parameters in Rheumatoid Arthritis patients with Periodontitis. Materials and Methods: A group of45 rheumatic patients with periodontitis,age ranged (35 – 55) sub divided into 30 patients on routine RA treatment and 15 newly diagnosed patients (haven’t taken treatment yet),.All have been subjected to clinical periodontal parameters registration. Results: strong positive correlation between CAL and the different kind of drugs in the treated group in comparison with non – treated group, methotrexate shows weak positive correlation with G.I, P.P.D at P< 0.05, no correlation reported with CAL and B.O.p., While strong correlation reported between leflunamide and PL.I , G.I at P=0.001, P< 0.05 respectively. Conclusion: An association between RA drugs and severity of periodontitis was demonstrated in regard to bone, plaque and gingival condition which were not related to dexterity loss.

  79. Oluwatosin Odungide Essien, Michael Asuzu, C., Olusimbo Ige and Ademola L. Adelekan

    Various studies have shown that hearing impaired individuals lack access to HIV/AIDS information due to problems of communication. This study was therefore designed to assess knowledge of HIV/AIDS and risk behaviour among secondary school students with and without hearing impairment in Ibadan, Nigeria. This comparative cross-sectional study involved 520 students (260 students with and 260 students without hearing impairment). A self-administered questionnaire was used for data collection. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics, Chi-square and t-test. Mean ages of the students without hearing and with hearing impairment were 14.9 ±1.8 years and 16.9 ± 2.9 years respectively. Mean knowledge score of HIV/AIDS was higher among the students without hearing impairment (33.1 ± 4.3) compared with their peers with hearing impairment (30.1 ± 4.8). About 49.2% of the students with hearing impairment were sexually active compared with 25.8% of their peers without hearing impairment. More of the students with hearing impairment (57.8%) considered themselves to be at risk of contracting HIV infection. Students with hearing impairment compared with their non-hearing impaired peers were more sexually active and less access to HIV/AIDS information. Knowledge of HIV/AIDS among students with hearing impairment may be enhanced by HIV awareness programmes and printed materials.

  80. Oluwatosin Odungide Essien, Omolola Irinoye and Ademola L. Adelekan

    Universal health coverage is a situation where everyone can access the health services they need without suffering financial hardship paying for them. This implies that there is some sort of risk pooling mechanism (e.g. insurance) and that the poorest are supported with their health expenses. 60% of all health spending is financed directly by households without insurance. This is way above the 15% threshold beyond which household risk being pushed into poverty by health care expenses. This paper thus reviewed the economic aspect of health care system: Its challenges and prospects in Nigeria. The results of this review showed that health care financing is worse hit especially in the poor continent where health care faces serious problem of acceptability with out-of-pocket expenditure accounting for over 70% of total private health expenditure is enough to dent the little progress of the health system made. It is therefore important that the government is responsible for the largest share of spending on health, rather than individuals, otherwise the poor may be denied access to healthcare and others may be pushed into poverty through expenditure on health.

  81. Satish Kumar Chauhan, Bal Govind Chauhan and Bidyadhar Dehury

    Improvement in the health and nutritional status of the population has been one of the major thrust areas for the social development programmers of the country. In developing countries like India childbirth is one of the important events affecting health of a woman. Using the unit data from NFHS-3, this paper examined the pregnancy complications among married women and their health seeking behaviour in rural Uttar Pradesh. Bi-variate and multivariate analysis are used to examine the interrelationship between pregnancy complications and use of health care services by socio-economic characteristics of the women. The results showed a high prevalence of pregnancy complications among the women in rural Uttar Pradesh. More than one-third ever married women had reported of having any kind of pregnancy complications. Bivariate results showed that pregnancy complications were reported higher among the women who received more health care services such as full antenatal care, home visit of health workers and visit to health facility. However, the pregnancy complications were found less if any health worker visited to home. The study also reveals that women’s education, economic status of the household and visit by health worker plays a vital role in influencing the woman’s health problems during pregnancy.

  82. Dr. Nadia M. M. AL-Shakir and Astabraq A. M. AL-Sudanii

    The goal of the study was to test the biological activities of Peppermint oil (Mentha spicata L.) extracted from leaves of Peppermint plant in growth of yeast Candida albicans isolated from the feces of 100 patients suffering from symptoms of Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), and find out the relationship with demographic characteristics. The data and specimen have been collected for the period from 1st November 2011 to the end of February 2012, from Teaching Baghdad Hospital "Laboratory Central", chosen randomly according to the sample specifications from 11 years to 50 years. The study revealed potential inhibitory activity of peppermint oil against yeast, Candida albicans in vitro, and showed that the mean of age was (33.5) years, and most of them are women, living in urban. Gas chromatographic analysis revealed the presence of 31 volatile compounds in shoot, two of these compounds, Menthol and Terpinene were identified as terpenoids.

  83. Nirosha J. Murugan, Blake T. Dotta, Lukasz M. Karbowski and Michael A. Persinger

    Cultured mouse melanoma cells were removed from incubation to room temperature and injected with either 1 μM of morphine or its mu-receptor antagonist naloxone, or, not treated. Photon emissions were counted measured by a photomultiplier unit for 24 hr. Cells injected with morphine exhibited conspicuous bursts of photon emissions whose amplitudes were as much as 1000 times greater than naloxone-injected or non-treated comparison cells with durations of about 10 s for about one hour. The peaks of the photon bursts in cells injected with morphine were approximately 10-11 W•m-2 and could involve the synchronized release of energy from all or most of the million cells in the population. The average photon emissions for these cells remained 6 fold greater for 24 hrs. If the multiple spikes and maintained elevation of photon emissions from the morphine-injected but not naloxone-injected or non-treated cells comprise a form of inter-cell communication this phenomenon may partially explain the propensity for morphine treatment to elicit proliferation and metastases in some malignant environments.

  84. Damulak, O. D., Adediran, A. A., Ogbennna, A. A., Bodunde, T., Bolorunduro, S. A. and Smith, O.

    Introduction: Blood donors are generally scarce and few in most developing countries, Nigeria inclusive. The retention of available safe blood donors, a pool of reliable committed blood givers, may reduce protracted acute blood shortage. Aims: This study sought to determine the donor retention rate, new TTIs rate and make recommendations that suit our setting. Methods: This retrospective study was carried out at the North Central Zonal Centre of the National Blood Transfusion Service (NBTS), Jos. All blood donors who donated at the NBTS centre between January 2009 and December 2013 were analyzed and categorized into first time and retained donors. Retained donors were further grouped according to their number of donations and rate of TTIs. Results: Thirty thousand two hundred and sixty four people, mean age 24.6 years; 70.5% males and 29.5% females donated blood within the study period. The crude TTIs rate of all blood donors 18.5% and 9.1% among committed donors. Repeat blood donors were 11,198 (37.0%), consisting of 90.5% regular and 9.5% lapsed. 97.8%, and 2.2% retained donors donated 2-15 and above 15 times with the crude TTIs rates of 9.1%, and 0.0% respectively. Conclusion: Blood donor retention could be successful in a resource poor setting with the advantage of decreasing TTIs rate associated with increasing number of donations. We further conclude that the retention of donors could enhance efficient utilization of donor funds.

  85. Dr. Ramesh Ram Fry, Dr. Samta Goyal, Dr. Pavneet Kaur Pandher and Dr. Jatinder Pal Singh Chawla

    Oral submucous fibrosis is a chronic inflammatory disease that results in progressive juxtaepithelial fibrosis of the oral soft tissues that can cause increasing difficulty in chewing, swallowing, speaking, and mouth opening. Many treatment regimens for oral submucous fibrosis have been proposed to alleviate the signs and symptoms of the disorder. In severe cases, surgical intervention is the only treatment modality, but relapse is a major problem. Even after 6 decades of its description as a separate entity, no concrete treatment is available due to its multi-modal pathogenesis. Thus, adding to the morbidity associated with it. Current article is an attempt to compile the available treatment aids, their current status and future perspectives, so as to aid early intervention of the disease.

  86. Samar Hosny Ahmad

    Leadership has a vital place in the field of management. The key to concise conceptualization of effective leadership remains elusive. Yet, the effectiveness of leadership lies in the manners with which leaders see and act on their own and their followers' values and motivation. Also, the genius of leadership refers to the extant by which a person believes that his or her actions can influence out comes. Another factor equally important is the concept of locus of control. Aim, the study aimed to determine the head nurse's leadership style and their locus of control. Research design, Descriptive research design was used (two test survey designs in the Main Tanta University Hospital was used to measure on the style of leadership and the locus of control of the leaders). Tool. Two tools were used. The leadership style questionnaire and the Rotters locus of control scale were administered. Result .The results showed that an moderate internal locus of control were associated with democratic leadership style as well as coaching and direction style. It also showed that an external locus of control was associated with a laissez – faire leadership style. Recommendation, it was recommended that the head nurses must be knowledgeable about different types of leadership styles and the levels of locus of control. Development of highly effective leader through leadership training program.

  87. Dr. Ravi Ichalakaranji, Dr. Vijaya Patil, Dr. L. S. Patil, Dr. Satish Patil and Dr. Kruthi, S. R.

    Splenic complications during the acute attack of malaria ranges from benign Splenomegaly to more serious complication includes splenic infarct, haematoma, abscess,rupture(spontaneous).Rupture of Spleen is a rare life threatening complication that occurs during the acute attack of malaria that imposes diagnostic challenge to clinicians particularly in endemic area. So our aim is to make aware of clinicians about this fatal complication which requires high index of suspicion and timely intervention which can save the life of a patient. Here we report case of spontaneous rupture of Spleen in an adult male patient.

  88. Dr. Balaji, P., Dr. Mahesh Kumar, T. S. and Dr. Sowbhagya, M. B.

    Dermatoglyphics is the scientific study of fingerprint pattern and are the dermal ridge configurations present on fingers, palms, toes and soles in humans and animals. On closer inspection of these ridges, they have a promising, simple, inexpensive means of information to determine whether a given patient could have a particular chromosomal defect. Finger prints analysis for identifying a person’s individuality is well known. Dermatoglyphics is emerging as an inexpensive, non invasive tool in identifying the genetic disorders affecting the oral and para oral structure. It is observed that different diseases have different finger print pattern. Any deviation from the normal dermatoglyphic patterns indicates a genetic difference in suspected individuals. This review focuses on the different fingerprint patterns in various dental disorders and the various studies involving the dermatoglyphics in dentistry.

  89. Bera Pabitra Kumar and Kar Pulak Kanti

    Ankylosing spondylosis belongs to a group of Rheumatic disease known as Spondyloarthopathies, which show a strong association with genetic marker HLA- B27. Inflamatory back pain and stiffness are prominent early in the disease where as chronic aggressive disease may produce pain and marked axial Immobility and deformity. In modern medicine there is no promising treatment for the disease. In Ayurveda, it can be co-related to Pristha – graha which can be treated as Vata – Kapha disease. Virechan Karma followed by Basti therapy (Dashamula Niruha and Sahachar taila Anubasan) were administered for that case. Here Basti therapy was applied in Karma Basti schedule and 3 such schedule were performed. After 4 months of completion of the study, all sign and symptoms of Ankylosing spondylosis were diminished. From this result the author had tried the same protocol in other three cases of Ankylosing spondylosis which is also very significant. Further study should be carried out in large sample to establish the rule of said therapy on this particular disease.

  90. Dr. Savitha Dandekeri, Dr. Neha Singh, Dr. Kamalakanth Shenoy, K. and Dr.Vidya Bhat

    Titanium and titanium alloys are widely used for fabrication of dental implants and have been the gold standards in tooth replacement. Many potential immunologic and esthetic hazards compromise the success rate of titanium implants. Therefore, there has been a necessity for the introduction of novel technologies that suffice the properties of the titanium implants biologically and esthetically. Poly-ether-ether-ketone (PEEK) implants were introduced into dental implantology as a viable alternative to titanium implants. They seem to be a suitable implant material because of their tooth like color, mechanical properties, biocompatibility, and ease in the solderability of PEEK implants. Although they possess sufficient merits, longitudinal studies with large sample sizes and systematic evaluation will provide a more comprehensive view of PEEK dental implants.

  91. Rote Ambadas Ranganath and Saudagar Ravindranath Bhanudas

    A simple, precise, sensitive and accurate first order derivative spectrophotometric method was developed and validated for the simultaneous estimation of cefpodoxime proxetil and ambroxol hydrochloride in combined tablet dosage form. For determination ofsampling wavelengths, each of cefpodoxime proxetil and ambroxol hydrochloride were scanned in the wavelength range 200–400 nm in spectrum mode and sampling wavelengths were selected at 234.3 nm (zero crossing of cefpodoxime proxetil) where ambroxol hydrochloride showed considerable absorbance and at 248.2 nm (zero crossing of ambroxol hydrochloride) where cefpodoxime proxetil showed considerable absorbance. Beer’s law obeyed in the concentration range of 8-40 µg/ml for cefpodoxime proxetil and 5-25 µg/ml for ambroxol hydrochloride respectively. The correlation coefficients were found to be 0.995and 0.998 for cefpodoxime proxetil and for ambroxol hydrochloride respectively. Mean recoveries were found satisfactory.

  92. Prof. Roula albounni, B.D.S, M.D.S, PhD. and Dr. Mona T. ALdaijy BDS.

    Many articles revealed the effects of soft drinks on the tooth structure as direct cause for extensive abrasive lesions, this study presents a case report of a patient with extensive erosion in the maxillary anterior teeth due to the consumption of soft drink (Pepsi). The lesions were managed by using direct composite veneers after controlling the reason of Erosion by stopping the consumption of the meant soft drink.

  93. Rashmi Pusunoori, Manjari Bodasu, Spandana Adepu and Sangram Vurumadla

    Background: As with the profile of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) due to directly observe treatment, short course (DOTS), there is no report available in patients receiving anti tuberculosis (antiTB) chemotherapy in Warangal region, Telangana, India. One of the main reasons for non-adherence to antiTB therapy (ATT) is adverse drug reactions (ADRs), even under DOTS. Objective: This main objective of the study was to determine the incidence and prognosis of ADRs due to DOTS therapy, and to evaluate their impact on anti-TB treatment in Warangal district, Telangana State. Methods: A prospective population-based study was performed from January 2014-August 2014. Sputum smear positive pulmonary tuberculosis patients who received DOTS therapy were included and followed up for six months. The suspected ADRs were recorded. Results: A total of 120 Tuberculosis patients were included in this study. 70 patients (58.3%) showed at least one ADR due to anti tubercular regimens. The incidence (count) of ADR based on affected organ was: gastrointestinal disorders in 35 patients (41.17%), anemia in 30 patients (42.85%), ototoxicity and giddiness in 19 patients (27.14%), Liver dysfunction in 17 patients (24.28%), allergic reactions in 12 patients (17.14%), Muscle weakness in 11 patients (12.94%). No ADRs were observed in CVS. Most cases of ADRs (53%) had a good clinical outcome. Conclusions: The incidence of ADRs due to DOTS therapy was 58.3%. These ADRs had a substantial impact on TB control in Warangal. This highlighted the importance of developing strategies to ameliorate ADRs both to improve the quality of patient care and to control TB safely.

  94. Dr. K.C. Dass and Dr. Sumeet David

    The median arcuate ligament syndrome (MALS, also known as celiac artery compression syndrome, celiac axis syndrome, celiac trunk compression syndrome or Dunbar syndrome) is a condition characterized by abdominal pain attributed to compression of the celiac artery and possibly the celiac ganglia by the median arcuate ligament. Median arcuate ligament usually passes superior to the origin of the celiac artery near the first lumbar vertebra. In the general population, 10-24% of people may have indentation caused by an abnormally low ligament. Duffy et al. (2009) We present the case of a patient with median arcuate ligament syndrome that caused abdominal pain associated with nausea and emesis.

  95. Balaji, V. R., Lavanya, V., Manikandan, D. and Jesudass, P.

    PRF is an excellent autogenous biomaterial used in the field of dentistry in recent times, with predictable results. PRF is a second-generationplatelet concentrate, which has several advantages over traditionally prepared PRP. PRF is now considered as an autogenous biomaterial, which has abundant growth factors and cytokines, entrapped in fibrin matrix, which creates an ideal environment for perfect wound healing and tissue regeneration. This article describes the properties, procurement and its various applications in the field of dentistry.

  96. Chaudhari, P. M., Ombase, K. C., Thorave, D. S., Ghodke, S. K. and Pawar, S. M.

    A field experiment was conducted at Central Sugarcane Research Station, Padegaon, Tal: Phaltan, Dist: Satara, Maharashtra during 2011- 12 to 2013- 14 to evaluate planting geometry and different varieties in spring planted sugarcane. Four levels of planting distance viz. 100 cm row distance, 120 cm row distance, 150 cm row distance and 30 x 150 cm row distance in main plots and four genotypes i.e. CoM 0265, Co 86032, Co 94012 and CoC 671 in sub plots laid out in split plot design with three replications. The spring sugarcane planted with row spacing of 120 cm recorded significantly the highest millable height (298 cm) and found at par with 150 cm row spacing. A similar trend was noticed for the cane girth (10.6 cm) and number of millable canes ha-1 (89630 ha-1). The row spacing of 120 cm recorded significantly the highest cane yield (122.33 t ha-1) and CCS yield (17.42 t ha-1) and found at par with the row spacing of 150 cm for both cane yield (116.89 t ha-1) and CCS yield (16.50 t ha-1). Among the varietal response, the significantly the highest cane yield (136.69 t ha-1) and CCS (19.20 t ha-1) yield were recorded with the genotype CoM 0265 followed by Co 86032 (121.31 and 17.27 t ha-1). The sugarcane genotype CoC 671 was found to be the most superior with respect to juice quality.

  97. Fredrick Omondi Owino, Dr. Patrick Odhiambo Hayombe and Prof. Stephen Gaya Agong

    Community participation has been seen as an effective process towards implementation and sustainability of development projects. This research attempts to give proposals for improving the quality of urban green spaces in Kisumu city through public involvement. The objective of the study was to develop participatory and innovative design guidelines on urban green space planning that can support ecotourism transformation in collaboration with relevant stakeholders. Data was collected from published documents, observation and questionnaires. The study found out that the public’s opinions are not openly consulted before decisions on development are made and they are also not involved in the design process. Members of the public do have opinions about the general issue of urban greening, but they are reluctant to express them to the planning authorities or government. The study recommends the use of propaganda to increase public awareness about the environment, in order to protect green space actively. Neighbourhood associations should also be involved in urban green space management, in order to improve the daily management of urban green spaces. Lastly there is need to promote green space activities for ecotourism transformation, in order to incorporate the broader social force into the construction and management of urban green spaces.

  98. Safa K. Ibraheem, Abdulwahid B. Alshaibani, Ali H. Ad'hiah

    The investigation aimed to determine the prevalence of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) in hospitalized diarrheal children, together with its multi-drug resistance (MDR) status. A total sample of 128 patients (76 males and 52 females) was enrolled in the study. They were hospitalized children due to diarrhea and fever, and admitted to the Central Pediatric Hospital in Baghdad during the period April - September, 2012. Their ages had a range of six days and up to five years. S. Typhimurium was isolated and identified from nine stool samples (7.03%), which were belong to nine children. All isolates were resistant to nalidixic acid, with the exception of isolate 1.11, which showed intermediate sensitivity. Only isolate B was resistant to three antibiotics, which were ampicillin, amoxicillin/clavulanic acid and nalidixic acid. These results demonstrate that S. Typhimurium is an important causative pathogen of diarrhea in children, especially if we consider its MDR.

  99. Noor N. Nafie, Basil O. Saleh, Sabah M. Fadhil

    Background: Inflammation be may plays a central role in atherosclerosis. Coronary artery calcification (CAC) is a specific feature for coronary atherosclerosis. In multiple epidemiologic studies, inflammatory biomarkers such as high sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), has been associated with increased risk of coronary artery disease (CAD), while Pentraxin III might reflect local inflammation status in tissue and it is used as a new biomarker of inflammation. The aim of this study was designed to evaluate the association between the serum levels of hs-CRP, Pentaxin III and HbA1C% with coronary artery calcium score values in patients with suspected CAD and to show the role of these parameters in progression and development of CAC. Subjects and Methods: This study was conducted at the Department of Biochemistry, College of Medicine, University of Baghdad and at the Cardiologic Clinics of Ibn-Al-Bitar Hospital, Baghdad, Iraq, during the period from February 2013 to November 2013. Sixty-five patients with suspected CAD and who were not on statin derivatives treatment were included in this study and classified according to their coronary artery Ca score, using Multi-Slice Computed Tomography Scanner (MSCT), into three groups: Group I (GI, n=20) with coronary artery Ca score =0.0 Agatston Score (AS), Group II (GII, n=25) with coronary artery Ca score > 1-399 (AS), and Group III (GIII, n=20) with coronary artery Ca score of more than 400 (AS). Results: The present study showed the changes in serum concentrations of pentraxin III and hs-CRP were increased with increase in the severity of Ca score, but without significant level; GI had (0.83±0.35 ng/dl, 3.13±3.50 mg/l, respectively), GII (0.96±0.30 ng/dl, 3.07±3.79 mg/l, respectively), and GIII (0.99±0.50 ng/dl, 3.71±3.70 mg/l, respectively). Significant increased in the mean value of HbA1c in GIII compared with GI (P=0.03). Also the mean values of non-HDL-cholesterol (for both, P=0.0289) and atherogenic index (P=0.008 and P=0.0011) were significantly higher in GIII than in GII and GI. Conclusion: This study suggested the controversial role of proinflammatory adipokines, the hs-CRP and pentraxin III, in progression of coronary artery calcium calcification. The link among inflammation (hs-CRP, PTX3), hyperglycemia (HbA1C%) and dyslipidemia (non–HDL and atherogenic Index) may play important role in the severity progression of CAC.

  100. Bodke M. R., Gaikwad H. K. and Sonawane T. B.

    ZnO nanoparticles were synthesized successfully by solgel-combution route at room temperature. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and UV-Visible spectroscopy were used to investigate the effect of annealing temperature on the structural and optical properties of ZnO nanoparticles. XRD study estimated that prepared samples had a hexagonal wurtzite structure and crystallite size 4.22 nm and 5.68 nm for ZnO nanoparticles without annealing and annealed at 6000C temperature, formation of quantum dots observed. Optical study revealed the blue shift in energy band gap. Investigation of chemical groups and chemical bonding was completed by FTIR technique.

  101. Flores-Encarnación, M., Aguilar-Gutiérrez, G. R., Ixtepan-Tejero, C., Juárez-Salazar, G., Martínez-Vaquero, J. L., Cabrera-Maldonado, C. and Xicohténcatl-Palacios, R. C.

    Biofilms are a population of cells that grown attached to a surface involved in exopolysaccharide matrix which protects them from attack by antibiotics or immune system. Many chronic and persistent infections are caused by bacterial biofilms, which increase significantly the resistance to antimicrobials. Different mechanisms of resistance have been proposed such as: synthesis of extracellular polymers (physical barrier effect), enzymatic modification of antimicrobials, decrease of bacterial growth rate, phenotypic changes in bacterial cells (as a result of the acquisition of resistance genes within the biofilm), and the persistence of a small group of cells in the bacterial community. But all is not bad in life, bacterial biofilms also may have a protective role, for example the normal flora.

  102. Shyam Kumar, A.

    A field experiment was conducted on Ocimum basilicum L.cv. Citral, which was treated with 1 ton /ha Calcium sulphate (Caso42H2O), to study its impacts on soil chemical properties like PH, EC, Calcium, Magnesium, Carbonates and Bi-carbonates and Sulphates. The field was designed as RCBD with four replications. Observations were recorded for 15, 45, 75,105 days after planting. The results indicated that after 105 days after planting, Bicarbonates, Calcium, Magnesium, Chlorides and Sulfates content of the soil water increased due to gypsum application. No changes were seen in case of PH.

  103. Radha Yadamuri and Charitha Devi Mekala

    Trichoderma mediated systemic resistance is often associated with the onset of defense mechanisms by expression of various defense related enzymes such as β-1-3-glucanase, chitins, phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL), peroxidase (PO), polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and phenols. The present investigation was undertaken to demonstrate and to exploit the T.harzianum isolated from the rhizosphere soil of healthy pumpkin plants for induction of systemic resistance against Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV), the causative agent of cucumber mosaic virus disease in cucurbits. Trichoderma treated pumpkin plants challenged with CMV not only showed a pronounced and significant reduction in percent disease incidence (PDI) but also a significant reduction in virus concentration (ELISA) and exhibited maximum activity of PO, PPO and increase in the concentration of proteins, phenols as compared to the plants challenged with CMV alone at 25 days after inoculation (DAI). Trichoderma -treated plants were more developed than non treated plants throughout the experiment. Percentage of seed germination, symptom rating (%), plant height and yield measurements were also enhanced in the Trichoderm -treated plants inoculated with the virus. Expression of an additional 21.5 kDa protein in PAGE analysis indicates the induction of xylanase has shown to induce ethylene production and plant defense response in pre-treated plants.

  104. Debasis Bhunia and Dr. Amal Kumar Mondal

    The seed storage free amino acids of 4 taxa of Blyxa were analyzed from the fully aquatic family Hydrocharitaceae by Thin Layer Chromatography. Total 22 amino acids were found, among these 3 were not identified. Considerable amount of homology were observed in between Blyxa aubertii var. aubertii and B. aubertii var. echinosperma (60%). Also another homology observed in between B. octandra and B. quandricostata (41.17%), but B. japonica was far differ from others analyzed taxa. The major amino acids were Amino-n-butyric acid, Glutamic acid, Phenylalanine, Glycine, Tryptophan, Methionine, Isoleucine and Serine. The present observation reveals that there was a correlation in between morphology and free amino acids composition of Blyxa analyzed taxa. Free amino acids can use as a taxonomic markers to draw the similarity among the plant taxa.

  105. Diversity and composition of tree stands in tropical forests of the darjiling part of Eastern himalaya

    The present study quantifies the diversity and composition of tree species having girth size > 15 cm in the tropical forests of Darjiling part of Eastern himalaya through nested quadrat sampling method. In total, 74 species under 64 genera and 36 families were recorded. The individual density varied from 25 to 88.89 individuals ha-1. Shannon-Weaver Index ranged from 0.016 to 0.138 whereas the species richness varied from 0.074 to 0.894. The most dominant families were Lauraceae and Malvaceae, followed by Leguminosae and Phyllanthaceae. The abundance to frequency ratio ranged from 0.020 to 0.125 and the basal area ranged from 0.088 ±0.003 to 76.172 ±0.285m2 ha-1. The dominant species was Shorea robusta (IVI: 27.502) followed by co-dominant species Tetrameles nudiflora (IVI: 15.998) and Tectona grandis (IVI: 11.442). The study reveals that the favourable climatic condition is one of the reasons for the rich diversity and composition of the tree species in the area.

  106. Arti Shanware and Ashwini Darokar

    Rhizobacteria that promote the plant growth and development are called plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR). The bacterium under study, belong to PGPR and identified as P. fluorecens strain FP18. The present study deals with heavy metal tolerance capacity of this strain against four heavy metals. The heavy metals used in this study were Zinc sulphate, Arsenic trichloride, Mercuric chloride and Lead nitrate. The isolate exhibited high resistance to heavy metals with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) ranging from 50μg/ml to 300μg/ml. Heavy Metal Tolerance study indicated maximum microbial tolerance to Zinc sulphate and lowest to Lead nitrate.

  107. Vikas Kumar, Sukumar, D., Muruganantham, M., Jeyasekaran, G. and Shanmugam, S. A.

    Cephalopods (including squids) are rapidly perishable like fishes and crustaceans and require some treatment to maintain the quality for export. However the information on the effectiveness of chemicals being used in the industry is limited. Keeping this in mind, an attempt was made to study the improvement in sensory quality of frozen squid (Sepioteuthis lessoniana) upon the treatment with the imported food grade chemicals (Hidratech_4A and Whitech_3). The sensory quality of squids was evaluated for flavour, odour, appearance, texture and overall acceptability. Samples were tested after pre-processing, treatments and freezing and during storage at monthly intervals for 7 months. Sensory scores revealed a better quality of treated samples than control. Scores favoured the application of freshwater than saltwater in maintaining the sensory quality.

  108. Gayathri, V. and Kiruba, D.

    The plant is found throughout India, entire North-East region. It has a long history of cultivation in Southeast Asia and China. Plants possess some specific chemicals called phytochemicals in them which may not have nutritional property as such, but they can work towards the deterrence of diseases. The present study was carried out to evaluate the phytochemicals present in the leaf powder and also to study the fluorescent characters of the leaf powder. The phytochemical study showed the presence of terpenoids, oil and fat, starch, carbohydrate and cellulose in all the four extracts of the leaf powder. Flavonoid was present in water and chloroform extracts. The fluorescence analysis of leaf powder of C. limonum showed varied colour with the treatment of different chemicals.

  109. Khairul Mazed, H. E. M., Md. Hasanuzzaman Akand, Md. Nazmul Haque, Md. Ashraful Islam Pulok and Jannatul Ferdous Moonmoon

    An experiment was conducted in the experimental field of Sher-e-Bangla Agricultural University, Dhaka-1207, Bangladesh during the period from October 2012 to March 2013 to find out the effect of GA3 and pruning on the growth and yield of tomato. The experiment consisted of three doses of GA3 such as 80, 100 and 120 ppm with control; three different pruning levels such as 1, 2 and 3 stem pruning. The experiment was laid out in a RCBD with three replications. Both GA3 and pruning had significant influence on growth and yield contributing characters of tomato. At 75 DAT, the highest plant height (117.30 cm), maximum number of leaves/plant (75.30) and highest yield (29.03 t/ha) were recorded from GA3 spray at 120 ppm. At 75 DAT, the highest plant height (113.60 cm), maximum leaves per plant (67.00) and yield (28.11 t/ha) were recorded from 2 stem pruning. The combined effect of 120 ppm GA3 and 2 stem pruning performed the highest yield (31.89 t/ha) and lowest from G0P1. So, 120 ppm GA3 with 2 stem pruning may be used for higher yield of tomato.

  110. Yashwanthrao B. Dalvi and Rajanna, L.

    A study on biodiversity of phytoplankton in Fort Lake revealed a total of 35 species belonging to five classes in which Chlorophyceae-19 species, Bacillariophyceae-10 species, Cyanophyceae-3 species, Dinophyceae-2 species and 1 species of Euglenophyceae. Species of Bacillariophyceae were abundant and dominated by Nitzschia sp., Navicula sp., and Synedra sp., which are considered as indicators of organic pollution and bad quality of water. Algal pollution index revealed a score of 28 indicating that Fort Lake is organically polluted. Physico- chemical parameters of Fort Lake revealed that the pH ranges from 7.8 to 9.2, electrical conductivity ranges from 395 µS/cm to 570 μS/cm, dissolved oxygen 2.9 to 6.9 mg/L, total hardness 149 mg/L to 200 mg/L, calcium hardness 69 mg/L to 90 mg/L, Temperature 210C to 250C, Iron 0.1 mg/L to 0.3 mg/L, phosphate 0.0 mg/L to 0.5 mg/L, nitrite 0.0 mg/L, nitrate 0.1 mg/L to 5 mg/L, chloride 60 mg/L to 120 mg/L, residual chlorine 0.0 mg/L to 0.2 mg/L ,ammonium 0.1 mg/L to 5 mg/L, fluoride 0.0 mg/L, turbidity 24.00 cm to 38.100 cm and total alkalinity 105 mg/L to155 mg/L. Based on the investigation we conclude that Fort Lake is polluted by organic waste and is unfit for drinking but can be utilized for fish rearing and recreational activities.

  111. Hassani, F., Ferouani, T., Mesli, L., Stambouli, H., Sari Ali, A. and Barka, F.

    Currently the steppe is a fragile area against degradation phenomena, knows a regressive evolution, reflecting mainly by anthropozoic effect. Today overexploitation of natural resources and a great tendency to degradation resulting in the reduction of the biological potential and rupture of the ecological balance. In this context comes the idea of assessing plant biodiversity of some steppe stations wintering site for the Grus grus.

  112. Geeta Rath, Sandeep Kumar Nayak, Ashirbad Mohapatra and Kunja Bihari Satapathy

    Medicinal plants are the local heritage with global importance. World is endowed with a rich wealth of medicinal plants which have always been the principal form of medicine and presently they are becoming popular throughout the developed world, as people strive to stay healthy in the face of chronic stress and pollution. Tribes of Keonjhar district of Odisha depend basically on different herbs for a wide range of ailments including mother and child health care. An ethnobotanical survey was conducted to collect information about medicinal plants used as galactogogue by the tribals of the district. This includes the indigenous knowledge of local traditional healers and native plants used by the tribes for inducing lactation among nursing mothers through questionnaire and personal interviews. A total of 55 informants within the age group of 50 to 68 were interviewed, among them fifteen were tribal practitioners. The investigation revealed that, the traditional healers and the inhabitants of the district use 46 species of plants distributed in 43 genera belonging to 28 families to induce lactation in nursing mother. The study also revealed that fresh plant materials were invariably preferred for the disease management. Breast feeding is a major source of nourishment for the tribal infants and it is carried for a prolonged period. Lactation inducing remedies are commonly used by the nursing mothers in order to meet the nutritional requirement of their children. Some of the lactation inducing (galactogogue) plant species are found growing in their natural habitat while others are domesticated. Galactogogue plants used by tribes of Keonjhar have been listed along with plant parts used. The present paper dealt with the ethnobotanical exploration, identification and documentation of potential galactogogue plants used by the ethnic groups of Keonjhar district of Odisha.

  113. Husain Alsamamra

    In the applications of solar energy, the solar radiation components data in a site must be known for the design of a system. However, for many developing countries solar radiation data are only available for site stations due to the cost of the measurement equipment and techniques involved. The present work proposes a simple model to estimate the direct, diffuse, and total solar radiation on horizontal surfaces. Calculations of this model were made for solar solstices and equinox for the purpose of testing. Results showed that the model provides an acceptable estimation of the direct, diffuse, and total components of solar radiation components. This simple model can be used at any location in the northern hemisphere.

  114. Nirmala, P. and Dr. Rani Hemamalini, R.

    Evolutionary algorithms are widely used optimisation technique for an efficient combinatorial design in the field of evolvable hardware. This paper deals with the design of non-linear image filter using genetic Algorithm. First, a modified simple genetic algorithm is proposed which is based on the concept of generation runs and shuffling operation. This generation run polls for the best fit offspring to pass on to the next generation along with retaining the elite population. This enables the Genetic algorithm to search the sub spaces of the large solution space. The shuffling operation at the end of each generation will avoid the problem of positional locality reference which causes the local minimum problem. A sample test function is employed to guarantee the convergence of sGA to an optimum solution. Second, the proposed modified sGA is capable of designing an efficient image filter for the impulse noise filtering. The suitable impulse noise modelling that reduces the computational complexity is also employed in the filter design.

  115. Hussien A. Elsayed, Seham A. Shaban, Hoda S. Ahmed and Mohamed F. Menoufy

    Experimental study to evaluate the effect of hydrotreating CoMo/γ-Al2O3 catalyst for upgrading heavy gas oil (HGO). Hydro desulfurization (HDS) and hydro dearomatization (HDA) activities were conducted in a continuous flow micro trickle-bed reactor at the temperatures, pressures, liquid hourly space velocity (LHSV) and hydrogen-to-feed ratio of; 3500-4500C, 40-75 bar, 0.5-1.0 h-1, and 400 LL-1 respectively. This work identifies and measures the key parameters in hydro desulfurization, and at conversion levels above 95 and 90 %, respectively. The experimental results fitted with the Power Law model yielded reaction orders of the first order reaction for HDS and HAD, and activation energies of 31.4 and 36.9 kj/Mol respectively.

  116. Larbi El Farh

    Dans cette étude, nous avons analysé l’évolution de la superficie couverte par les serres horticoles d’une manière générale puis en fonction des légumes les plus plantés dans la région orientale du Maroc depuis l’an 2000, ainsi que des types de serre utilisés dans la région. Nous avons présenté également, les variations des températures intérieure et extérieure d’une serre ainsi que son bilan énergétique totale.

  117. Prodjinonto Vincent, Semassou Clarence, Dangbedji Célestin and Vianou Antoine

    Losses are difficult to control because of the lack of characterization method thick materials engineering. The work presented here is an experimental approach to characterize a thick material. We used the power of the sun as a source of excitation of the material. We set up a simple sensor consisting of a Peltier element and a thermocouple for measuring surface. With the help of a chain of acquisition, we recorded in steps of 10 s data flow and temperature in real time on the outside and inside of a building wall. Analysis and appropriate treatments based on the method of quadrupole were then allowed us to estimate the characteristic response time of the wall. Campaign measurement data is done in five days. So we could calculate the characteristic response time of each day, which obviously depends on the weather conditions and the thickness of strained layers in the wall. We determined an average characteristic time of 2h 21 min or 8460 s, which corresponds to a homogeneous material diffusivity (〖a=10〗^(-6) m^2⁄s) at a depth of about 12 cm polled. We believe that the implementation of an infrared camera, it would be possible to make Non-Destructive Testing (NDT) such materials.

  118. Viky Bagde and Moresh Mukhedkar

    This project is mainly focussed on the recognition of face for security purpose. But it could also be used to obtain quick access to medical, criminal, or any type of records. Solving this problem is important because it could allow personnel to take preventive action, provide better service - in the case of a doctor’s appointment, or allow a person access to a secure area. This project work is proposed to design using MATLAB. In this project we are using PCA algorithms for saving database of image i.e. different expressions of face and detection of the face for security reasons. A face recognition system generally consists of four modules as face localization, normalization, feature extraction, and matching. There was a dormant period in automatic face recognition until the work by Sir Ovich and Kirby on a low dimensional face representation. This was derived using the Karhunen–Loeve Transform or Principal Component Analysis (PCA). It is the pioneering work of Turk and Pentl and on Eigen-face that reinvigorated face recognition research. Other major milestones in face recognition include: the Fisher face method, which applied Linear Discriminate Analysis (LDA). LDA method is used after a PCA step to achieve higher accuracy. Local filters such as Gabor jets are used to provide more effective facial features. The design of the Adaboost learning based cascade classifier architecture is used for real time face detection.

  119. Ms.Prajakta Pande and Amit Welekar

    This paper reviews a number of applications designed for location tracking on mobile phones and also how this location tracking can help in a variety of ways. The Location tracking is one of the location based services. Location based services are set of services provided to a user based on his location. A location of a mobile can be found out either with the help of mobile network or by Global Positioning System (GPS). Most of the mobile phones these days are embedded with the hardware required to use this GPS technology and are also easily available. Android is a new generation of smart mobile phone platform launched by Google. Android supports GPS, Video Camera, compass, and 3d-accelerometer and provides rich APIs for map and location functions. Users can flexibly access, control and process the free Google map and implement location based mobile service in his mobile systems at low cost.

  120. Eze, Michael Onyedika

    A study of the concentrations and accumulation of heavy metals (Pb, Cd, Ni, Fe and Zn) in Amaranthus hybridus (green spinach) plant around four solid waste dumpsites in Gombe metropolis, Nigeria was carried out using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (A Analyst 400 Perkin Elmer USA). The result indicated the following trend in heavy metals’ concentrations in both dumpsite soil and plant samples: Fe>Zn>Pb>Ni>Cd. Roots showed highest metal concentration followed by leaves and then stems. The Accumulation Factor (AF) was calculated for assessment of the plant’s bio-accumulation potential. The Accumulation Factor (Transfer Ratio) indicated the following trend: Cd>Pb>Ni>Fe>Zn. Although the metals concentrations in Amaranthus hybridus were less than 1000mgKg-1, their average accumulation factors (AF) being greater than 1.00 for the five heavy metals studied is an indication of the plant’s potential as hyper accumulator. Thus, it may be risky to consume Amaranthus hybridus grown at close proximity to dumpsites since they can greatly accumulate much of these toxic metals.

  121. Ramanna, R., Sankarappa, T., Ashwajeet, J. S., Sujatha, T. and Sadashivaiah, P. J.

    Magnetic multilayers, (Co(50nm)/Al(10nm))n; n =2 and 5 were deposited at 473K, under high vacuum conditions. X- ray diffraction (GIXRD) studies indicated amorphous nature of the films. Atomic force microscope (AFM) has been employed to study surface structure and grain sizes. The magnetization as a function of field at temperatures 150K, 200K and 300K has been measured using the MPMS SQUID - vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). From the hysteresis loops, coercive field, saturation magnetization, remanent magnetization and ant ferromagnetic coupling were determined. The existence of ant ferromagnetic interaction between Co layers through Al layer has been established for both the films. The low temperature electrical resistivity in the range from 5 K to 300 K has been measured and found metallic behavior in both the films. This is for the first time that (Co/Al) multilayers were investigated for structural and low temperature magnetic and electrical properties and data analyzed thoroughly.

  122. Charu Lata and Negi, D. S.

    Proteases are typical enzymes that are being investigated for their potential usage in many areas of application, such as detergent, brewing meat, photography, leather and dairy. A large number of proteases have been purified and characterized from bacteria and few from fungi. Bacteria were isolated from the soil sample of Lachiwala, Doon Valley. Out of 64 bacterial pure cultures, 10 best protease producing microorganisms were isolated through activity zone methods. Protease activity was checked spectrophotometrically using azocasein dye as a substrate. 1 bacteria was selected from them. The thermos table enzyme showed activity up to at 90C.

  123. Dr. Mostafa M. Korany

    The light need to time when it move (to move 30 cm it need 10-9 s) so we see in every moment in our life the past of every thing or body we can find it clear in the space distance between us and any body else in the space (like stars) maybe we see light of one star we see the light now and we think the star is there now but maybe the truth is the star is died from 3000 years ago. We can see the past of the body or things if we stop or move by light speed or any other speed but we can not see ourselves if we move by light speed because we move like the light beam . If I carry mirror and I don’t move or move by speed don not like the light I will see the past of me in the mirror. There are 2 cases I can see myself in that in two different times.

  124. Maarif Ali Jafarov, Elshan Fayaz Nasirov, and Rovshan Mammadov

    Semiconductor CdS nanowire arrays have been synthesized by the electrochemical deposition from aqueous solutions into porous anodic alumina substrates. X-ray diffraction analyses show that the as-synthesized nanowires have a highly preferential orientation. Scanning electron microscopy indicate that high-filling, ordered, and single-crystalline nanowire arrays have been obtained. The optical absorption spectra of the nanowire arrays show that the optical absorption band edge of the CdS nanowire array exhibits a blue shift compared with that of bulk CdS. The growth mechanism and the electrochemical deposition process are discussed together with the chemical compositions analysis.

  125. Dipankar Ghosh and Jayanta Kumar Biswas

    A survey of the zooplankton communities of a water body was conducted from April 2013 to March 2014 in the Chhariganga oxbow lake in Block of Nakashipara of Nadia district, West Bengal, India and an analysis of rotifer group of zooplankton with using diversity indices like Shannon-weaver and Simpson diversity index, species richness and evenness, composition trends with total abundance was also carried out to assess the water quality and aquatic health of the oxbow lake ecosystem. Nine species of rotifer zooplanktons identified were Asplanchna sp, Notholca sp, Keratella sp, Anuraeopsis sp, Cephalodella sp, Monostyla sp, Platyias sp, Testudinella sp, Ascomorpha sp. Species Richness values of 5, 3, 4; Species Evenness of 0.96, 1.00, 0.96; Shannon-Weiner Index values of 1.55, 1.10, 1.33 and Simpson diversity index values of 0.22, 0.33 and 0.27 were found respectively during pre monsoon, monsoon and post monsoon in the oxbow lake. Total abundance of rotifer group showed density values of 280, 120, and 125 numbers per litre of water during those three seasons in a year. In the present study low diversity values of Shannon and Simpson diversity clearly stated that the selected lake is polluted and has high anthropogenic activity and this lake water is not suitable for aquaculture.

  126. Fouzia Rafat

    A study was done of the thermal decomposition of urea at different heating rate by thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA) and differential thermal analyzer (DTA). In this study the activation energy for the thermal decomposition of urea was measured using the Kissinger and Friedmann methods. The two methods produced consistent results revealing the complex decomposition process of urea.

  127. Chittibabu, B.

    The study was proposed to investigate the changes observed on exercise heart rate of male handball players during a handball match. We selected twelve (12) university represented male handball players from Department of Physical Education and Sports Sciences, Annamalai University, Tamilnadu. However, in the present study goalkeepers were excluded from the study. The players exercise heart rate was measured at every 15th minute during the 60 minute handball match. The results of the study show that peak heart rate of handball players was significantly affected during the handball match as F (3, 33) = 3.071, p < 0.05, ω2 = 0.38. Similarly, mean heart rate of handball players was significantly affected during the handball match as F (3, 33) = 3.300, p < 0.05, ω2 = 0.40. It is concluded that handball players peak heart rate and mean heart rate was affected moderately during the handball match.

  128. Dr. S. Amutha Rani and Dr. M. Gurupandi

    To maximize the production and thereby profit, the producers depends on his limited resources available viz., inputs, genetic potential of the animal and feed quality. An attempt is made to find the input variables which influence the gross return of milk production and thereby the resource productivity with respect to cow, buffalo and pooled category of milk producers selected. The structural differences are to be examined between cow and buffalo. Further, an attempt is made to examine the resource-use efficiency by equating the Marginal Value Productivity (MVP) of each resource input to its Marginal Factor Cost (MFC). This determines whether the factors are used optimally in the production of milk.

  129. Critical investigations of child labor characteristics in Ethiopia

    The paper examines child labor characteristics in Ethiopia using the data collected by Young Lives project. The study indicates that more than 55.73 percent of the 7 to 17-year-olds has participated in labor market. The result also shows a higher percentage of children participating in economic activities in rural areas than urban areas. We find supportive evidence of the luxury axiom that poverty drives child labor. Our result shows that poverty appears to be the main culprit of the prevalence of child labor in both rural and urban areas.

  130. Habtamu Worku, Mohammed Adem and Dessalegn Beyene

    Irrigation schemes are essential policy options chosen by the government to eradicate poverty and secure food security in Ethiopia. Areas which faced erratic rainfall should expand irrigation projects that enable them to have high agricultural productivity. Irrigation has a great impact on the livelihood of rural community where agriculture is the bedrock of their life. To see the positive effect of irrigation on livelihood, therefore, it is important to understand how farmers or irrigation scheme beneficiaries organize and cooperate in order to manage issues in relation to water management, conflict management and canal maintenance. However, the managerial aspect of irrigation is overlooked and high emphasis has been given to construction of irrigation dams and handover to the users. Therefore, the main aim of this study was to understand how smallholder farmers organize themselves to manage small scale irrigation schemes with reference to Qorrir Small-scale irrigation scheme, Tigray, Ethiopia. In order to carry out this research, a multiple of data collection techniques such as household questionnaire, focus group discussion and key informant interview were employed. In order to analyze the already collected data, both qualitative and descriptive analysis techniques have been used. In the result of the study, it is understood that the water committee is responsible for water allocation and distribution, coordinating canal maintenance activities and conflict management in the irrigation scheme with support from development agents and extension workers. However, the water committee was found to be inefficient in managing water distribution in terms of adequacy, timeliness and equity in the supply of water. According to the research result, conflict within and between groups was persistent due to water scarcity, water theft, lack of proper control of water distribution and increasing number of user that created competition. The irrigation scheme was expected to irrigate hundred hectares. However, since a significant number of beneficiaries (61.7%) have faced acute shortage of irrigation water for their agricultural activities, its capacity to irrigate has limited to fifty hectares.

  131. Kato, G. K., Otuya, W. I., Owunza, J. D. and Nato, J. A.

    Mobile banking is the provision of banking services using the mobile phone. In keeping with the advancement in technology, commercial banks have in the recent past undergone major technological leaps in the provision of banking services by adoption of mobile banking technology. This model of banking is particularly useful in providing efficiency and accessibility of banking services without the barriers of location and time. Many studies have been done to assess the impact of mobile banking on financial inclusion. Not many known studies have been carried out in the Kenyan banking sector in respect of the impact of mobile banking on performance of commercial banks. This research sought to study the relationship between mobile banking and performance of commercial banks in Kenya. The setting of this study was Kakamega town where banks operating in the town were studied. To attain this, the banks perceptions and attitudes towards mobile banking, and its effects on performance on financial and customer based measures were assessed by administering questionnaires to the customer service and operations staff. Various journal articles, print media articles, and books were reviewed to provide findings of previous work on the area of study. This study was correlational in nature as it sought to fully describe all the key variables under study and establish the relationship among the variables. A structured questionnaire was used to collect data. The collected data was analyzed by inferential statistics where Pearson’s Product Moment Correlation and multiple regression analysis were used in measuring relationships among the various variables. This study established that there was positive relationship between mobile banking and performance of commercial banks. It found out that improvements in performance of commercial banks can be attributed to mobile banking. The findings of this research will be useful to bank management and other stakeholders as well as researchers in the area of mobile banking. The research will offer insight into the area of mobile banking to bank management and strategists in proper implementation of mobile banking and will form a basis for future research in this area.

  132. Samuel O. Obaki and Atieno O. Rose

    Reading deficiency has many times been reported as a serious problem that affects academic performance in Kenyan schools. Some children in elementary classes are not able to read simple words or sentences at their class level. Consequently, politicians, parents and general public throw the blame on teachers to have failed to teach children how to read and write. Teachers and other educationists boomerang the problem to parents and economic constraints. Solving reading deficiency problem in Kenyan schools needs concerted efforts but not blaming each other. This theoretical article intends to give valuable solutions to reading deficiencies in Kenyan primary school children.

  133. Habtamu Worku, Mohammed Adem, Dessalegn Beyene and Alemu Leta

    Population growth and ever increasing urbanization have lead to the rapid growth and expansion of cities, which have been overwhelmed by a sudden increase in travel demand. Urban transportation is a critical concern in most developing countries. Ethiopia is no exception as an increasing urbanization is taking place. Like other African cities, Addis Ababa has experienced physical expansion and rapid population growth which has created high transportation demand. In Addis Ababa, since car ownership is very low, majority of residents depend on public transport, which is shortly supplied. Minibus taxi transport service is one of the public transport services which has greater modal share next to walking in the city. Until 2011, taxi transport was unregulated by the government with regard to route selection. They were operating every parts of the city without any restriction of routes. This created big opportunity for taxis to operate in areas where there is profit. This in turn results in discrimination; places that are far from the city center were not getting taxi service. For this response, the government has introduced zonal taxi transport system. The purpose of this study has been to assess the effect of zonal taxi transport system on the level of taxi transport service with special reference to Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. The study has been focused on the changes brought by the regulation into taxi transport service, the existing level of taxi transport service and taxi users’ level of satisfaction towards taxi transport service after the regulation put into place. In order to undertake this study, survey questionnaire, interview and observation were carried out to collect primary data from sample respondents in the study area. Both qualitative and quantitative techniques were used for analyzing the data. In addition to the above sources, relevant literature and essential documents were also reviewed. The findings of this study showed that the regulation has brought many changes in the taxi transport industry. With zonal taxi transport system, taxi station attendants are legally organized, taxi owners are organized and established taxi owners’ association, the idea of taxi zoning came into place, each taxi has forced to have a destination sign posted at the roof of each vehicle and taxi operators must post taxi transport tariff inside the vehicle. The study result also revealed that since taxi operators stick to one route, their livelihood is highly affected. The regulation has affected them negatively as compared to the situation before zonal taxi transport system. On the issue of service quality, the study showed that taxi operators’ behavior, the way taxi users get into taxis, waiting time to get taxis, time to reach taxi terminals and comfort of seating in taxis are those that are improved by zonal taxi transport system. However, the regulation does not bring any change with regard to time spent onboard, waiting environment for taxis at taxi terminals, responsiveness of transport bureau towards transport related problems, theft and traffic congestion as compared to the situation before zonal taxi transport system.

  134. Elijah Tukwarlba Yin and Jenna Marie Black

    This paper delves into the legal anthropology of marriage in Ghana. The socio-legal aspect of this topic is less explored in Ghana although law seems quite often instrumentalized in marriage politics. The paper discusses how ‘power’ is acquired, shared, transferred, and wielded in marriage – all in terms of rights, duties and obligations. This paper draws on empirical literature, local experiences and indigenous knowledge. We argue that one of the pillars through which men legitimize ‘power’ is through the payment of bride price -which comes in the form of a legal framing. However, this power can be transferred or shared depending on the economic power of the spouses involved. Our analysis showed that though there are rules and regulations that guide marriages in Ghana members are not absolutely bound by tradition to follow such norms since at times members deviate from such traditional norms. The paper further shows that the marriage arena where at times rules are negotiated also provides an indispensable frame of reference for local identity and the display of cultural variables. In effect, families mobilize law in order to frame the marriage process which intend becomes another standard for local legal measurement.

  135. Kiptek Edward

    The purpose of the study was to examine the potency of alternative rites of passage in enhancing girl child self-esteem. To achieve this, the study sought to compare the effects of Female Genital Mutilation (FGM) and alternative rites of passage on girl-child self-esteem in Marigat District in Kenya. The study adopted a descriptive survey research design. A total of 132 respondents were involved in the study. The selection of the study sample was done using stratified random sampling, simple random sampling and proportionate sampling. Schools were stratified into educational divisions from which 16 out of the total of 45 public schools in Marigat District were selected using proportionate random sampling. To get a specific school to participate in the study, simple random sampling was used. The respondents of the study included teachers and pupils from the selected schools, who were selected through simple random sampling. Questionnaires, interview schedules and document analysis were used to collect data. Descriptive statistical techniques and inferential statistics (t-test) were used in analyzing the data with the aid of the SPSS computer program. The study revealed that, unlike FGM, the alternative rites of passage enhanced girl-child self-esteem, though some section of the society still considered it as a foreign practice in the society. Majority of the learners, for instance, agreed that they had no doubts about their academic abilities while others blamed their teachers and fellow pupils whenever things went wrong. The elements of the existing alternative rite of passage included: gender roles; sex and sexuality; adolescence challenges and how to counter them; life skills and self reliance; Christian moral values; family life issues; economic empowerment; rights of the girl-child; health issues; nutrition, cultural values and career choices. It was recommended that the school administrators, teachers and parents should come up with activities in order to enhance self esteem of the learners who have undergone FGM as well as the alternative rites of passage and to eliminate all the barriers that may lead to stereotype or make the learners feel inferior to or ridiculed by others.

  136. Tesfu Asmachew Mesfin, Araya Kahsu Mebrahtu, Negeri Kibret Desalegn and Weldie Assefa Shamie

    As the title indicates, the emphasis of the study was on the role of social capital on poverty reduction with specific reference to small and micro enterprises in Tigrai region. The reason that this area was studied is that, major emphasis of governments and economists was on the economic and human capital by excluding the social capital while they establish or describe the small and micro enterprises. But, current studies made by growth and developmental experts revealed that, the above mentioned capitals (economic and human) would not bring a sound result unless they are supplemented by social capital. As a result of this, governments including the Ethiopian government have returned their attention towards the social capital currently. Hence, the research team was largely motivated to assess the role played by social capital by putting the following objectives: • How SMEs define and articulate social capital • what norms and values are followed to enter and stay in SMEs business activities • what lessons can be transferred to policymakers and strategy designers To pinpoint the above objective, the research team has employed a survey study on three selected towns by approaching a sample of 217 SMEs owners/managers. The finding revealed that there is a networking system among the existing SMEs. This networking system helped the SME owners to share information, borrow and lend money in times of shock and they are active participant on the mentioned and other social capital indicators. Such networking system plays a great role on poverty reduction within the SMEs.

  137. Ghosh, D. and Goswami, A.

    The energy, genius and mental faculty of every child should be properly channelized, trained and educated for the socio economic and politico cultural growth of the country. It is also the birth right of every child, who cries for justice from every nook and corner of the globe. Child labour is a very complicated development issue, affecting human society all over the world. In the present study Job pattern, Earning potentiality, Safety and comfort aggregate, Schooling concern, Health & hygiene concern and Awareness were taken as dependent variables for child labour in the purposively selected Dum Dum Municipality. Total 110 samples were studied. Presence of owner, Residence, Gender, Age, Caste, Education of the respondent, Religion, Family type, Family size and Family educational status are the nine independent variables. In this paper mainly the relation between dependent and independent variables is shown. Spearman and Pearson’s correlation method and Canonical Correlation method is used as major statistical tool. Through the study, general socio-economic and technical profiles of the respondents were studied.

  138. Muraleedharan, K. and Dr. Vijayakumar, A.

    The human attributes are mainly centered on knowledge. Knowledge generated new knowledge and ultimately it has its impact on all human endeavors. The accumulated knowledge were being stored and transmitted in numerable ways and means, since time immemorial. ‘Reading’ is the prime endeavor of a person to gather information, still even today. There are certain obstacles or barriers that hinder the reading habit of our adolescents. These can be categorized in to ‘internal problems’ as well as ‘external problems’ that may confront while analyzing the situation. The psychological and environmental factors that affect the reading habit among the youngsters must be sorted out well, and adequate corrective measures have to be taken .After all, reading habit should be molded at an early age of an individual.

  139. Gebrekiros Hagos Belay

    These research asses the customer satisfaction related with five dimensions of service quality (tangibility, reliability, responsiveness, assurance and empathy) in one of the private bank Birhan International Bank branches found in Mekelle. Customer satisfaction is defined as meeting of customer thought and the firm delivery of the service. And service quality has been defined as one of the most important dimension that customers use to differentiate between services offered by different companies. To achieve the objective of the study, data was collected through questioners from the sample of48 customers of the bank. These respondents were selected using convenience sampling technique. The data collected from the questionnaires were analyzed using descriptive tools such as mean, percentage, table and frequency distribution analysis and the result of the study indicate that except empathy therefore service quality dimensions (tangibility, assurance, reliability, and responsiveness) have positive effect on customer satisfaction. The finding of the study also indicates that customers were not satisfied with the empathy dimension of service quality.

  140. Milad Abdelnabi Salem, Norlena Hasnan, Nor Hasni Osman, Mohd Farid Shamsudin, Hafezali Bin Iqbal Hussain, Lokman Salem and Sheikh Muhamad Hizam Sheikh Khairuddin

    Although considerable amount of the literature related to examination the link between environmental protection issues and the performance, different results and mixed outputs have been articulated by these studies, and previous research yet to investigate the relationship between multidimensional approach of corporate environmental practices and competitiveness. The purpose of this paper was to disaggregate corporate environmental activities into six dimensions (green practices, employees’ involvements, environmental management systems, organizational practices, strategic planning process and stakeholders’ integration) based on both stakeholders and resource- based view theories, and examine how each dimension would affect competitiveness among manufacturing industries. While all corporate environmental activities were proposed to have positive effects, the results revealed that each dimension has a different effect on competitiveness. Such results may assess the industrial corporation by directing their efforts to specific areas when trying to improve their competitiveness.

  141. Gaurav Kumar

    C-reactive Protein (CRP) is an acute-phase protein that belongs to the pentraxin family of calcium dependent legend-binding plasma proteins. The human CRP molecule has five identical subunits. These subunits are made up of 206 amino acids and are non glycosylated polypeptide. This review focuses on the various biological roles of CRP, their normal values, methods of measurement, advantages and factors. CRP is closely related to cardiovascular disease and other diseases. Cardiovascular disease can be treated by both phytochemical and non phytochemical sources.

  142. Dr. Bairagya Ramsundar and Maity Swapan

    After a long period of Indian Independence, a large section of Indian population (particularly poor section and in rural areas) still remain unbanked. To cover the all population under the financial inclusion is the government objective. Financial inclusion mainly supply credit to all even they are poor, which further boost up saving habits among the common people and finally reduce leak in subsidy and welfare distribution. Along with inclusive growth the financial inclusion has the key role to provide financial services at affordable costs to vast sections of disadvantaged and low income groups who have no frill accounts. Financial inclusion may be the next revolution of growth and prosperity.

  143. Dr. Bairagya Ramsundar and Maity Swapan

    This study was conducted to estimate the knowledge expansion of people belong to different areas in India and then to compare the rate of knowledge expansion among different groups of the families belong to different area . The respondents for this study were 150 head of the families. A survey was conducted by using a questionnaire for information gathering about knowledge expansion. Standard t-test and 2 tests were used. The results of the study revealed that rate of knowledge expansion in rural area and rate of knowledge expansion in urban area is significantly different. It has been found from the results that the rate of knowledge expansion in urban area and rate of knowledge expansion in semi-urban area is not significantly different. The results of the study also revealed that the rate of knowledge expansion of the people in rural area is lower than the people belong to urban and semi-urban area both.

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