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Paratransgenesis involving microbes: deserving approach for the control of vector borne diseases

Author: 
Vitthalrao B. Khyade, Mansi Avinash Adagale, Apurva Baban Tamhane and Shubhangi Shankar Pawar
Subject Area: 
Life Sciences
Abstract: 

There is cause of severe morbidity and mortality throughout the world by diseases that are transmitted by arthropods. The burden of many of these diseases is borne largely by developing countries. Advances in vector genomics offer new promise for the control of arthropod vectors of disease. Radical changes in vector-biology research are required if scientists are to exploit genomic data and implement changes in public health. Use of chemicals to control vector borne diseases often exert influence associated with environmental toxicity and affects adversely on human health. Moreover, this method leads to potentiate the vector for resistance. The strategy for the control of vector borne diseases should be paratransgenic. Symbiotic or commensal microbial pathogens should transformed to express products of gene that interfere with the transmission of pathogen. That is to say the genetically modified microbes are to be re-introduced back to the insect (vector). This method definitely, decrease the ability of the vector to transmit the pathogen into the human body. The paratransgenic method if utilized efficiently, it may reduce rate of for example Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative agent of Chagas disease, the triatomine bug, Rhodnius prolixus, and Leishmania donovani by the sand fly Phlebotomus argentipes. There are many effector biomolecules (example: antimicrobial peptides and specific single chain antibodies), currently being explored for the activities of “anti-parasite” in the systems to control vector borne diseases. This method deserve environmental protection and exert positive influence on the health of human being. However, the field application of laboratory-based evidence of paratransgenesis imposes the use of more realistic confined semi-field environments. Paratransgenesis could prove very useful in mosquito species that are inherently difficult to transform or in sibling species complexes. It is a much more flexible and adaptable approach than the use of genetically modified vector (ex. Mosquitoes) because effector molecules and symbiotic bacteria can be replaced if they do not achieve the desired result. Paratransgenesis may therefore become an important integrated pest management tool for the Control of Vector Borne Diseases.

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