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April 2010

  1. Kalaiarasu, S and Vivekananthan, S

    In the present study solid state fermentation technique has been employed for the development of low cost fermentation technique for amylase production by using two different species of fungi had been chosen viz. Aspergillus oryzae, Penicillium expansum. During the fermentation process the amylase production was highest at 96 hrs for both the fungal species. The effect of temperatures revealed that the amylase production higher during at 30-40°C with the optimum at 40°C for both the fungal species inoculated. The most suitable temperature maintain in a Solid State Fermentation system is in the range 80-40°C. The optimum pH for the fermentation in medium was 7 in the heat neutral range. The amylase becomes denatured below 6. The effect of pH amylase production in Solid State Fermentation of Banana fruit stalk and the skin of the fruit mixture for both the species of fungi, two different species of fungi used, among the two fasted and Aspergillus oryzae showed higher activity, enzyme production when compared to Penicillium expansum, be suggested that utilization of banana waste; fruit stalk and skin of the fruit mixture as substrate from amylase production in Solid State Fermentation, developed as a low cost fermentation technology for the amylase production.

  2. Raja, G., Saravanan, K., Sivakumar, S., Rajasaravanan, M.E., and Balamurugan, K.

    The FT-IR and FT-Raman spectra of O-chlorobenzoyl chloride (OCBC) were recorded in the regions 4000-400 cm-1 and 3500-100 cm-1. The fundamental vibrational frequencies and intensity of vibrational bands were evaluated using density functional theory (DFT) and standard B3LYP/6-311+G** basis set combination. The vibrational spectra were interpreted, with the aid of normal coordinate analysis based on a scaled quantum mechanical (SQM) force field. The infrared and Raman spectra were also predicted from the calculated intensities. Comparison of simulated spectra with the experimental spectra provides important information about the ability of the computational method to describe the vibrational modes. Unambiguous vibrational assignment of all the fundamentals was made using the total energy distribution (TED).Further, density functional theory (DFT) combined with quantum chemical calculations to determine the first-order hyperpolarizability.

  3. Sugappriya, Sudarsanam, D., Alex Mathew, J., Kousikka, M.M. and Thulasi Bai, K.

    Muscular dystrophy (MD) is a group of rare genetic disorder that weakens the muscles that helps in the body movement. Although all MD are genetic disorders, the types of inheritance vary, and Duchenne muscular dystrophy arises from new mutations. The gene for DMD, found on the X chromosome, encodes a large protein—dystrophin. HDAC also define a common target for independent pharmacological interventions in the treatment of Duchenne muscular dystrophy. Dystrophin protein is modeled using the Modeller9v1 and the modeled protein is simulated for molecular dynamics studies using GROMACS. Trichostatin A is an example of a HDAC inhibitor which is being studied as a breast cancer therapy drug and has been studied in both the mdx mouse model (Duchenne) and sarcoglycan deficient mouse model (LGMD). From the binding database 175 hits were found for the HDAC1 inhibitor. These 175 compounds are then screened for the best activity against dystrophin. The detailed docking analysis of the complex structures and on their interaction energies derived by the docking study before and after the simulation at 310.15 K provided a reasonable basis for the inhibition potency of the inhibitors against dystrophin. By macro molecular interaction it is found that Benzamidine have higher affinity value compared to the commercial available drug TrichostatinA.

  4. Premkumar, P., Priya, J and Suriyavathana, M

    Free radical mediated oxidative stress is believed to be the primary cause of many disorders, such as cardiovascular diseases, cataract, arthritis, brain dysfunction, diabetes mellitus, cancer, ageing etc. In treatment of these diseases, antioxidant therapy has gained an utmost importance in the resent years. Current research is now directed towards finding naturally occurring antioxidants of plant origin. Andrographis echioides and Boerhavia diffusa are important medicinal plants, which have a wide range of application. In the present study, the antioxidant potential of ethanolic extract of Andrographis echioides and Boerhavia diffusa was evaluated by determining the levels of enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants. Our results showed that both the plant extracts possessed significant levels of enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants. However, Andrographis echioides showed higher levels of enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants than Boerhavia diffusa.

  5. Aniel Kumar, O., Subba Tata, S and Rupavati, T

    In vitro callusogenesis and differential callus growth rate was studied from hypocotyl, cotyledon and leaf explants of three cultivars of Capsicum annuum L. viz., var. X-235, var. PC-1 and var. Pusa Jwala. Callus initiation was genotype dependent and var. X-235 had best callusogenesis response than var. PC-1 and var. Pusa Jwala. MS medium supplemented with 2,4-D(1.0mg/l) and BAP(2.0mg/l) was found to be the best medium for maximum frequency of callus induction recorded from hypocotyl explants of the 3 genotypes i.e., var. X-235(79%), var. PC-1(68%) and var. Pusa Jwala (64%). The hypocotyl explants manifested maximum callus fresh weight (1.16g) than cotyledon and leaf explants. The study revealed that the callus growth rate (fresh weight) of all the explants showed maximum increase in the first subculture (1st week) than the lateral subcultures (6th and 9th week). This rapid in vitro callusogenesis procedure can be used as a source for production of secondary metabolites from chili peppers.

  6. Aruna, J., Prakash, M. and Sunil Kumar, B.

    Five brinjal genotypes were chosen to study the effect of physical and chemical mutagens on the induction of variability. The physical mutagen gamma rays and chemical mutagens namely Ethyl Methane Sulphonate and Diethyl Sulphate were employed for treating the seeds to determine the LD50 values in brinjal. Germination percentage, shoot length and root length were measured under laboratory conditions. The mutagenic effect of gamma rays was found to be more effective than the chemical mutagens in seedling characters.

  7. Nazni, P and Pradheepa, S

    The study was conducted in the laboratory of the Department of Food Science, Periyar University, Salem, to determine the chemical composition, texture and flavor. Papads were prepared from black gram, incorporating jowar millet flour. All the ingredients were collected from the local market. Five different types of papads were prepared using 0%, 5%, 10%, 15%, 20% jowar flour with other ingredients. The product was analyzed for proximate composition, physical and chemical analysis and organoleptic evaluation. The result revealed that moisture, protein, fat, ash and total carbohydrate content in the dried papads samples were found in the range of 7.06 to 8.36%, 8 to 16%, 4.05 to 5.3%, 2.5 to 4.5% and 67.34 to77.89% respectively. The samples were highly acceptable by the subjects and physical properties were almost same with control papads. No remarkable changes in moisture content, texture and flavour were observed up to 6 months of storage in ambient condition (27 to 35°C) indicating that the products were shelf-stable up to 6 months.

  8. Krishnamoorthy, G., Rajalakshmi, S. and Karkhuzhali, R.

    The effect of Mucuna pruriens seed extract on Brain phospholipids was studied in Ethanol treated male pubertal rats. The phospholipid fractions of this rat brain were compared with Ethanol treated and control group rats. The suppressive effect of ethanol on phospholipid fractions was correlated with altered brain function. The application of Mucuna with alcohol relieves the suppressive effect of ethanol, and protects the brain from damage by its anti-oxidants principles. The present study suggests the Mucuna pruriens seed treatment may be beneficial to prevent ethanol-induced toxicity on phospholipids mediated membrane function.

  9. Patil V. N. and Deokule S. S.

    Chlorophytum borivilianum is an important medicinal plant known as ‘Safed musli’, used in many Ayurvedic vital tonics and aphrodisiac formulations. The species was first described from India in 1954 and reached rare status in nature due to overexploitation. Owing to its increased demand, the species has attracted the attention of farmers as well as researchers in several institutions. The present paper deals with to remove the controversy and for botanical standardization the detailed pharmacognostic study on the tuberous roots of Chlorophytum bharuchae, macroscopic and microscopic characters, histochemistry and phytochemistry. The Phytochemical and histochemical test includes starch, protein, saponins, sugar, tannins, glycosides and alkaloids. Percentage extractives, ash and acid insoluble ash and fluorescence analysis. The phytochemical screening is also conformed by HPTLC analysis for saponins and steroids.

  10. Rajalakshmi S., Krishnamoorthy, G. and Vijayalakshmi, R.

    The effect of ethanol on the biochemical changes of total lipid and total phospholipid fractions were analysed using TLC technology. A noticeable change due to ethanol was observed in eight significant lipid fractions such as phosphatidyl inositol, phosphatidyl serine, sphingomyelin, phosphatidyl choline, lyso phosphatidyl choline, phosphatidyl ethanolamine, cardiolipin and phosphatidyl acid . However, restoration to normal values has been attributed by the treatment of Mucuna pruriens seed extract along with ethanol. This may be one mechanism by which the seed extract increases the production of testosterone to lipid desaturates towards the maturation of spermatozoa.

  11. Sundaramurthy , N., Rajamannan, B. and Rajalakshmi, S.

    Measurements of density (ρ), viscosity (η), and ultrasonic velocity (u) were carried out on a-amino acids, L-lysine, L-glutamine, L-arginine (0.1– 0.5 mol kg -1), in 0.2 mol kg-1 aqueous magnesium nitrate at 298.15, 303.15, 308.15,and 313.15 K. These measurements were carried out to evaluate some important parameters, viz., adiabatic compressibility (β), apparent molar compressibility (φK), apparent molar volume (φV), limiting apparent molar compressibility (φK0), limiting apparent molar volume (φV0), and their constants (SK, SV) viscosity A and B coefficients of Jones-Dole equation. These parameters were interpreted in terms of solute-solute and solute-solvent interactions and structure-making/breaking ability of solutes in the given solution.

  12. Kaleeswaran B., Ilavenil S. and Ravikumar S

    Traditionally, Cynodon dactylon L. juice is used for freshness and several common diseases. Preliminary phytochemical analysis proved that phenols, quinines and tannin were in ethanolic extract of C. dactylon. Then the ethanolic extract was analyzed by Gas Chromatography and Mass Spectrophometry (GC-MS) which showed 10 phytochemical components, some of them are not mentioned in the previous studies among these Tricosane (22.05 %), 1, 2-Propanediol (20.30%), 3-benzyloxy-1, 2-diacetyl (12.62%) were present at maximum level. Aqueous and ethanolic extract of C. dactylon (500 µg/ml) were investigated for their antibacterial activity against gram positive bacteria and gram negative bacteria using disc diffusion, well in agar and microdilution method. E. coli, B. subtilis, S. aureus and A. hydrophila were more susceptible in the ethanolic extract and no result was found in aqueous extract. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) value of the ethanolic extract was response between in the range of 125 - 62.5 µg/ml. Due to the presence of phyto components may control the bacterial growth which supports the usage of plant extract either in high concentration/long duration of traditional treatment by the traditional healers.

  13. Ezhil Vendan, S., Lingathurai, S., Gabriel Paulraj, M. and Ignacimuthu, S

    In a laboratory experiment, pesticidal effect of hexane, chloroform and ethyl acetate extracts of Hydnocarpus alpina Wt. (Flacourtiaceae) leaves was evaluated against Asian army worm Spodoptera litura Fab. at different concentrations viz., 0.625, 1.25, 2.50 and 5.00 per cent. Feeding inhibitory and insecticidal activities were determined by leaf disc method. Among the tested extracts, ethyl acetate extract of H. alpina showed maximum antifeedant (72.2%) and larvicidal (66.6%) activities at 5 per cent concentration. Ethyl acetate extract was subjected to fractionation using hexane, ethyl acetate, acetone and methanol solvents by column chromatography and thin layer chromatography. Ten fractions were obtained and were further screened at four different concentrations viz., 125, 250, 500 and 1000 ppm. Among the tested fractions, the eighth fraction showed maximum antifeedant (68.5%) and insecticidal (62.5%) activities at 1000 ppm concentration. Phytochemical analysis of this fraction showed that it contained flavonoids, phenols and triterpenoids. An oil formulation of the eighth fraction with neem oil recorded 78.6 per cent antifeedant and 82.4 per cent larvicidal activities at 100 ppm concentration, which was superior over individual fraction and neem oil treatments.

  14. Arul Jose, P., Satheeja Santhi,V. and R.D. Jebakumar Solomon

    A valuable Actinomycete strain with antagonistic activity was isolated, identified and confirmed as Nocadiopsis sp. based on the 16S rRNA sequence analysis and biochemical examinations. Strain JAJ16 was subjected to cultural characterization with respect to aerial mycelium color, diffusible pigments production and the growth characteristics on different media. Extensive growth with bactericidal compound secretion was observed in ISP4 with 5 % (w/v) NaCl. Antimicrobial potential was screened against a list of bacteria and fungi. The strain JAJ16 showed good antimicrobial activity with significant minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC).

  15. Satheeja Santhi, V., Arul Jose, P. and Jebakumar Solomon, R.D.

    A total of two marine actinomycetes were isolated from different locations of the Manakudi Estuary of Arabian Sea in Tamilnadu, India. They exhibited higher antagonistic activity against the Gram positive bacteria; methicillin resistant and susceptible Staphylococcus aureus, Enterobacter sp, Salmonella typhi, Bacillus subtilis, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus vulgaris. For Gram negative organism Pseudomas auregionosa it showed intermediate activity and no antagonistic effect towards yeast like Candida albicans. Pink actinomycetes (PJS) with white aerial mycelium and pink substrate mycelium and black colonies (BJS) of white aerial mycelium and yellowish white substrate mycelium showed potent inhibiting effect of other microorganisms. Biochemical analysis of PJS and BJS revealed these organisms are Gram positive, starch, mannose, glucose, sucrose, fructose, lipase and urease positive, amylase, lipase enzyme positive and urease negative. All the isolated actinomycetes were resistant to nalidixic acid, methicillin and penicillin. 16S rDNA phylogenetic typing gave ~1500 bp amplified product and it was cloned in pGEMT easy vector. Sequencing of amplified product will give the phylogeny of isolated actinomycetes and the further study on this organism may provide a new antibiotic for the welfare of human being.

  16. Sunil Kumar, B and Prakash, M

    The generation mean analysis is commonly employed in studies of inheritance of quantitative traits. In this study, five mungbean (Vigna radiata L. Wilczek) hybrids were evaluated at the Plant Breeding Farm, Department of Agricultural Botany, Faculty of Agriculture, Annamalai University to record the data for generation mean analysis during March 2006 to August 2008. Mungbean like other pulse crops contributes the major source of dietary protein for the large section of vegetarian population of the world. It is also an excellent source of high protein and easily digestible protein. In India, mungbean is generally grown on marginal or sub-marginal lands, which have poor fertility status. Hence, line x tester analysis was undertaken to study in detail the genetic analysis of seed protein content among five hybrids of mungbean. It is already known that the seed protein content is a polygenetic trait coupled with the maternal or along with the filial constitution. Secondly, the presence of large number of non-additive gene action also makes the improving this trait very difficult.

  17. Minnady Muthulingam

    The antihepatotoxic efficacy of aqueous flower extracts of Nymphaea pubescens (NP) and Silymarin were investigated against acetaminophen induced liver damage in rats. Acetaminophen at the dose of 3gm/kg body weight orally produced liver damage in rats as manifested by the significant rise in serum levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), bilirubin, cholesterol and decreases the protein level compared with control. Oral administration of flower extracts of Nymphaea pubescens (100, 200, 400mg/kg) and silymarin (25mg/kg) once daily for 28 days to acetaminophen treated rats shows lowered significantly the afore mentioned clinical parameters where as protein level increased. The extract alone treated rats did not adversely affect the serum biochemical estimation. A significant antihepatotoxic efficacy of Nymphaea pubescens extracts was reported.

  18. Nawsheeba Wani, M. Ashraf Bhat, M. Feza Ahmad, Sabeena Akther, S. M. Razvi, M. R. Mir, Rizwan Rashid and Bhat, K. A.

    The capacity of molecular markers to permit the assignment of a sample to a particular individual, provenance, stand or species within an allowable livelihood of error has led to wide variety of practical applications. Breeders use markers to understand and monitor levels of genetic diversity and genetic differentiation in breeding population compared to wild relatives. When marker resolution and population genetic structure permit the identification of specific strands or provenances then breeders can potentially make use of untapped genetic diversity located there. The development of molecular markers has become an almost necessary complement to hardwood tree populations for superior growth, form and quality characteristics. Molecular markers are essentially important for determining the reproductive biology and population structure of natural plantations and identify genes affecting quantitative traits .Considerable efforts have been exerted over last forty years in conventional tree improvement programmes through breeding and selection and strategies for breeding and tree improvement of temperate hardwoods have been developed. The long generation and reproductive cycle are some of the problems imposed on conventional tree breeding programmes. Almost any kind of molecular marker can be used for fingerprinting walnut. The most widely used have been RFLPs, RAPDs, AFLPs, SSRs and ISSRs. In this paper we review the work carried out using different molecular marker approaches for improvement of walnut and analyze advantages and disadvantages of various methods.

  19. Raja, G., Saravanan, K., Sivakumar, S., Rajasaravanan, M.E., and Balamurugan, K.

    FT-IR and FT-Raman spectra of 4-Chloro-2-Fluroaniline (4C2FA) have been recorded. The spectra were interpreted with the aid of normal coordinate analysis following full structure optimizations and force field calculations based on density functional theory (DFT) using standard B3LYP/6-311+G** method. Normal coordinate calculations were performed with the DFT force field corrected by a recommended set of scaling factors yielding fairly good agreement between observed and calculated frequencies. The effects of the chloro, fluro and nitro substituents on vibrational frequencies have been investigated. Further, density functional theory (DFT) combined with quantum chemical calculations to determine the first-order hyperpolarizability





Rosane Cavalcante Fragoso, Brasil


Chief Scientific Officer and Head of a Research Group

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