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Epistaxis-evaluation of etiology mainly non-traumatic and its associated factors among the patients attending at tertiary hospital

Author: 
Abdul Qayum Chowdhury
Subject Area: 
Health Sciences
Abstract: 

Background: Epistaxis is defined as any bleeding arising from the nasal mucosa, it is the most vascularization of the nose and paranasal sinuses, which receive blood supply from the internal and external carotid systems. It is the most common ENT emergency situation¹ bearing a prevalence of about 10 to 12%4. Its incidence is of 30 cases for every 100,000 inhabitants and more then 87% of the patients seen by the ENT are admitted to a hospital8. The objective of this present study was Evaluation of etiology mainly non-traumatic and its associated factors. Methods: 58 number of patients were included in this study with Epistaxis. The main outcome of study were etiology, age, sex, Occupation, Seasonal Prevalence, Site of non-traumatic epistaxis, Sevearity & frequency of non-traumatic epistaxis and treatment modalaties. Result: The study showed that the commonest cause of non-traumatic epistaxis was idiopathic 29.31%, followed by maggots infestation and rhinosporidiosis 10.34%, Hypertension 8.62%.Beside these, Rhino sinusitis, Haemangioma, Idiopathic blood dyscrasias & topical nasal steroid user presented with showed hypertension, rhinitis and septal pathology found 8.62%, Atrophic rhinitis and Sinunasal neoplasm 5.17%, Ethmoidal polyp 3.44%, Inverted papilloma 3.44%,Vestibulitis 1.72%. Antrochoanal polyp 5.17%. It was encountered that males were affected twice than the females (2.05:1). Their mean age was 40 years (range 1.3 to 80 years). Anterior nasal bleeding was noted in majority of the patients (51.72%). Non surgical measures such as observation alone (27.58%), anterior nasal packing (20.68%), posterior nasal packing (8.6%) were the main intervention methods. Surgical measures 25 out of 58 (43.10%) mainly Wide base excision & Electrocauterization of base of Rhinosporidiosis were carried out in 6 cases, Correction of septal abnormalites were carried out in 8 cases. Electrocauterization and biopsy after hospital admission taken in 4 cases. Arterial ligation and endovascular embolization were not performed. Conclusion: Epistaxis are very common in male and Their mean age was 40 years. Idiopathic is the most commonest cause of non-traumatic epistaxis. Most case were successfully managed with conservative (Non surgical) treatment.

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