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Expression levels of E-cadherin and Vimentin in breast cancer

Author: 
Rakshith, V., Harendra Kumar, H.L., Bhaskaran, A. and Suresh
Subject Area: 
Health Sciences
Abstract: 

Background: Despite various treatment and diagnostic options, breast cancer remains one of the most prevalent forms of cancer, globally. Such scenario is due to studies, which are still lagging behind in preventing the recurrence of breast cancer and its progression. The present study focuses on evaluating the expression of E-cadherin and vimentin in breast cancer cases. Methods: The study comprised of 58 breast cancer patients admitted at the Department of Surgery between January 2014 and July 2015. Representative sections from formalin-fixed paraffin embedded tissue blocks of the cancer patients were stained with hematoxylin and eosin staining to evaluate tumor grade, size, and type by tumor, lymph node, and metastasis classification of malignant tumor staging system and Nottingham Prognostic Index along with skin involvement and vascular invasion analysis. Expression of proteins—vimentin and E-cadherin—was evaluated by immunohistochemical staining. Statistical analysis was performed using chi-square and Pearson’s correlation test; p<0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: Majority of the patients were in the age-group of 41–50 years (31.03%). Vimentin and E-cadherin expressions were found to be significantly associated with tumor grade and stages (p<0.05), indicating epithelial to mesenchymal transition of tumor cells. Majority of the tumors were of grade I (37.93%) and II (41.37%) and diagnosed histopathologically as in filterating ductal carcinoma type (79.31%). Association of protein expression with other prognostic parameters was non-significant (p>0.05). Inverse correlation was observed between vimentin and E cadherin expression (r = -0.2196; P = 0.09). Conclusion: E-cadherin and vimentin could be used as a prognostic marker in the diagnosis of the cancer stage and grade, which could in turn aid in early treatment and prolonged survival rate among the patients independent of other prognostic parameters.

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