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December 2014

Purpose: To determine the knowledge, self-efficacy and breast cancer screening practices of Primary Health Care Nurses (PHCNs)in SVG. The effects of interpersonal and situational influences on PHCNs’ participation in breast screening activities were also examined. Methods: This study utilized a non-experimental, descriptive survey design. Quota proportionate sampling was used to select 62 PHC Nurses working in the 9 health districts of SVG.

Background: Currently, laparoscopic appendectomy is widely practiced for the management of acute appendicitis. It is not clear whether open or laparoscopic appendectomy is more appropriate. Aim: Our aim is to compare the safety and advantages of laparoscopic versus open appendectomy. Methods: 120 patients were analyzed, out of which 60 patients underwent laparoscopic appendectomy (LA) and 60 patients underwent open appendectomy (OA).

Aim: To compare levels of Streptococus mutans in saliva samples of HIV infected individuals and non-HIV-infected control individuals. Materials and Methods: Subjects were selected from those attending the Department of microbiology of a tertiary care center A total of 100 individuals, 50 HIV-seropositive individuals and 50 HIV-seronegative control individuals, men and women, ages 15 yrs and older were selected for the study and divided into 2 groups-Group 1- 50 HIV-seropositive individuals, Group 2- 50 HIV-seronegative control individuals.

Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a protozoal parasitic disease caused by Leishmania donovani complex, and transmitted to man by the bite of infected female sandfly. The parasite infects the macrophages in the liver, spleen and bone marrow producing many haematological abnormalities. VL is a major public health problem in Sudan. The aim of this study was to determine the haematologic and haemostatic changes among VL patients in Sudan.

Introduction: Arthropod-borne viruses or arboviruses are one of the major public health problems worldwide. Out of many arboviruses, chikungunya virus (CHIKV) and dengue virus (DENV) are the two most rapidly spreading arboviruses. Serological investigations in Southern India indicate that the two viruses can co-exist in the same host. Many risk factors for chikungunya virus (CHIKV) and dengue virus (DENV) infections are the same or similar. OBJECTIVES: The present study is conducted to know the seroprevalance of dengue and chikungunya co infection and its clinical correlation.

Gallstone disease remains one of the most common medical conditions and leading cause of hospital admissions for gastrointestinal problems. The association between gallstone disease and metabolic syndrome has already been proved by previous studies. The aim of this study is to find out the relation between metabolic syndrome and gallstone disease and post operative complications after cholecystectomy in patients with gallstone diseases.

97 children with different forms of TB and latent TB infection were examined at the University children hospital for pulmonary diseases – Sofia. The children were tested with TST and QFT. Only 9,3% of the children had negative TST and 72,2% reacted with sizes of the infiltrate above 15mm. With QFT 55,7% had positive results. We discovered that the largest share of the children who reacted to both TST и QFT is in the highest age groups. TST sensitivity is 77,7%, while forQFTis 88,9%, which shows greater diagnostic possibilities of QFTGIT.

Lymphatic filariasis is caused by Wuchereria bancrofti, Brugia malayi, Brugia timori and are transmitted to man by the bites of infective mosquito. The thread like adult parasite reside in lymphatic channel and lymph node, where they remain viable for more than two decade manifesting as asymptomatic to acute and chronic symptoms like lymphangitis, lymphadenitis, elephantiasis of genitals, legs and arms or as a hypersensitivity state like tropical pulmonary eosinophilia or as an atypical form such as filarial arthritis.

Aims and Objectives: Our aim of the study is to compare dexmedetomidine and esmolol as a hypotensive agent in patients posted for middle ear surgery. Material and Methods: 60 patients (ASA physical status I–II), age group of 18–55 years scheduled for middle ear surgery were recruited for study. 30 patients to group E to have Esmolol whereas remaining patients were named “D” have Dexmedetomidin. Group D (n=30) were pre-loaded with Inj. Dexmedetomidine 1 µg/kg over 10 minutes followed by maintenance with 0.4-0.7 µg/kg/hr. Group E (n=30) received Inj.

Introduction: In any community mother and children constitute a priority group. They comprise approximately 71.14 percent of the Population of the developing countries. Hypertensive disorders complicating pregnancy contribute greatly to maternal morbidity and Mortality. The present study was undertaken to assess the severity of pregnancy induced hypertension in the antenatal mothers at Government Raja Mirasudhar Hospital, Thanjavur.

Study Design and Objective: This was a descriptive cross sectional study aimed to evaluate the behavioral and psychological status of University Students in the period preceding regular exams. Materials and Methods: Questionnaires included several questions were filled by 189 students of both sexes and different university colleges. The data collected was analyzed using SPSS program. Results: Level of concentration during exam periods decreased in 30.7% of students. About 16.9% of students were nervous before exam and about 56.6% were scared.

This study aimed to assess the in vivo engraftment and proliferation of purified human haemopoietic stem cell infusion or combined infusion containing haemopoietic stem cells plus mesenchymal stem cells in albino rats through intravenous and intraperitoneal infusion. Twenty female albino rats were used for human cells engraftment, whereas 10 served as a control group. 20 to 40 ml of cord blood samples and length of 12 cm of umbilical cords for Wharton jelly samples were obtained from 10 newborns delivered after full term following ethical consent.

Objectives: to determine the co-morbidity between anxiety and risk of alcohol and drug abuse among students at the Kenya Medical Training College Methodology: A Social Demographic, BAI and the WHO ASSIST questionnaires were administered to 3107 consenting KMTC students, of whom 1181 (group A) were in Nairobi campus and the remaining1926 (group B) were in peripheral campuses across the country. Results: Prevalence of anxiety in groups A and B were 24.4% and 23.6% for moderate anxiety and 32.1% and 31.5% for severe anxiety.

Background: Female dyspareunia is a sexual dysfunction manifested as pain in reproductive organs combined with sexual intercourse. It can alter a woman’s sense of sexual competency and identity. The study Aimed: At identifying risk factors to dyspareunia and evaluates the effect of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) on women with dyspareunia. Subjects and Methods: A quasi experimental study (A pre-post-test) was used. The study was conducted at two Maternal and Child health centers (MCH) and family planning out-patient clinics (FPOC) teaching hospital at Shebin-El-Kom - Egypt.

Assault cases in the casualty of hospitals are increasing day by day. So the present study was done on the various assault cases reported to the casualty of IMS & SUM Hospital, Bhubaneswar, Odisha, India from August 2013 to May 2014, with the aim and objective of obtaining information regarding the current scenario of assault cases in this locality and its fate in this particular hospital. We found that the assault cases contributed 18.46% of all medico-legal cases reported within this period. Males outnumbered females as per the number of assault cases.

Poor Rainwater Management (RWM) practices and resultant problems of land degradation and low water productivity are severe problems in the rural highlands of Ethiopia. The current study was undertaken at Meja watershed, which is located in the Jeldu district of Oromia region. The study investigated rainwater management practices and associated socio-economic and biophysical conditions in the watershed. The existing RWM interventions, their extent, and the nature of changes in Land Use and Land cover (LULC) conditions were mapped and evaluated.

Bacterial leaf blight disease of okra caused by Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae is an emerging disease and great threat for production of okra in Rajasthan. A survey was conducted to know the status of bacterial leaf blight of okra in terms of its incidence and severity and to characterize the pathogen causing the disease. Eighty nine seed samples of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L.) Moench were collected from 15 major okra growing districts of Rajasthan and subjected to dry seed examination.

Essential oils have many therapeutic properties. In herbal medicine, they are used for their antiseptic properties against infectious fungal diseases, dermatophytes, those of bacterial origin. The aim of our study was to determine the effect of antifungal essential oil of Eucalyptus camaldulensis plant. Eucalyptus is an herb used in traditional therapy. The test adopted is based on the diffusion method in solid medium (sensitivity). This method determines the sensitivity or resistance of the organism vis-à-vis the study sample.

T-2 toxin is a member of trichothecene mycotoxin. The major toxic effect of T-2 toxin is that it inhibit protein synthesis which is followed by a secondary disruption of DNA and RNA synthesis. T-2 toxin affects the actively first through skin and it causes heamatotoxicity, neurotoxicity, reproductive toxicity, genotoxicity and it can decrease antibody levels, immunoglobolines and certain other humoral factors.

The primary productivity of Bay of Bengal at Paradip has been assessed both spatially and seasonally. The maximum GPP was noted during summer season and minimum in rainy season. The annual mean GPP varied from0.077+0.008g^c m^3 h^(-1)to0.996 + 0.16 g^c m^3 h^(-1). The NPP value varicd from 0.016+ 0.002 g^c m^3 h^(-1) to 0.845 + 0.072 g^c m^3 h^(-1)and showed an increasing trend from the month of September 2011 to February, 2012.

This study is done to inquire the change in livelihood situation of the people belonged to Hura block of Purulia district. The study revealed that successful implementation of the NREGS has increased the mean annual income by 51.52 to 112.97 percent over the previous situation of without NREGS. This enhanced the socio-economic status of the beneficiary households as well as boosted their self-esteem and self-confidence. The average wage earned by the NREGS worker varies from Rs.85 to Rs.120 per day depending upon the phase of work.

Fish enjoys a very special consideration and place in human civilization from time immemorial. Fish is one of the most important sources of food. As India occupied 9th position in fresh water mega biodiversity. The study of Utra Lake in Manipur was carried out during March to September, 2014. A total of 42 Icthyo-faunal species belonging to 32 genera under 15 families and 6 orders were reported during my study period. Order Cypriniformes has got maximum number of fish i.e.22 species wish is followed by Perciformes with 7 fish species and order Beloniformes with only 2 species.

DNA damage, due to environmental factors and normal metabolic processes inside the cell, occurs at a rate of 10,000 to 1,000,000 molecular lesions per cell per day.[1] While this constitutes only 0.000165% of the human genome's approximately 6 billion bases (3 billion base pairs), unrepaired lesions in critical genes (such as tumor suppressor genes) can impede a cell's ability to carry out its function and appreciably increase the likelihood of tumor formation and contribute to tumour heterogeneity.

This study was conducted in the college of education for pure science at Diyala university in Iraq. The experiment included planting tomato seedlings, class (Genan) in the field according to design of R.C.B.D. The experiment included eight treatments resulted from the interaction between the inoculation factor with Trichoderma harzianum and Mycorrhiza, Glomus mosseae fungus, and the factor of the addition of Humic acid. Each treatment repeated three times.

The turbidity and pH are two key factors in any aquatic ecosyatems. The present paper highlights the seasonal variations of turbidity and pH in Tamiraparani River (West) from June 2011 to May 2013. Twelve stations were selected for the study. The study reveals that high turbidity of 5.5 NTU was found in Station 9 (S9) during the months June-Aug (2011 and 2012), Sept-Nov (2011and 2012) and Mar-May (2013), and low turbidity of 0.2 NTU was found in stations S1, S3, S4, S5 during Dec to Feb (2011, 2012) and Mar-May (2012).The pH was found to be acidic (below 7) in all the seasons.

Aflatoxin contamination of groundnut is a serious problem in most groundnut-producing countries where the crop is grown under rainfed conditions. Field experiments were conducted at two locations to determine the effect of soil solarization on Aspergillus spp. inocculum in the soil and to evaluate the effect of soil solarization and time of planting on Aspergillus spp. seed invasion and yield of groundnut varieties. Soil samples were taken in three rounds and analyzed for aflatoxigenic population. Soil solarization reduced fungal inoculum and increased groundnut yields.

Groundnut is the most important rich source of protein, minerals and vitamin. Pre-harvest contamination is influenced by soil moisture and temperature. Field experiments were conducted in northern Ethiopia, at two locations to determine the effect of soil solarization on yield and yield components of groundnut varieties, and to determine Aspergillus spp. inoculum in the soil. Soil samples were taken in three rounds and analyzed for aflatoxigenic population. Soil solarization reduced fungal inoculum and increased groundnut yields.

A short term pre-monsoon field study has been conducted to determine the soil fertility status in Silcoorie Tea Estate of Cachar district, Assam, North East India. Soil samples were collected from six different sections of the tea estate. Physico-chemical properties of the soil, i.e., texture, moisture content, bulk density, water holding capacity, total nitrogen (N), total phosphorus (P), total potassium (K), soil organic carbon (SOC), soil organic matter (SOM), pH, electrical conductivity, C:N ratios from four different depths were analyzed.

This investigation describes the present status, distribution and various factors affecting growth of Salvadora oleoides Decne in Haryana. Population survey was carried out based upon questionnaire method. 150 people in the age group of 20 to 65 years from educational background were involved in questionnaire. Survey concluded the high risk of extinction of Salvadora oleoides in all the districts. Risk was observed due to anthropogenic disturbance and destruction of the natural habitat of the species.

A part of the Algerian Sahara is a vast region, on which scattered oases where life is possible are grafted, as consequence of water presence. These oases that verge consistency, involve combining homes by their rich architecture, unfortunately at risk of extinction. The protection of this heritage goes exordium by seeking a balance between preserving the historical and cultural identity, and especially the improvement of living conditions of people who inhabit it.

Experiment was conducted, during rainy season of 2006, 2007 and 2008 with NPK (20 kg N, 60 kg P2O5 and 40 kg K2O/ha), half recommended NPK, Biozyme granule @ 20, 30, and 40 kg/ha alone and along with half recommended NPK and Biozyme crop+ spray @ 200 and 400 ml/ha alone and along with half recommended NPK.

The experiment was conducted at Agronomy research field of Sher-e-Bangla Agricultural University, Dhaka, during 10 November 2012to 10 March 2013 to observe the response of seedling tuber weight and plant spacing on performance of potato. Four weight of seedling tubers viz., 40 ± 2, 30 ± 2, 20 ± 2 and 10 ± 2 g and three plant spacing viz., 60 cm × 25 cm, 60 cm × 20 cm and 60 cm × 15 cm were used as treatment and laid out in Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD)with three replications.

Seaweeds are considered as ecologically and biologically important component in the marine ecosystems. Seaweeds make a substantial contribution to marine primary production and provide habitat for near shore benthic communities. Present status of seaweed diversity and temporal variation in their abundance along Tuticorin coastal waters were investigated. Fortnightly seaweed sampling was conducted for the period of five months from July 2014 to November 2014.

Growth studies of Bush mango- Irvingia wombolu Mildbr was investigated using In vitro techniques with full, half and one quarter strength mineral components of Murashige and Skoog medium. This research was designed into 2 experiments. Experiment 1 was aimed at assessing the best medium strength and concentration of plant growth regulator for optimum growth of explants (axillary bud) of the species, using the concentration levels of 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5mg/l of kinetin (Kin) and indole butyric acid (IBA) for shoot and root initiation, respectively.

Mesta is one of the most important lingo-cellulosic bast fibre crop providing high amount of biomass, however, fibre yield is exceedingly low. It is a multipurpose crop having both domestic and industrial uses and prospects immensely in biofuel manufacturing, carbon trading and subsequently in maintenance of soil fertility. Unfortunately predominant use of synthetic fibres globally reducing its demand drastically. It is a very hardy crop owing to its vigorous growth with considerable drought tolerance.

Bombus haemorrhoidalis Smith is a native bumble bee pollinator exhibits an annual life cycle but for commercial rearing, year round rearing is intended. Colonies of B. haemorrhoidalis first reared under laboratory conditions and then shifted in the field for further development. Sexual forms were isolated and mating was done artificially in the laboratory. Laboratory mated queens were allowed to start the progeny under controlled conditions.

Invertebrates are dependent on cellular and humoral immune defences against microbial infection. Scylla serrata is an important commercial species of crab, but the fundamental knowledge on its immune defense related to the immune-associated reactions is still lacking. This study was undertaken to determine the antibacterial activities of serum from the mud crab, Scylla serrata against three different bacterial strains. Bacterial cultures were treated with different volumes serum from Scylla serrata and the growth was monitored by optical density at 450 nm.

In the activated sludge wastewater treatment process of many metazoan scrubbers are associated to organic colloids and organ metallic present in wastewater. Some agencies may use the carbon and the nitrogen component drugs to feed or use it as a source of energy. The study of the biological degradation of micro pollutants (secondary pollution), including the pharmaceutical compound reveals a great importance for the process of degradation and environmental.

Nowadays, regarding to motor vehicle roll in air pollution in major cities, evaluating the contaminant from vehicles is a critical. Therefore, in this study the contaminant of hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide produced by Pride Saba and 405 Peugeot were checked during the years 2006-2010. Primary data was collected from light vehicles inspection centers. Also it is used for statistical analysis and compared mean values by Excel software and Duncan's multiple range test at a confidence level of 5% (p <0.05).

This research was aim to analyzed floating-net fish farmers’ adaptation strategy in reservoirs Cirata at Cianjur, West Java. The research was motivated by floating-net farmers’ social economic condition experiencing public water resource quality degradation in Cirata reservoirs, from fish farming production process to fish products marketing. The research was done with survey method and simple random sampling. And it used SWOT (strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats) analysis with quantitative description approach.

Species richness, diversity and distribution pattern of tree species were studied along a disturbance gradient in three mixed broad leaved forests. The forests were selected on the basis of varying disturbance intensities and were categorized into highly disturbed (HD), moderately disturbed (MD) and least disturbed (LD). A total of 34 tree species (belonging to 30 genera and 21 families) were reported along the disturbance gradient. Both tree species richness and diversity markedly declined along the disturbance gradient from LD to HD forests.

Palm oil is one of the most important vegetable oils and sustainable waste management remains a challenge in its production. Most of the nutrients are retained in the crop residues and vast potentials exist to tap the biomass waste and high organic-content of palm oil mill effluent (POME) as nutrient and renewable energy sources. This work was aimed at developing an integrated waste management scheme for multiple or value-added products for palm oil mill wastes using Green Valley Oil Palm Plantation as a case study.

Whole plant of Toddalia asiatica were selected to evaluate antioxidant activities and invitro cytotoxic activity using commonly accepted assays. They were extracted with chloroform, methanol and petroleum ether respectively and selected for the best antioxidant and cytotoxic results. Flavonoids, such as quercetin, rutin, and antioxidant BHA (Butylated Hydroxyanisole) were included and used as standards in this study. For all the assays concentrations of samples are maintained from 62.5 to 1000 µg/ml.

Hydrogen energy is the finest choice as it is the only clean carbon neutral fuel which can in the long run substitute the present petroleum based economy. At present commercial production of hydrogen relies on fossil fuels only, so biologically produced hydrogen is becoming the centre of attraction. This study has endeavoured to determine the capability of facultative anaerobic bacteria to produce biohydrogen through anaerobic fermentation. The bacterial seed inoculums were collected from different biogas plant slurry.

The experiment site was conducted under mist chamber at Horticulture Research Center, HNB Garhwal Central University, Chauras Campus Srinagar (Garhwal), Uttarakhand, India. The different length stems cuttings (20, 35 and 50 cm) of Ticoma stans L treated with IBA solutions at 500, 1000 and 1500 mg. L-1 by Quick dip method. Treated cutting were planted carefully in the root trainers. For preparing rooting media one part sandy soil and one part of FYM Were mixed thoroughly.

Coronary Artery Disease (CAD), also called coronary heart disease is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in developed /western countries and is emerging as an epidemic in developing countries. The role of micronutrients and trace elements in the pathogenesis of the CAD has been recently reported. Experimental and clinical studies indicate that zinc deficiency may predispose to CAD. Though this deficiency is more common in Third World countries, the dietary zinc intake is still below recommendations among certain population groups in industrialized countries even.

Sports accomplishments are determined by a progressive training program, adequate physical fitness, a well balanced diet and sound mind. Team sports like hockey and football are physically demanding contact sports with high intensity sprints, place a unique physical and mental demand upon its players, which when understood will enable a more scientific approach to performance. This study aimed to analyze and compare the nutritional, physical fitness and anxiety profile of the hockey and football players.

The present study deals with impacts of fragmentation in vulnerable sub-tropical forest ecosystems of Jammu Siwaliks. The landscape analysis was performed with the objective to estimate and analyze the areas subjected to landscape dynamics by computing landscape indices using remote sensing and GIS techniques. The remotely sensed data derived vegetation map was used as input to fragmentation analysis.

Development of plant in vitro regeneration protocols has significantly contributed to research investigations and rapid propagation in commercial scale. However, due to considerable variations among plants, the technique encounters various hurdles. Major challenges are encountered during the micropropagation of woody plants, due to their range of secondary metabolites. Tissue and media browning, systemic contamination, vitrification, shoot tip necrosis (STN), tissue fasciations, somaclonal variations are some of the commonly encountered problems.

The present investigation was carried out at Horticultural Research Centre, Department of Horticulture, Chauras Campus, H.N.B. Garhwal University, Srinagar (Garhwal), Uttarakhand, India during the year 2012-13. The experiment consisted of thirty six treatment combinations, which comprised of concentrations of IBA viz; 200 ppm, 400 ppm, 600 ppm and control, type of cuttings viz; Softwood, Semi-hard wood, Hardwood cuttings and three planting times viz; November 20, December 20 and January 20.

Seasonal variations of physico-chemical parameters such as rainfall, temperature, alkalinity, nitrite, nitrate, phosphate, sulphate and fluoride were studied from two different coastal water bodies of south east coast of India viz., Uppanar estuary, Cuddalore and Periyavaikal area of Killai region, Cuddalore District, Tamilnadu southeast coast of India for one calendar year. The results significantly increased levels of most of the parameters at Uppanar estuary than Killai backwaters throughout the year.

Experimental study to evaluate the effect of hydrotreating CoMo/γ-Al2O3 catalyst for upgrading heavy gas oil (HGO). Hydrodesulfurization (HDS) and hydrodearomatization (HDA) activities were conducted in a continuous flow micro trickle-bed reactor at the temperatures, pressures, liquid hourly space velocity (LHSV) and hydrogen-to-feed ratio of; 3500-4500C, 40-75 bar, 0.5-1.0 h-1, and 400 LL-1 respectively. This work identifies and measures the key parameters in hydrodesulfurization, and at conversion levels above 95 and 90 %, respectively.

Water, fish and earthworm samples collected from Enerhen and Otokutu areas along the Warri River were analytically treated and analysed for trace metals using atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS) of Model Perkin. Elmer 311 A. A total of twelve sample points were mapped out in both Enerhen and Otokutu areas. This study was carried out for a period of six months (July – December). The results obtained showed that all the metals analysed were detected and varied from one point to another.

Dysfunctional uterine bleedind is a common gynecological disorder which Usually ends up in hysterectomy and causes both psychological & physiological stress. Medical management with hormones and NSAIDs has their inherent side effects Hence an attempt is made to medically manage them using ORMELOXIFENE, a Selective estrogen receptor modulator.

According to economic-technical optimization objective of distribution network to which distributed generation is added, a multi-objective model is proposed in this paper. The model contains DG construction investment and operation fee, network loss, reliability, as well as environmental factor. and then puts forward the multi-objective quantum particle swarm optimization (QSPO) algorithm, and the distributed power supply after installation position and capacity for the comprehensive planning research.

Mining high utility info data from an internet an online on a daily basis it get tough as a result of great amount of information. User’s queries area unit submitted to go looking engines that area unit usually in natural languages and simply of 1 or 2 words. Sometime it's tough to obtaining needed data to the computer program per user’s demand .For that numbers of techniques area unit accessible in recent year with their blessings and downsides. vital factor is that technique ought to be discovering needed data from varied forms of information sources.

Prediction of human behavior in a disaster is a useful role in the design of urban structures such as department stores, schools, and office buildings. In this study, we develop a mixed reality game system linking a multi-agent simulation for behavioral evaluation of evacuees. We use a multi-agent simulation to evaluate the behavior of persons evacuating a floor given as many rules as possible. We use the mixed reality game to evaluate the complex and distinctive behavior of individual players in the game.

A series of 1,2,4-triazole,2-aryllidine hydrazono benzoazole and 3-chloro-2-azetidinone derivatives were synthesized via reactions with different reagents. Reactions were carried out by green synthesis method such as microwave technique andgreen catalysts.The structure of the prepared compounds have been characterized on the basis of their elemental analysis and spectral data.Some of the new compounds were screened for their antimicrobial activity.

Options are considered risky for investors and speculators due to fluctuation in the direction of price movements. An investor has to face the risk of profits where it may be extremely high or loss, here investors fail in choosing profitable options. The study is made to minimize the risk of investors by using straps option combination strategy in choosing profitable investment strategy and to know how the option combination strategy would be profitable when market moves up or down.

The aim of the study was to explore how sports sponsorship impact on building company image. Benefits such as creating long lasting relationships with the stakeholders as well as the community and building company image are also discussed. Challenges of sports sponsoring are also considered such as inappropriate image conveyed by sports entities as well as ambush marketing. The last objective of the study assesses attitudes of spectators towards the sponsorship.

Since independence, Cooperative movement in Kenya has experienced tremendous growth and is actually ranked first in Africa (Sacco Societies Regulatory Authority, 2011). Through the support of the government, the movement has produced some of the biggest players in provision of saving and credit services both to the rural and urban population in Kenya. Since the formalities involved in the formation of the SACCOs are simple, and due to their popularity, the government has continued to register more of these forms of organizations.

University libraries set up their services to enhance the teaching and research missions of the institutions, particularly for students. Students are increasingly expected to use library services while at university. Users attitude have an effect on their use of library services. This study sought to compare users’ attitude towards various library services in Cross River University of Technology and University of Calabar libraries. Multistage non probability sampling technique involving purpose and accidental sampling was adopted for this study.

The main objectives of the present study were to show the spatial distribution of Primary Health Centres in the Haripad Block of Kerala and to investigate the patients’ perception regarding the services provided by the Primary Health Centres. Spatial distribution of Primary Health Centres was shown with the help of GIS mapping. Out of eight Primary Health Centres of the Block, five of them were selected by lottery method of simple random sampling for the present study. A pre designed schedule was used for the generation of primary data.

Major elements geochemical study of the Ishara sandstone of the Ise Formation in the Dahomey Basin, southwest Nigeria, was carried out to infer their provenance, maturity and tectonic setting. This study is based on the analysis of outcrop samples located between latitudes 60571 and 60591N; and longitudes 30391 and 30411E. On the basis of whole rock geochemistry (i.e. major elements), the sandstones are considered as continental sands which can be classified as lithic arenites.

The purpose of this study was to assess the perception of external auditors towards internal audit practices of private sector in Ethiopia. There were 63 audit firms registered in Federal Office of Auditor General in 2013. 140 questionnaires were distributed to external auditors from which 43 were collected. Descriptive statistics was employed to analyze the data using statistical package for social science (SPSS). The study found that independence of internal auditors was not maintained in Ethiopian private sector.

The present study was aimed to investigate the two aquaculture pond waters of physio-chemcial parameters and microbial analysis at Alwarkurichi village, Tirunelveli district. The physio-chemcial parameters are pH, conductivity, dissolved oxygen, BOD (Biological oxygen demand), calcium, magnesium, total hardness, chloride, phosphate, nitrate, and total dissolved solid were tested by Tamilnadu water supply and Drainage broad, District water testing laboratory, Palayamkottai. Subsequently, the water samples microbial colonies were identified with standard methods.

The main purpose of this study is to assess the effectiveness of training provided in the Northern Command Training Center that is found in a place called Edaga Hamus – in Northern eastern parts of Ethiopia. Methodologically, this study is based on mixed/qualitative and quantitative/ approach of study. The subjects of this study include 125 individuals who participated in the training, 18 immediate commandants of the participants and 1 Deputy Commander of NCTC- interviewed and 10 instructors participated on Focus Group Discussion (FGD).

This study assesses the participation of women in public administration, specifically in Tigray by taking Woreda Tahtay Machew as case study. Basically, primary data source was employed to gather first-hand information to achieve the objectives of the research. The sources of primary data were women employees in town and rural institutions. The study area consists of 31 public institutions and nineteen rural kebeles having 1669 government employees who have diploma and above, 995 are males and 674 are females.

The following research investigates the identity negotiations in the life of a Facebook user. The important research question is ‘how’ a young active Facebook user alters or extends his circle of significant other. With respect to the data collected and analyzed, it was interesting to observe that the process of significance developed between the user and his significant other is primarily due to Facebook chat. Facebook “events” and “messages” were extensively used for effective computer mediated communication.

In-service training plays a crucial role in teacher’s development. The National Policy on Education, (1986) stipulated that “Teacher education is a continuous process and its pre-service and in-service components are inseparable.” UNESCO (1986) also stresses the importance of In-service education and observes, “In–service training is on the whole as effective as pre-service training, if not more so in its effect on quality”. Professional development of a teacher begins with Pre-service and gets renewed through In-service programs.

The physical well-being of an individual is related closely to his status of nutrition. Good nutrition is essential in childhood for optimal growth and performance in school. Under nutrition retards physical and mental growth which in turn, lowers efficiency in education and work. So, nutrition is one of the most important factors in the vital activity of man. Macro nutrients i.e. proteins, carbohydrates and fats are the most important nutrients required by the body and should be supplied in adequate amounts in the diet.

The Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) has been widely established and most applicable to be used in any research dedicated to predict intention and behavior. Though it is one of the most cited theory in predicting intention, however recently, this theory has evidenced many attempts to deliberate and diversify its three main constructs of Attitude, Subjective Norms and Perceived Behavioral control.

The study examined the determinant factors for the use of Information Technology in decision making. Questionnaires were prepared and administered in selected business Organizations. Data were interpreted and analysed using the appropriate statistical methods and application software.

The dollar and euro reflect at best their countries destinies and they are the rulers of the world. With a difference of about 200 years with each other these two coins are the focal point of the finance and by their performance depend the economic performance of the major part of the world. The fact that European nations created a union between them is always considered as a rivalry against the United States, and once that EU emitted the common European currency, it was described as a challenge to the dollar.

The influencing factors may include advertisement, friends, parents, etc. the buying behavior and spending pattern of students go hand in hand. Once they decide what to buy, they automatically decide how much to spend. When they decide what to buy-advertisements, friends, parents and various other factors play a very important role. Prominent among them are advertisements and friends. Advertisers through television can reach a whole spectrum of consumers.

Flexibility is an important component of physical fitness which is essential to varying degrees in different sports. It becomes even more important as it not only enhances athletic efficiency but reduces the risk of injuries as well. The objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of regular Pilates exercises on flexibility and the volleyball serve skill in female, college students.

Climate change can be exacerbated by human induced actions such as: the widespread use of land, the broad scale deforestation, the major technological and socioeconomic shifts with reduced reliance on organic fuel, and the accelerated Uptake of fossil fuels. Farmers’ knowledge about their soils and their management constitutes a complex wisdom system, which if integrated with modern soil science, could provide the necessary synergy for sustainable agricultural development and to adapt climate change.

Backgrounds: An association between periodontitis (PD)and rheumatoid arthritis (RA) has been considered many years ago. RA is considered as an autoimmune disease whereas periodontitis has an infectious etiology with a complex inflammatory response. Porphyromonasgingivalis is a common pathogen in periodontal infection. The specific abilities of P.

Various studies have shown that hearing impaired individuals lack access to HIV/AIDS information due to problems of communication. This study was therefore designed to assess knowledge of HIV/AIDS and risk behaviour among secondary school students with and without hearing impairment in Ibadan, Nigeria. This comparative cross-sectional study involved 520 students (260 students with and 260 students without hearing impairment). A self-administered questionnaire was used for data collection. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics, Chi-square and t-test.

Universal health coverage is a situation where everyone can access the health services they need without suffering financial hardship paying for them. This implies that there is some sort of risk pooling mechanism (e.g. insurance) and that the poorest are supported with their health expenses. 60% of all health spending is financed directly by households without insurance. This is way above the 15% threshold beyond which household risk being pushed into poverty by health care expenses.

Improvement in the health and nutritional status of the population has been one of the major thrust areas for the social development programmers of the country. In developing countries like India childbirth is one of the important events affecting health of a woman. Using the unit data from NFHS-3, this paper examined the pregnancy complications among married women and their health seeking behaviour in rural Uttar Pradesh.

The goal of the study was to test the biological activities of Peppermint oil (Mentha spicata L.) extracted from leaves of Peppermint plant in growth of yeast Candida albicans isolated from the feces of 100 patients suffering from symptoms of Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), and find out the relationship with demographic characteristics. The data and specimen have been collected for the period from 1st November 2011 to the end of February 2012, from Teaching Baghdad Hospital "Laboratory Central", chosen randomly according to the sample specifications from 11 years to 50 years.

Cultured mouse melanoma cells were removed from incubation to room temperature and injected with either 1 μM of morphine or its mu-receptor antagonist naloxone, or, not treated. Photon emissions were counted measured by a photomultiplier unit for 24 hr. Cells injected with morphine exhibited conspicuous bursts of photon emissions whose amplitudes were as much as 1000 times greater than naloxone-injected or non-treated comparison cells with durations of about 10 s for about one hour.

Introduction: Blood donors are generally scarce and few in most developing countries, Nigeria inclusive. The retention of available safe blood donors, a pool of reliable committed blood givers, may reduce protracted acute blood shortage. Aims: This study sought to determine the donor retention rate, new TTIs rate and make recommendations that suit our setting. Methods: This retrospective study was carried out at the North Central Zonal Centre of the National Blood Transfusion Service (NBTS), Jos.

Oral submucous fibrosis is a chronic inflammatory disease that results in progressive juxtaepithelial fibrosis of the oral soft tissues that can cause increasing difficulty in chewing, swallowing, speaking, and mouth opening. Many treatment regimens for oral submucous fibrosis have been proposed to alleviate the signs and symptoms of the disorder. In severe cases, surgical intervention is the only treatment modality, but relapse is a major problem. Even after 6 decades of its description as a separate entity, no concrete treatment is available due to its multi-modal pathogenesis.

Leadership has a vital place in the field of management. The key to concise conceptualization of effective leadership remains elusive. Yet, the effectiveness of leadership lies in the manners with which leaders see and act on their own and their followers' values and motivation. Also, the genius of leadership refers to the extant by which a person believes that his or her actions can influence out comes. Another factor equally important is the concept of locus of control. Aim, the study aimed to determine the head nurse's leadership style and their locus of control.

Splenic complications during the acute attack of malaria ranges from benign Splenomegaly to more serious complication includes splenic infarct, haematoma, abscess,rupture(spontaneous).Rupture of Spleen is a rare life threatening complication that occurs during the acute attack of malaria that imposes diagnostic challenge to clinicians particularly in endemic area. So our aim is to make aware of clinicians about this fatal complication which requires high index of suspicion and timely intervention which can save the life of a patient.

Dermatoglyphics is the scientific study of fingerprint pattern and are the dermal ridge configurations present on fingers, palms, toes and soles in humans and animals. On closer inspection of these ridges, they have a promising, simple, inexpensive means of information to determine whether a given patient could have a particular chromosomal defect. Finger prints analysis for identifying a person’s individuality is well known. Dermatoglyphics is emerging as an inexpensive, non invasive tool in identifying the genetic disorders affecting the oral and para oral structure.

Ankylosing spondylosis belongs to a group of Rheumatic disease known as Spondyloarthopathies, which show a strong association with genetic marker HLA- B27. Inflamatory back pain and stiffness are prominent early in the disease where as chronic aggressive disease may produce pain and marked axial Immobility and deformity. In modern medicine there is no promising treatment for the disease. In Ayurveda, it can be co-related to Pristha – graha which can be treated as Vata – Kapha disease.

Titanium and titanium alloys are widely used for fabrication of dental implants and have been the gold standards in tooth replacement. Many potential immunologic and esthetic hazards compromise the success rate of titanium implants. Therefore, there has been a necessity for the introduction of novel technologies that suffice the properties of the titanium implants biologically and esthetically. Poly-ether-ether-ketone (PEEK) implants were introduced into dental implantology as a viable alternative to titanium implants.

A simple, precise, sensitive and accurate first order derivative spectrophotometric method was developed and validated for the simultaneous estimation of cefpodoxime proxetil and ambroxol hydrochloride in combined tablet dosage form.

Many articles revealed the effects of soft drinks on the tooth structure as direct cause for extensive abrasive lesions, this study presents a case report of a patient with extensive erosion in the maxillary anterior teeth due to the consumption of soft drink (Pepsi). The lesions were managed by using direct composite veneers after controlling the reason of Erosion by stopping the consumption of the meant soft drink.

Background: As with the profile of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) due to directly observe treatment, short course (DOTS), there is no report available in patients receiving anti tuberculosis (antiTB) chemotherapy in Warangal region, Telangana, India. One of the main reasons for non-adherence to antiTB therapy (ATT) is adverse drug reactions (ADRs), even under DOTS. Objective: This main objective of the study was to determine the incidence and prognosis of ADRs due to DOTS therapy, and to evaluate their impact on anti-TB treatment in Warangal district, Telangana State.

The median arcuate ligament syndrome (MALS, also known as celiac artery compression syndrome, celiac axis syndrome, celiac trunk compression syndrome or Dunbar syndrome) is a condition characterized by abdominal pain attributed to compression of the celiac artery and possibly the celiac ganglia by the median arcuate ligament. Median arcuate ligament usually passes superior to the origin of the celiac artery near the first lumbar vertebra. In the general population, 10-24% of people may have indentation caused by an abnormally low ligament. Duffy et al.

PRF is an excellent autogenous biomaterial used in the field of dentistry in recent times, with predictable results. PRF is a second-generationplatelet concentrate, which has several advantages over traditionally prepared PRP. PRF is now considered as an autogenous biomaterial, which has abundant growth factors and cytokines, entrapped in fibrin matrix, which creates an ideal environment for perfect wound healing and tissue regeneration. This article describes the properties, procurement and its various applications in the field of dentistry.

A field experiment was conducted at Central Sugarcane Research Station, Padegaon, Tal: Phaltan, Dist: Satara, Maharashtra during 2011- 12 to 2013- 14 to evaluate planting geometry and different varieties in spring planted sugarcane. Four levels of planting distance viz. 100 cm row distance, 120 cm row distance, 150 cm row distance and 30 x 150 cm row distance in main plots and four genotypes i.e. CoM 0265, Co 86032, Co 94012 and CoC 671 in sub plots laid out in split plot design with three replications.

Community participation has been seen as an effective process towards implementation and sustainability of development projects. This research attempts to give proposals for improving the quality of urban green spaces in Kisumu city through public involvement. The objective of the study was to develop participatory and innovative design guidelines on urban green space planning that can support ecotourism transformation in collaboration with relevant stakeholders. Data was collected from published documents, observation and questionnaires.

The investigation aimed to determine the prevalence of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) in hospitalized diarrheal children, together with its multi-drug resistance (MDR) status. A total sample of 128 patients (76 males and 52 females) was enrolled in the study. They were hospitalized children due to diarrhea and fever, and admitted to the Central Pediatric Hospital in Baghdad during the period April - September, 2012. Their ages had a range of six days and up to five years. S.

Background: Inflammation be may plays a central role in atherosclerosis. Coronary artery calcification (CAC) is a specific feature for coronary atherosclerosis. In multiple epidemiologic studies, inflammatory biomarkers such as high sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), has been associated with increased risk of coronary artery disease (CAD), while Pentraxin III might reflect local inflammation status in tissue and it is used as a new biomarker of inflammation.

ZnO nanoparticles were synthesized successfully by solgel-combution route at room temperature. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and UV-Visible spectroscopy were used to investigate the effect of annealing temperature on the structural and optical properties of ZnO nanoparticles. XRD study estimated that prepared samples had a hexagonal wurtzite structure and crystallite size 4.22 nm and 5.68 nm for ZnO nanoparticles without annealing and annealed at 6000C temperature, formation of quantum dots observed. Optical study revealed the blue shift in energy band gap.

Biofilms are a population of cells that grown attached to a surface involved in exopolysaccharide matrix which protects them from attack by antibiotics or immune system. Many chronic and persistent infections are caused by bacterial biofilms, which increase significantly the resistance to antimicrobials.

A field experiment was conducted on Ocimum basilicum Citral, which was treated with 1 ton /ha Calcium sulphate (Caso42H2O), to study its impacts on soil chemical properties like PH, EC, Calcium, Magnesium, Carbonates and Bi-carbonates and Sulphates. The field was designed as RCBD with four replications. Observations were recorded for 15, 45, 75,105 days after planting. The results indicated that after 105 days after planting, Bicarbonates, Calcium, Magnesium, Chlorides and Sulfates content of the soil water increased due to gypsum application. No changes were seen in case of PH.

Trichoderma mediated systemic resistance is often associated with the onset of defense mechanisms by expression of various defense related enzymes such as β-1-3-glucanase, chitins, phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL), peroxidase (PO), polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and phenols. The present investigation was undertaken to demonstrate and to exploit the T.harzianum isolated from the rhizosphere soil of healthy pumpkin plants for induction of systemic resistance against Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV), the causative agent of cucumber mosaic virus disease in cucurbits.

The seed storage free amino acids of 4 taxa of Blyxa were analyzed from the fully aquatic family Hydrocharitaceae by Thin Layer Chromatography. Total 22 amino acids were found, among these 3 were not identified. Considerable amount of homology were observed in between Blyxa aubertii var. aubertii and B. aubertii var. echinosperma (60%). Also another homology observed in between B. octandra and B. quandricostata (41.17%), but B. japonica was far differ from others analyzed taxa.

The present study quantifies the diversity and composition of tree species having girth size > 15 cm in the tropical forests of Darjiling part of Eastern himalaya through nested quadrat sampling method. In total, 74 species under 64 genera and 36 families were recorded. The individual density varied from 25 to 88.89 individuals ha-1. Shannon-Weaver Index ranged from 0.016 to 0.138 whereas the species richness varied from 0.074 to 0.894. The most dominant families were Lauraceae and Malvaceae, followed by Leguminosae and Phyllanthaceae.

Rhizobacteria that promote the plant growth and development are called plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR). The bacterium under study, belong to PGPR and identified as P. fluorecens strain FP18. The present study deals with heavy metal tolerance capacity of this strain against four heavy metals. The heavy metals used in this study were Zinc sulphate, Arsenic trichloride, Mercuric chloride and Lead nitrate. The isolate exhibited high resistance to heavy metals with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) ranging from 50μg/ml to 300μg/ml.

Cephalopods (including squids) are rapidly perishable like fishes and crustaceans and require some treatment to maintain the quality for export. However the information on the effectiveness of chemicals being used in the industry is limited. Keeping this in mind, an attempt was made to study the improvement in sensory quality of frozen squid (Sepioteuthis lessoniana) upon the treatment with the imported food grade chemicals (Hidratech_4A and Whitech_3). The sensory quality of squids was evaluated for flavour, odour, appearance, texture and overall acceptability.

The plant is found throughout India, entire North-East region. It has a long history of cultivation in Southeast Asia and China. Plants possess some specific chemicals called phytochemicals in them which may not have nutritional property as such, but they can work towards the deterrence of diseases. The present study was carried out to evaluate the phytochemicals present in the leaf powder and also to study the fluorescent characters of the leaf powder.

An experiment was conducted in the experimental field of Sher-e-Bangla Agricultural University, Dhaka-1207, Bangladesh during the period from October 2012 to March 2013 to find out the effect of GA3 and pruning on the growth and yield of tomato. The experiment consisted of three doses of GA3 such as 80, 100 and 120 ppm with control; three different pruning levels such as 1, 2 and 3 stem pruning. The experiment was laid out in a RCBD with three replications. Both GA3 and pruning had significant influence on growth and yield contributing characters of tomato.

A study on biodiversity of phytoplankton in Fort Lake revealed a total of 35 species belonging to five classes in which Chlorophyceae-19 species, Bacillariophyceae-10 species, Cyanophyceae-3 species, Dinophyceae-2 species and 1 species of Euglenophyceae. Species of Bacillariophyceae were abundant and dominated by Nitzschia sp., Navicula sp., and Synedra sp., which are considered as indicators of organic pollution and bad quality of water. Algal pollution index revealed a score of 28 indicating that Fort Lake is organically polluted.

Currently the steppe is a fragile area against degradation phenomena, knows a regressive evolution, reflecting mainly by anthropozoic effect. Today overexploitation of natural resources and a great tendency to degradation resulting in the reduction of the biological potential and rupture of the ecological balance. In this context comes the idea of assessing plant biodiversity of some steppe stations wintering site for the Grus grus.

Medicinal plants are the local heritage with global importance. World is endowed with a rich wealth of medicinal plants which have always been the principal form of medicine and presently they are becoming popular throughout the developed world, as people strive to stay healthy in the face of chronic stress and pollution. Tribes of Keonjhar district of Odisha depend basically on different herbs for a wide range of ailments including mother and child health care.

In the applications of solar energy, the solar radiation components data in a site must be known for the design of a system. However, for many developing countries solar radiation data are only available for site stations due to the cost of the measurement equipment and techniques involved. The present work proposes a simple model to estimate the direct, diffuse, and total solar radiation on horizontal surfaces. Calculations of this model were made for solar solstices and equinox for the purpose of testing.

Evolutionary algorithms are widely used optimisation technique for an efficient combinatorial design in the field of evolvable hardware. This paper deals with the design of non-linear image filter using genetic Algorithm. First, a modified simple genetic algorithm is proposed which is based on the concept of generation runs and shuffling operation. This generation run polls for the best fit offspring to pass on to the next generation along with retaining the elite population. This enables the Genetic algorithm to search the sub spaces of the large solution space.

Experimental study to evaluate the effect of hydrotreating CoMo/γ-Al2O3 catalyst for upgrading heavy gas oil (HGO). Hydro desulfurization (HDS) and hydro dearomatization (HDA) activities were conducted in a continuous flow micro trickle-bed reactor at the temperatures, pressures, liquid hourly space velocity (LHSV) and hydrogen-to-feed ratio of; 3500-4500C, 40-75 bar, 0.5-1.0 h-1, and 400 LL-1 respectively. This work identifies and measures the key parameters in hydro desulfurization, and at conversion levels above 95 and 90 %, respectively.

Dans cette étude, nous avons analysé l’évolution de la superficie couverte par les serres horticoles d’une manière générale puis en fonction des légumes les plus plantés dans la région orientale du Maroc depuis l’an 2000, ainsi que des types de serre utilisés dans la région. Nous avons présenté également, les variations des températures intérieure et extérieure d’une serre ainsi que son bilan énergétique totale.

Losses are difficult to control because of the lack of characterization method thick materials engineering. The work presented here is an experimental approach to characterize a thick material. We used the power of the sun as a source of excitation of the material. We set up a simple sensor consisting of a Peltier element and a thermocouple for measuring surface. With the help of a chain of acquisition, we recorded in steps of 10 s data flow and temperature in real time on the outside and inside of a building wall.

This project is mainly focussed on the recognition of face for security purpose. But it could also be used to obtain quick access to medical, criminal, or any type of records. Solving this problem is important because it could allow personnel to take preventive action, provide better service - in the case of a doctor’s appointment, or allow a person access to a secure area. This project work is proposed to design using MATLAB. In this project we are using PCA algorithms for saving database of image i.e. different expressions of face and detection of the face for security reasons.

This paper reviews a number of applications designed for location tracking on mobile phones and also how this location tracking can help in a variety of ways. The Location tracking is one of the location based services. Location based services are set of services provided to a user based on his location. A location of a mobile can be found out either with the help of mobile network or by Global Positioning System (GPS). Most of the mobile phones these days are embedded with the hardware required to use this GPS technology and are also easily available.

A study of the concentrations and accumulation of heavy metals (Pb, Cd, Ni, Fe and Zn) in Amaranthus hybridus (green spinach) plant around four solid waste dumpsites in Gombe metropolis, Nigeria was carried out using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (A Analyst 400 Perkin Elmer USA). The result indicated the following trend in heavy metals’ concentrations in both dumpsite soil and plant samples: Fe>Zn>Pb>Ni>Cd. Roots showed highest metal concentration followed by leaves and then stems.

Magnetic multilayers, (Co(50nm)/Al(10nm))n; n =2 and 5 were deposited at 473K, under high vacuum conditions. X- ray diffraction (GIXRD) studies indicated amorphous nature of the films. Atomic force microscope (AFM) has been employed to study surface structure and grain sizes. The magnetization as a function of field at temperatures 150K, 200K and 300K has been measured using the MPMS SQUID - vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). From the hysteresis loops, coercive field, saturation magnetization, remanent magnetization and ant ferromagnetic coupling were determined.

Proteases are typical enzymes that are being investigated for their potential usage in many areas of application, such as detergent, brewing meat, photography, leather and dairy. A large number of proteases have been purified and characterized from bacteria and few from fungi. Bacteria were isolated from the soil sample of Lachiwala, Doon Valley. Out of 64 bacterial pure cultures, 10 best protease producing microorganisms were isolated through activity zone methods. Protease activity was checked spectrophotometrically using azocasein dye as a substrate. 1 bacteria was selected from them.

The light need to time when it move (to move 30 cm it need 10-9 s) so we see in every moment in our life the past of every thing or body we can find it clear in the space distance between us and any body else in the space (like stars) maybe we see light of one star we see the light now and we think the star is there now but maybe the truth is the star is died from 3000 years ago. We can see the past of the body or things if we stop or move by light speed or any other speed but we can not see ourselves if we move by light speed because we move like the light beam .

Semiconductor CdS nanowire arrays have been synthesized by the electrochemical deposition from aqueous solutions into porous anodic alumina substrates. X-ray diffraction analyses show that the as-synthesized nanowires have a highly preferential orientation. Scanning electron microscopy indicate that high-filling, ordered, and single-crystalline nanowire arrays have been obtained. The optical absorption spectra of the nanowire arrays show that the optical absorption band edge of the CdS nanowire array exhibits a blue shift compared with that of bulk CdS.

A survey of the zooplankton communities of a water body was conducted from April 2013 to March 2014 in the Chhariganga oxbow lake in Block of Nakashipara of Nadia district, West Bengal, India and an analysis of rotifer group of zooplankton with using diversity indices like Shannon-weaver and Simpson diversity index, species richness and evenness, composition trends with total abundance was also carried out to assess the water quality and aquatic health of the oxbow lake ecosystem.

A study was done of the thermal decomposition of urea at different heating rate by thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA) and differential thermal analyzer (DTA). In this study the activation energy for the thermal decomposition of urea was measured using the Kissinger and Friedmann methods. The two methods produced consistent results revealing the complex decomposition process of urea.

The study was proposed to investigate the changes observed on exercise heart rate of male handball players during a handball match. We selected twelve (12) university represented male handball players from Department of Physical Education and Sports Sciences, Annamalai University, Tamilnadu. However, in the present study goalkeepers were excluded from the study. The players exercise heart rate was measured at every 15th minute during the 60 minute handball match.

To maximize the production and thereby profit, the producers depends on his limited resources available viz., inputs, genetic potential of the animal and feed quality. An attempt is made to find the input variables which influence the gross return of milk production and thereby the resource productivity with respect to cow, buffalo and pooled category of milk producers selected. The structural differences are to be examined between cow and buffalo.

The paper examines child labor characteristics in Ethiopia using the data collected by Young Lives project. The study indicates that more than 55.73 percent of the 7 to 17-year-olds has participated in labor market. The result also shows a higher percentage of children participating in economic activities in rural areas than urban areas. We find supportive evidence of the luxury axiom that poverty drives child labor. Our result shows that poverty appears to be the main culprit of the prevalence of child labor in both rural and urban areas.

Irrigation schemes are essential policy options chosen by the government to eradicate poverty and secure food security in Ethiopia. Areas which faced erratic rainfall should expand irrigation projects that enable them to have high agricultural productivity. Irrigation has a great impact on the livelihood of rural community where agriculture is the bedrock of their life.

Mobile banking is the provision of banking services using the mobile phone. In keeping with the advancement in technology, commercial banks have in the recent past undergone major technological leaps in the provision of banking services by adoption of mobile banking technology. This model of banking is particularly useful in providing efficiency and accessibility of banking services without the barriers of location and time. Many studies have been done to assess the impact of mobile banking on financial inclusion.

Reading deficiency has many times been reported as a serious problem that affects academic performance in Kenyan schools. Some children in elementary classes are not able to read simple words or sentences at their class level. Consequently, politicians, parents and general public throw the blame on teachers to have failed to teach children how to read and write. Teachers and other educationists boomerang the problem to parents and economic constraints. Solving reading deficiency problem in Kenyan schools needs concerted efforts but not blaming each other.

Population growth and ever increasing urbanization have lead to the rapid growth and expansion of cities, which have been overwhelmed by a sudden increase in travel demand. Urban transportation is a critical concern in most developing countries. Ethiopia is no exception as an increasing urbanization is taking place. Like other African cities, Addis Ababa has experienced physical expansion and rapid population growth which has created high transportation demand. In Addis Ababa, since car ownership is very low, majority of residents depend on public transport, which is shortly supplied.

This paper delves into the legal anthropology of marriage in Ghana. The socio-legal aspect of this topic is less explored in Ghana although law seems quite often instrumentalized in marriage politics. The paper discusses how ‘power’ is acquired, shared, transferred, and wielded in marriage – all in terms of rights, duties and obligations. This paper draws on empirical literature, local experiences and indigenous knowledge. We argue that one of the pillars through which men legitimize ‘power’ is through the payment of bride price -which comes in the form of a legal framing.

The purpose of the study was to examine the potency of alternative rites of passage in enhancing girl child self-esteem. To achieve this, the study sought to compare the effects of Female Genital Mutilation (FGM) and alternative rites of passage on girl-child self-esteem in Marigat District in Kenya. The study adopted a descriptive survey research design. A total of 132 respondents were involved in the study. The selection of the study sample was done using stratified random sampling, simple random sampling and proportionate sampling.

As the title indicates, the emphasis of the study was on the role of social capital on poverty reduction with specific reference to small and micro enterprises in Tigrai region. The reason that this area was studied is that, major emphasis of governments and economists was on the economic and human capital by excluding the social capital while they establish or describe the small and micro enterprises.

The energy, genius and mental faculty of every child should be properly channelized, trained and educated for the socio economic and politico cultural growth of the country. It is also the birth right of every child, who cries for justice from every nook and corner of the globe. Child labour is a very complicated development issue, affecting human society all over the world.

The human attributes are mainly centered on knowledge. Knowledge generated new knowledge and ultimately it has its impact on all human endeavors. The accumulated knowledge were being stored and transmitted in numerable ways and means, since time immemorial. ‘Reading’ is the prime endeavor of a person to gather information, still even today. There are certain obstacles or barriers that hinder the reading habit of our adolescents. These can be categorized in to ‘internal problems’ as well as ‘external problems’ that may confront while analyzing the situation.

These research asses the customer satisfaction related with five dimensions of service quality (tangibility, reliability, responsiveness, assurance and empathy) in one of the private bank Birhan International Bank branches found in Mekelle. Customer satisfaction is defined as meeting of customer thought and the firm delivery of the service. And service quality has been defined as one of the most important dimension that customers use to differentiate between services offered by different companies.

Although considerable amount of the literature related to examination the link between environmental protection issues and the performance, different results and mixed outputs have been articulated by these studies, and previous research yet to investigate the relationship between multidimensional approach of corporate environmental practices and competitiveness.

C-reactive Protein (CRP) is an acute-phase protein that belongs to the pentraxin family of calcium dependent legend-binding plasma proteins. The human CRP molecule has five identical subunits. These subunits are made up of 206 amino acids and are non glycosylated polypeptide. This review focuses on the various biological roles of CRP, their normal values, methods of measurement, advantages and factors. CRP is closely related to cardiovascular disease and other diseases. Cardiovascular disease can be treated by both phytochemical and non phytochemical sources.

After a long period of Indian Independence, a large section of Indian population (particularly poor section and in rural areas) still remain unbanked. To cover the all population under the financial inclusion is the government objective. Financial inclusion mainly supply credit to all even they are poor, which further boost up saving habits among the common people and finally reduce leak in subsidy and welfare distribution.

This study was conducted to estimate the knowledge expansion of people belong to different areas in India and then to compare the rate of knowledge expansion among different groups of the families belong to different area . The respondents for this study were 150 head of the families. A survey was conducted by using a questionnaire for information gathering about knowledge expansion. Standard t-test and 2 tests were used. The results of the study revealed that rate of knowledge expansion in rural area and rate of knowledge expansion in urban area is significantly different.





Rosane Cavalcante Fragoso, Brasil


Chief Scientific Officer and Head of a Research Group

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Luai Farhan Zghair
Hasan Ali Abed Al-Zu’bi
Fredrick OJIJA
Firuza M. Tursunkhodjaeva
Faraz Ahmed Farooqi
Saudi Arabia
Eric Randy Reyes Politud
Elsadig Gasoom FadelAlla Elbashir
Eapen, Asha Sarah
United State
Dr.Arun Kumar A
Dr. Zafar Iqbal
Dr. Ruchika Khanna
Dr. Recep TAS
Dr. Rasha Ali Eldeeb
Dr. Pralhad Kanhaiyalal Rahangdale
Dr. Nicolas Padilla- Raygoza
Dr. Mustafa Y. G. Younis
Dr. Muhammad shoaib Ahmedani
Saudi Arabia
United State
Dr. Lim Gee Nee
Dr. Jatinder Pal Singh Chawla
Dr. Devendra kumar Gupta
Dr. Ali Seidi
Dr. Achmad Choerudin
Dr Ashok Kumar Verma
Thi Mong Diep NGUYEN
Dr. Muhammad Akram
Dr. Imran Azad
Dr. Meenakshi Malik
Aseel Hadi Hamzah
Anam Bhatti
Md. Amir Hossain
Mirzadi Gohari