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A high risk of contamination to the toxic heavy metals (cadmium and lead) and to fluorine diet in an inshore industrial zone of south of togo

Author: 
Mélila, M., Bilabina, I., Awaga, K. L., Houndji, B. V. S., Tchaou, M., Badanaro, F., Abalokoka, E. -Y., Poutouli, W., Ameyran, K., Doh, A. N., Tozoou, P., Doh, A., Tchangbédji, G.,Glitho, A. I., Sanni, A., Gueant, J. L. and Amouzou, K
Subject Area: 
Life Sciences
Abstract: 

The treatment of the phosphates in Togo constitutes an important source of pollution through the dismissal of the wastes after the treatment. The wastes are rejected in the sea and on soils. It entails the contamination of marine and farm products by cadmium, lead and fluorine contained in the wastes in the surrounding zones. Also, gases and dusts rejected in the atmosphere entail the contamination of water from the wells by these elements. A regular consumption of this contaminated food and a frequent use of the water from wells are sources of contamination of people by the heavy toxic metals and fluorine. The effects of these elements on the human health can then cause some concerns to the populations who live in the zone of treatment of the raw ore of the phosphates in Togo. The goal of this survey is to determine the frequency of consumption of food contaminated by the cadmium, lead and fluorine and the proportions of the individuals that suffer from the pathologies related to these xenobiotics in the surrounding zones of Société Nouvelle des Phosphates du Togo (SNPT) factory. The results show that food contaminated by the xenobiotics is frequently consumed in the households and the contaminated water from wells constitutes the first source of water supply for the daily needs of the households. This could be the reason why the prevalence of some illnesses is noticed in this zone. The decrease in number of the affected individuals as one move away from the factory and the sites of dismissal of the wastes indicates the function of this industrial activity in the appearance of these illnesses among the people. The method of management and treatment of the phosphates wastes by the SNPT in Togo presents harmful impacts on the health of the surrounding populations. It is therefore necessary to improve the management of these wastes in order to protect the people against the consequences of the pollutants in this zone.

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