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Development of Nigerian based food like biscuit (guliguli) from mixtures of sorghum, maize, soybean, Moringa leaves and crayfish

Author: 
Charles Bristone, Ariahu Chukuma Charles and Paul Yahaya Idakwo
Subject Area: 
Life Sciences
Abstract: 

Guliguli is a snack like biscuit; a Nigerian base food produced from mixtures of sorghum, maize, soybean, crayfish and moringa leaves. The study investigates functional properties of different flours and their composites. But the successful application of the adopted method in food product development and the acceptability of the final products is the key objective. The proximate composition, physical properties and sensory attributes of the products (guliguli) were also determined. Raw materials were first milled into flours and further formulated into six (6) composite flours. These flour composites were finally processed into their respective guliguli. Flours of sorghum and maize were mixed into ratio 1:1 and percentage soybean added was varied from 0-50% which yielded six (6) formulations. Result of the bulk density of flours ranged from 0.42-0.88 gcm-3, loose bulk density 0.28-0.79 gcm-3, water absorption capacity 1.13-4.03 cm3g-1 and percentage dispersibility 21.00 – 83.33%. The moisture content of guliguli ranged from 9.07-10.46 g, protein 7.60-23.60 g, ash 1.00-3.11 g, fat 1.07-5.00 g, fibre 5.00-6.31 g and soluble carbohydrate 52.91-76.05 g. Weight and spread ratio of guliguli ranged from 1.44-1.59 g and 1.48-1.86 respectively. Sensory attribute of guliguli recorded for consistency ranged from 7.27-7.82, flavour 7.00-7.55, taste 6.82-7.91, colour 6.45-7.73, texture 7.09-7.55, and overall acceptance 7.27-7.73. All result for functional properties of composite flours and proximate composition of guliguli increases upon complementation except for soluble carbohydrate, moisture, bulk density and loose bulk density. Sensory attributes of guligulli varied slightly (p < 0.05) and are moderately acceptable. The composition of these food produced was observed to be within a regimen of fat related ailments and each is well fitted for each categories of people besed on protein requirement. The processing technology used was observed to be successful in terms of physical and chemical data obtained and so recommended as other alternative technology especially for producing free-wheat baked products such as breads or biscuits.

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