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Prevalence of malocclusion and oral hygiene status in school children of 8-12 years of age in bhopal city

Author: 
Dr. Utkarsh Tiwari, Dr. Shilpy Singla, Dr. Ruchi Ahuja Thakur, Dr. Vidhatri Tiwari, Dr. Aishwarya Singh and Dr. Binu Santha
Subject Area: 
Health Sciences
Abstract: 

Aim: To access the Prevalence of malocclusion and oral hygiene status in school children of 8-12 years of age in Bhopal city. Materials and Methods: This is a cross sectional longitudinal study. A sample of 1019 school going children was randomly selected out of 28 schools, divided in 14 zones* of Bhopal (Map Issued by Bhopal Municipal Corporation, 2012). It includes one Private and one Government school from each zone. The study included 8-12 years of student with prior consent and who are able to understand the instructions. Those students with developmental defects, syndromes or any special conditions were excluded from the study. Results: Out of total population of 1019 individuals, crowding (23.4%), spacing (10.89%), diastema (17.0%), largest anterior mandibular irregularity (9.8%), Crossbite (5.09%), Overjet (51.7%), overbite (51.0%), vertical anterior open bite (1.0%) and poor oral hygiene(15%) was seen more in government school children which is statistically insignificant.(p>0.05) Largest anterior maxillary irregularity (6.6%) was found more in private school children. (p<0.05) Crowding, spacing, diastema, largest anterior maxillary irregularity, largest anterior mandibular irregularity, crossbite, overjet, overbite, and poor oral hygiene was seen decresing with increase in age which is highly significant.(p<0.05).Vertical anterior open bite has no significant relation with age. (p>0.05) The table demonstrates highly statistical significance relationship between crowding, spacing, cross bite and oral hygiene status of the students. (p<0.05) Discussion: One of the major responsibilities of a pedodontist is the early recognition and management of irregularities of the developing primary dentition. The notable increase in child population in recent years warrants an increased need for pedodontic attention. Number of studies recognizing these irregularities and their significance are few to validate the necessity of rendering specialized preventive measures that are characteristic of pediatric dental care. Conclusion: The study suggests that children with malaligned teeth had more chances of having poor oral hygiene and no difference was noted among private and government school children oral hygiene status and occlusal anomalies. There is a correlation between dental anomalies with respect to age groups, crowding spacing and cross bite had more tend to had poor oral hygiene as they show a significant difference.

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