CALL FOR PAPERS

CERTIFICATE

IMPACT FACTOR 2018

Subject Area

  • Life Sciences / Biology
  • Architecture / Building Management
  • Asian Studies
  • Business & Management
  • Chemistry
  • Computer Science
  • Economics & Finance
  • Engineering / Acoustics
  • Environmental Science
  • Agricultural Sciences
  • Pharmaceutical Sciences
  • General Sciences
  • Materials Science
  • Mathematics
  • Medicine
  • Nanotechnology & Nanoscience
  • Nonlinear Science
  • Chaos & Dynamical Systems
  • Physics
  • Social Sciences & Humanities

Why Us? >>

  • Open Access
  • Peer Reviewed
  • Rapid Publication
  • Life time hosting
  • Free promotion service
  • Free indexing service
  • More citations
  • Search engine friendly

Plagiarism Detection

IJCR is following an instant policy on rejection those received papers with plagiarism rate of more than 20%. So, All of authors and contributors must check their papers before submission to making assurance of following our anti-plagiarism policies.

Synergistic and antimicrobial effects of freshand dried extracts of red and green varieties of hibiscus sabdariffa calyxes on salmonella typhi and escherichia coli

Author: 
Gberikon, G. M., Okewu, O. and Sar, T. T.
Subject Area: 
Life Sciences
Abstract: 

Synergistic and antimicrobial effects of fresh and dried extracts of red and green varieties of Hibiscus sabdariffacalyxes on two enteric pathogens were investigated. Isolates of enteric pathogens namely: Salmonella typhi and Escherichia coli were obtained from Benue State University Teaching Hospital, Makurdi. Test organisms were subjected to confirmatory tests using standard methods of analysis. Samples of fresh and dried red and white calyxes of Hibiscus sabdariffa were purchased from Modern Market, Makurdi. Dried calyxes of the two varieties were washed, air dried at room temperature to a constant weight. The dried calyxes were converted to a powdered form using a blender. The powdered form was subjected to ethanolic extraction. Fresh calyxes of the two varieties were cleaned air dried and meshed using ethanol, it was allowed to evaporate in a water bath for 92 hours until a gummy concentrate was obtained. Phytochemical screening was carried out on the fresh and dried extracts of H. sabdariffa calyxes. Size of inoculum developed from isolates was calibrated using Mac Farland standard 1. Agar well diffusion method was used for susceptibility testing of the test organisms with ethanolic extracts of the dried red and green calyxes. Results of phytochemical screening of dried calyxes revealed that flavonoids was absent in the green variety but present in the red variety. Steroids, terpenoides and phlobatanins were absent in both varieties. Alkaloids, tanins and phenols were present in all varieties, Also phytochemical screening of (fresh) red and green calyxes extracts showed the presence of alkaloids, tannins and phenols as the bioactive components, saponins was absent in the fresh varieties of green and red. Although, flavonoid was also present in the (fresh) red variety but absent in the (fresh) green variety. Salmonella typhi recorded a zero activity with extract of dried green variety. The (fresh) green variety had zero activity against E.coli and inhibited Salmonella typhi at concentration of 40mg/ml. However, when a synergy was established between the two extracts (red to white) at ratio 25:25, diameter of zone of inhibition (9mm) was recorded with Salmonellatyphi as oppose to zero activity with extract of the green calyx alone. There was significant difference (p<0.05) in the effectiveness of the two varieties on test organisms. Statistical analysis also revealed that there was significant difference (p<0.05) in effectiveness between (fresh) red and (fresh) green varieties. Combining (dried) red and green ethanolic extracts of Hibiscus sabdariffa at different ratio revealed that there was no significant difference (p>0.05) between concentration and ratio of red to green variety on the growth of the tested organisms. Therefore, a combination of these two extracts in equal ratio can be recommended in the treatment of enteric diseases.

PDF file: 

IJMCE RECOMMENDATION

ONLINE PAYPAL PAYMENT

CURRENT ISSUE

NEWS

CHIEF EDITOR
Rosane Cavalcante Fragoso, Brasil
ASSOCIATE CHIEF EDITOR

   

Jean-Marc SABATIER
Chief Scientific Officer and Head of a Research Group
France

Advantages of IJCR

  • Rapid Publishing
  • Professional publishing practices
  • Indexing in leading database
  • High level of citation
  • High Qualitiy reader base
  • High level author suport

EDITORIAL BOARD

Luai Farhan Zghair
Iraq
Hasan Ali Abed Al-Zu’bi
Jordanian
Fredrick OJIJA
Tanzanian
Firuza M. Tursunkhodjaeva
Uzbekistan
Faraz Ahmed Farooqi
Saudi Arabia
Eric Randy Reyes Politud
Philippines
Elsadig Gasoom FadelAlla Elbashir
Sudan
Eapen, Asha Sarah
United State
Dr.Arun Kumar A
India
Dr. Zafar Iqbal
Pakistan
Dr. SHAHERA S.PATEL
India
Dr. Ruchika Khanna
India
Dr. Recep TAS
Turkey
Dr. Rasha Ali Eldeeb
Egypt
Dr. Pralhad Kanhaiyalal Rahangdale
India
DR. PATRICK D. CERNA
Philippines
Dr. Nicolas Padilla- Raygoza
Mexico
Dr. Mustafa Y. G. Younis
Libiya
Dr. Muhammad shoaib Ahmedani
Saudi Arabia
DR. MUHAMMAD ISMAIL MOHMAND
United State
DR. MAHESH SHIVAJI CHAVAN
India
DR. M. ARUNA
India
Dr. Lim Gee Nee
Malaysia
Dr. Jatinder Pal Singh Chawla
India
DR. IRAM BOKHARI
Pakistan
Dr. FARHAT NAZ RAHMAN
Pakistan
Dr. Devendra kumar Gupta
India
Dr. ASHWANI KUMAR DUBEY
India
Dr. Ali Seidi
Iran
Dr. Achmad Choerudin
Indonesia
Dr Ashok Kumar Verma
India
Thi Mong Diep NGUYEN
France
Dr. Muhammad Akram
Pakistan
Dr. Imran Azad
Oman
Dr. Meenakshi Malik
India
Aseel Hadi Hamzah
Iraq
Anam Bhatti
Malaysia
Md. Amir Hossain
Bangladesh
Ahmet İPEKÇİ
Turkey
Mirzadi Gohari
Iran