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Tools, policies and practices in farm technology delivery system: A review

Author: 
Kokate, K. D., Dubey, S. K., Uma Sah and Sudipto Paul
Subject Area: 
Life Sciences
Abstract: 

Farm extension and advisory service delivery mechanism has witnessed challenges in diverse forms in the post Green Revolution era. The extension approaches, tools, policies and practices have undergone necessary shifts according to the need of the situation. The ‘top-down’ approach of extension, primarily being adapted in form of the globally recognized ‘Training and Visit’ system during the 1980s was gradually withdrawn and replaced with participatory ‘bottom up’ approaches. Farming system research and extension and participatory technology development became the thrust. The participatory appraisal tools like Rapid Rural Appraisal, Participatory Rural Appraisal, Participatory Learning and Action, Rapid Appraisal of Agricultural Knowledge System etc. became increasingly popular and are extensively used throughout the world. Immense policy appraisal, reforms and thereby revolution in technology dissemination could be observed during the 1990s. Merger of all the first line extension projects with the Krishi Vigyan Kendra (KVK) model of India has been visualized as the landmark step towards horizon expansion of research-extension linkage at the grass root. The farm outreach programmes exhaled a greater decentralization of decision making in all when Agricultural Technology Management Agency (ATMA) was initiated and currently spread across 630 districts of the country. With the motto of supplementing the efforts of public agricultural extension system by necessarily providing extension and other services to the farmers on payment basis or free of cost through agricultural experts, Agri-Clinic and Agri-Business Centre (ACABC) initiated in country since early 2000. Of late, the technology dissemination process recognized the farmer led innovation and extension models. For further profitability and sustainability of farm business, the scattered and largely unorganized farm businesses throughout the country are to be thoroughly organized. Linking farmers to the markets, fee based extension service delivery and judicious use of ICT tools will serve as the future perspective in this regard.

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