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NCCT findings of pattern of head injuries in road traffic accidents

Author: 
Dr. Preeth Pany, T., Col Dr. Sunita Dashottar and Lt. Col Dr. Devendra Nema
Subject Area: 
Health Sciences
Abstract: 

Background: Road traffic accidents (RTA) are a leading cause of mortality and morbidity. Non Contrast Computed Tomography (NCCT) has become the diagnostic tool of choice for head trauma due to its high sensitivity, rapidity, accuracy, reliability and wide availability. Objective: To establish the role of NCCT in assessing the pattern of head injuries in RTA victims in a small cohort of armed forces personnel and their dependents. Material and methods: A retrospective annual study was conducted on 136 RTA victims with a 16 slice spiral CT machine in the radiology department of a tertiary care armed forces hospital based in Lucknow. Results: Out of 136 RTA victims, 46 suffered only brain injuries, 42 sustained only osseous fractures and 16 of them had both brain injuries and osseous fractures. Surprisingly, 32 (23.5%) of the total number of patients included in the study had neither brain nor osseous injuries. Males in the age group of 21-30 years (27%) were the most common victims. In this study, SDH was the most common pattern of brain injury. Linear fractures were more common than comminuted fractures of both cranial vault and facial bones. Temporal bone was the most common fractured bone of cranial vault and nasal bone was the most common fractured facial bone. Most of the injuries either brain/osseous were right sided. Maximum incidence of RTA took place in the month of December. Conclusion: NCCT was found to be highly sensitive safe and reliable in assessing the patterns of brain as well as skull vault and facial bone injuries reiterating the fact that it the primary investigative modality of choice in RTA.

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