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Wildlife: A hidden warehouse of zoonosis – A reviewc

Author: 
Kuldeep Dhama, Karthik, K., Sandip Chakraborty, Ruchi Tiwari and Sanjay Kapoor
Subject Area: 
Health Sciences
Abstract: 

Much has been studied about the involvement of domestic or companion animals which are around us, for their role in transmission of diseases. But, little is known about the involvement of wild animals in broadcasting of some zoonotic diseases which affect human to maximum level. It has increased the need to study many of such diseases as their spread is often difficult to prevent. They may be viral viz., Rabies, Avian influenza, Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), Viral encephalitis and Haemorrhagic fever, Hendra and Nipah viral infections, Rift valley fever, Monkey pox and Kyasunur forest disease (KFD); bacterial viz., Brucellosis, Leptospirosis, Lyme disease, Psittacosis, Plague, Tuberculosis, Human monocytic ehrlichiosis or parasitic viz., Alveolar Echinococcosis. Population explosion and changes in agricultural practices, travel and tourism and exotic pet keeping are the factors which play critical role in their spread. It is comparatively more difficult to monitor diseases in wildlife than in domestic animals and in the present day context of rapid human and animal translocation, the surveillance and monitoring of disease outbreaks in wildlife populations are particularly relevant. Monitoring mortality event, active surveillance, understanding the ecological patterns of disease distribution and identification of the factors associated with host-agent-environment relationship are of utmost importance. Manipulating the size of the host population by population reduction through evaluation of the desired level of population decrease and attempts to reduce large population by culling (lethal control), vaccination and medical therapy, and medical tools employed to limit the population growth of a maintenance host species (contraception), isolation and zoning, employment of geographical information system (GIS) all contribute effectively in the prevention and control programme according to feasibility. The present review describes the pathogens and diseases of wildlife having public health significance, their transmission to human beings and strategies for their surveillance and monitoring along with suitable prevention and control measures to be followed, which altogether would be helpful for formulating effective strategies for preventing and controlling wildlife zoonosis. The review would be useful for wildlife experts, epidemiologists, field analysts, veterinarians and medical health professionals.

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