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January 2011

  1. Prabudoss, V.

    The spice black pepper known for its medicinal properties and also used for different kinds of infection, actually the medicinal properties of pepper due to the presence of phytochemical like Tannis, alkaloids and Flavonoids. In the present investigations extracts of black pepper namely ethanol extract and chloroform extract were tested for its antimicrobial activities against pathogenic bacteria like staphylococcusaureus, E. Coli, salmonella typhi, pseudomonas aeruginosa and Proteus sp. by following agar well diffusion method. Both the extracts showed efficiency in the bio control of pathogenic bacterial organisms by showing maximum inhibition zone in plate assay.

  2. Shanmugaraja, P.

    The study on Indigenous Knowledge of Tribals of Pachaimalai hills, was conducted to study the constraints experienced by the tribal farmers in adopting the indigenous agricultural practices. The study was conducted in Pachaimalai hills of Trichy district. A sample of one hundred tribal farmers (respondents) was selected from the tribal hamelets using proportionate random sampling technique. Nearly twenty one indigenous agricultural practices were identified in the crops like paddy, tapioca and sorghum. In addition ten common indigenous agricultural practices were also identified. The data were collected with the help of well structured and pretested interview schedule and suitable statistical tools were used to analyses the data. The important constraints reported were ‘no reward for indigenous agricultural practices by Government Officials’, ‘youth’s preference for urban life,’ ‘Lack of documentation’, and ‘poor income from agriculture’.

  3. Trimurtulu, N, Lalitha Kumari, A. and Latha, M.

    The present work demonstrated that selected growth stimulating bacterial strains with AM fungi are able to increase the growth, yields and nutrient uptake of Chilli in vertisols. Two experiments were conducted in pots as well as in field at ANGRAU, Agricultural Research Station, Amaravathi to study the response of Chilli to the inoculation of mixed microbial consortium of Azotobacter, Azospirillum, Phosphate solubilizing bacteria, Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria, Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and chemical fertilizers on AM fungal root colonization, soil microbial populations, yield attributes and yield. Inocuation of mixed microbial consortium including two diazotrophs of Azospirillum and Azotobacter(MC3 consortium) performed the best in recording AM colonization, Number of fruits per plant, Fresh and dry fruit weights per plant in pots. The highest mycorrhizal root colonization 78% and dry fruit weight 51.2 g/plant obtained by inoculation of MC3 consortium with 75%RDF in pots. The inoculation of MC3 consortium with 75% RDF enhanced the soil microbial populations under field conditions. This consortium recorded maximum per cent of nitrogen uptake(2.205%) and gave highest dry chilli yields of 3409.7 kg/ha with a saving of 25% of chemical fertilizers. Over-all the mixed microbial consortium MC3 considered being the balanced combination of different microorganisms for achieving maximum output in the cultivation of Chilli in vertisols of India.

  4. Savitha, T., Murugan, K . and Thangamariappan, K

    The present study was carried out to detect the prevalence of Urinary Tract Infection (UTI) and antibacterial susceptibility pattern of isolated uropathogens at Erode district from May 2009 – July 2009. A total number of 300 patients (157 males and 143 females) in the age group ranging from 1 – 70 years were examined. Among them, only 94 persons exhibited significant bacteiuria and 60 % of total isolated organisms were found to be gram negative while remaining 40 % were gram positive. Among gram negative species, Escherichia coli (48.04 %) and gram positive coagulase negative Staphylococcus (15.67%) and Enterococcus (14.71%) were the most prevalent organisms. The antibiotic resistance of identified organisms was evaluated in which E.coli is more sensitive to Nitrofurantoin &Amikacin (69.39%) and is more resistant to Ampicillin (69.39%).

  5. Mohamed Sathick, M., Balasubramanian, A and Syed Mohamed, M

    In this paper, we propose an intelligent and robust system for forest fire detection using wireless sensor network. The intelligent system consists of three different neural network classifiers to overcome the problem of training and testing under conditions of insufficient and noisy data. The aim of using three classifiers in the intelligent system is that classification in this forest fire context is extremely important as the cost of misclassification using a single classifier is very high. Hence, a combination of their beliefs by Dempster– Shafer evidence combination which provides a representation of epistemic plausibility overcomes weaknesses exhibited by anyone classifier to a particular data set and helps to detect the forest fire accurately. The combination approach provides a higher accuracy in detecting and forecasting forest fire more promptly. The experimental results show the combination approach yield better accuracy in predicting the forest fire.

  6. Merriliance, K and Mohamed Sathik, M

    With the rapid development of virtual processing and internet technologies a great number of objects are being moving in every movement. Therefore it is necessary to develop the list of the closest features between all pairs of objects must be checked for collision. Collision checking must be performed on all object pairs because it is not known which objects will be collided in non immersive virtual environment. The set of object pairs that have to be checked for collisions is constructed based on the static model of the virtual objects that "co-exist" with one another. This paper presents an investigation of various collision detection algorithms and has been carried out the discussion of comparing these techniques. A user study of these was performed which revealed their characteristics and deficiencies of objects in the non immersive virtual world, and led to the development of a new class of techniques. These analytical studies provide distinct advantages in terms of ease of use and efficiency because they consider the tasks of collision detection in various objects in the VR world.

  7. Lincy Mary Ponmani, S, Selvarajan, P, Balasundari, N and Jencylin, D

    In this work, the amino acid family material viz. Bis β-Alanine Picrate(BBAP) was synthesized and single crystals of the synthesized bis β-alanine picrate were grown by adopting slow evaporation technique. The crystals are yellow in color and are transparent. The grown crystals were subjected to various characterization techniques such as X-ray diffraction analysis, FTIR analysis and TG / DTA analyses, SHG studies, UV-vis transmittance studies etc. The crystal structure of the grown crystals was found to be orthorhombic. By FTIR spectral analysis, the functional groups present in the compound have been identified. Thermal analysis was carried out to ascertain the thermal stability and mechanical strength was analyzed by measuring microhardness of the grown BBAP crystals.

  8. Saratha, R, Saranya Devi, M., Meenakshi, H.N and Shyamala, R.

    Inhibition of mild steel corrosion in 0.5M H2SO4 of Tecoma stans (leaves) has been studied using various investigation techniques such as weight loss, gasometric and polarization methods of monitoring corrosion. The influence of storage condition on inhibition efficiency of Tecoma stans extract was also studied. The result of the study revealed that the extract act as a potent inhibitor on mild steel in acid medium. The inhibition activity was confirmed by the different techniques and the inhibition efficiency of the extract increased with increasing concentration of the extract. The adsorption of the extract was found to be spontaneous and its adsorption characteristics were comparatively approximated by Langmuir, Temkin and Freundlich isotherms. Polarization studies showed that the extract is a mixed type inhibitor. The inhibition efficiency changes with storage period at lower concentration of the inhibitor.

  9. Sekar, S and Paramanathan, E.

    In this paper, the Single-Term Haar Wavelet series (STHW) is used to study the periodic and oscillatory problems. Results obtained using STHW and classical fourth order Runge-Kutta (RK) methods are compared with the exact solutions of the periodic and oscillatory problems. The results obtained using STHW are found to be very closer to the exact solutions of these problems. Further, it is found that the STHW is superior when compared to RK method. Error graphs for the obtained results and exact solutions are presented in a graphical form to highlight the efficiency of this method. This STHW can be easily implemented in a digital computer and the solution may be obtained for any length of time.

  10. Parthiban, P and Muniyan, M

    The contamination of water by metal compounds is an environmental problem. The present study is aimed to investigate biochemical studies in the liver tissue of fresh water fish Cirrhinus mrigala exposed to sublethal concentration of nickel. In the present study, the activity of Aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) in the liver tissue were observed. During the sublethal concentration of nickel, the Aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) were increased in the liver tissue. These results indicate the concentration of nickel damage the liver tissue of Cirrhinus mrigala.

  11. Dibyendu Talukdar

    Response of three stable dwarf mutant lines, namely dwf1, dwf2 and dwf3 to 170mM NaCl treatment was studied in comparison with untreated dwarf lines (positive control or PC) and treated mother varieties (used as negative control or NC) from 20d old seedling stage to maturity in grass pea (Lathyrus sativus L.). The three mutants differed significantly from both controls and also, from each other by onset of flowering, flower and pod production, their abortion, pollen fertility, different seed yield components, leaf injury level, plant dry weight and seed neurotoxin (β-ODAP) contents under salt stress. Among the five types of genotypes, dwf1 and dwf2 showed tolerance, while dwf3 was considered as a salt-sensitive line. Among the five genotypes, NC plants were the least tolerance to NaCl treatment.

  12. Godwin-Egein, M.I.

    In the course of an isolation procedure some consistent gap was observed between Geotrichum candidrum and Fusarium oxysporum in overgrown dilution plates. This behaviour was investigated. G. candidum and F. oxysporum were isolated in pure culture. The organisms were plated diametrically, 4cm apart in 9cm Petri dishes, on ripe plantain peel agar, unripe plantain peel agar, cassava peel agar, sweet potato peel agar, yam peel agar, orange peel agar and cocoyam peel agar. The plates were inocubated at 25°C for 15 days. Growth towards the centre and the gap between the two fungi were measured. Geotrichum candidum grew better than Fusarium oxysparum on all the media except on cassava peel agar where F. oxysporum grew better. The gap between the organisms was affected by media. The gap may be due to some unascertained factor(s). No clear zone of influence was observed.

  13. Suganthy, K., Pradipta Kumar Mohanty., Lakshmi Prabha, S. and Shanmugapriya, V

    Objective: To investigate the relationship between circulating Thyroid Stimulating Hormone level and adiposity in a cohort of people having normal thyroid function. Methods: Retrospective cross-sectional analysis was carried out on 104 Euthyroid female patients. Forty Euthyroid females with (BMI <23 kg/m2) and Sixty four Euthyroid females with (BMI >23 kg/m2 subjects were included in the study group. TSH, Thyroxine (T4), Triiodothyronine (T3), fasting glucose, Total cholesterol, Triglyceride, High Density lipoprotein-Cholesterol, body weight, height and Body Mass Index (BMI) were assessed. Results: Serum TSH levels were higher in the obese than in the lean Euthyroid subjects. In the study group II, there was a significant positive correlation between serum TSH and body weight (r = 0.43, p =0.0003), BMI (r = 0.53, p=0.0001).There was also positive correlation between serum TSH and Total Cholesterol, Triglyceride but statistically not significant. Conclusions: This study strongly supports evidence that serum TSH levels are positively correlated with the degree of obesity and some of its metabolic consequences in overweight people with normal thyroid function.

  14. Theriappan, P. and Dhasarathan, P.

    Drought and salinity are major abiotic stress factors that severely affect agricultural systems and food production. Many plant species including most important crops are subjected to growth inhibitions under high NaCl conditions. In the present study, seeds of ten different rice genotypes were allowed to germinate and grow in the absence (control) and presence of different concentrations (50mM, 100mM, 150mM and 200mM) of NaCl. The varieties ASD-16, ADT-36 and ADT-43 show higher percentage of reduction in germination than IR-50, JGL-1728 and MDU-5. After 5days, 10days and 15days of salt treatment, the seedlings were harvested and the shoot length and root length measured. Ten days old seedlings were transferred to 50mM and 100mM of NaCl and accumulation of proline was monitored after 12, 24, 48, 72 and 96 hours. The rice varieties IR-50, JGL-1728, MDU-5 and ADT-43 show better tolerance against other varieties.

  15. Rajendran, A., Krishnasamy, K and Kabilan, S

    The UV and fluorescence spectra of 2,4-quinolinediol (2,4-QDOL) were recorded in nine different solvents. Multiple regression analysis of 2,4-QDOL showed that the alcoholic solvent effect is best interpreted interms of Taft’s polar substituent constant (*), Kirkwood function of the dielectric constant (E¬s). The effects of solvent polarity and the extent of hydrogen bond on the absorption spectra of 2,4-QDOL were best interpreted by means of linear solvation energy relationships proposed by Kamlet and Taft. The Stoke’s shift of fluorescence spectra correlated with theoretically derived solvent parameters ET(30) and BK values.

  16. Maleeka Begum, S.F and Kavitha

    The exocarp of Garcinea mangostana was dissolved in various organic solvents namely Methanol, Ethanol and Butanol was tested for antimicrobial, antiproliferative and/or cytotoxic activity. Significant antimicrobial activity was found with Garcinea mangostana against Pseudomonas aeroginosa and Staphylococcus aureus. The extracts were also found to possess antifungal activity against Candida albicans. Out of different extracts tested, methanolic extract was found to be the most active against Pseudomonas aeruginosa followed by S. aureus and P.mirablis. Total Polyphenolic content ranged from 102.4to 138.6mg GAE/g of extract. Among the three solvent extracts, methanol extract showed maximum Polyphenol content at 6 hr extraction time followed by ethanol and butanol respectively. The extractive yield of sample was higher in methanol, compared to ethanol and butanol. The yield obtained decreased with decrease in polarity. The LD50 values of the plant extract against HEp2 cells was determined by MTT assay. The LD50 value of Garcinea mangostana was ≥ 120µg,92 µg and 85 µg for, methanol, ethanol, and butanol extracts respectively and the study revealed that the exocarp possessed free radical scavenging activity. Methanolic extract, Ethanolic extract, Butanolic extract were found to reduce the GSH level than the control. TBARS of stress induced HEp2 cells was reduced in the presence of Ethanolic extract and Butanolic extract. All extracts were found to reduce GPx activity.

  17. Fallahchai, M.M, Halil Barış ÖZEL and Murat ERTEKİN

    Biodiversity and its natural process in different ecosystems contribute to the correct understanding of the interrelationships between the land, climate, plants and other living things. Through biodiversity, it is possible to plan the utility patterns of natural resources by referring to its component parts. The forests of north of Iran (with an area of 1.8 square kilometers) belong to the Hycranian or deciduous broad-leaf forests and possesses a temperate and humid climate. They are of great importance in Iran because of their uniqueness in plant community, ecological, genetic and species diversity. As only a small per cent of the plants in Iran is located in Europe, Siberia, Caspian sea coasts and the forests of north of Iran, the number of tree species and shrubs reaches to more than 80 and 50 respectively. Besides, since the majority of the forests of north of Iran are mountainous and have a high diversity of woody species a study of the trees species of the Hycranian forests can prove to be very useful and of highest importance. For this purpose, 18 sample plots 0.5 hectare have been randomly chosen and surveyed in different altitudes between 50-1900 m of Siahkal Forests. The results obtained from the analysis of this survey, indicates that with increase in altitude from sea level, species richness decrease while species diversity and evenness continue to rise so that the maximum species diversity is observed at the altitude range of 100-700 m above sea level and the least diversity of species is observed above 700 m altitude.

  18. Citarasu, T, Alfred Dhas, K., Velmurugan, S., Thanga Viji, V., Kumaran, T., Michael Babu, M. and Selvaraj, T.

    A wide range of pathogens is associated with ornamental fish diseases. Among the bacteria, Aeromonas hydrophila causes disease under stress conditions or in concert with infection by other pathogens in ornamental fish. The present study was undertaken to the Aeromonas hydrophila pathogenesis of goldfish (Carrassius auratus) and Koi (Cyprinus carpio koi), during massive fish disease outbreaks in various infected ornamental fish hatcheries in Kanyakumari District, Tamilnadu, India. Also the virulence factors such as protease, proteolytic activity and haemolytic activity was studied the virulence strains compared with the non-virulent A. hydrophila strains. The virulent A. hydrophila was challenged with the fingerlings of ornamental fish and the virulence was discussed.

  19. Sangeetha, S and Dhayanand John Victor

    Regeneration of periodontal tissues has been the ultimate goal of periodontal therapy. Conventional therapies may result only in repair of the periodontal tissues. Numerous regenerative techniques utilising autogenous bone grafts, allografts had been devised but they have significant limitations. Improved understanding of cellular and molecular biology of periodontal wound healing has lead to the application of exogenous growth factors in periodontal defects as they play a critical role in cellular events. Experimental studies utilizing recombinant human growth factors like platelet derived growth factor, bone morphogenetic protein supports periodontal regeneration using minimally invasive techniques. These biological molecules can be conjugated to tissue-engineered carrier constructs, which are artificial analogues of extracellular matrix. These carrier matrices protect, localize and release the recombinant proteins at the appropriate time . This review article highlights the role of various recombinant growth factors and the carrier constructs in periodontal wound healing and its limitations in clinical use.

  20. Iroha, I.R., Oji, A.E. and Ayogu, T.E.

    Between June 2008- May 2009 we analyzed the antibiotic susceptibility profile of one hundred and fifty (150) K. pneumoniae strains isolated from different clinical samples (urine= 72, high vaginal swab (HVS)=12, sputum=50 and wound swab= 16) from patients visiting University of Nigeria teaching hospital (UNTH) Enugu. All samples were analyzed and organisms isolated using standard Microbiology techniques, antibiotic susceptibility testing was carried out as described in the manual of antibiotic susceptibility testing. Clonal relatedness of resistance strains of K. pneumoniae from different samples was determined by randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD). Antibiotic susceptibility studies revealed that Klebsiella pneumoniae strains from wound samples were the most susceptible strains followed by HVS, sputum and urine. The overall susceptibility proflie are as follows; imipenem (100%), amikacin (100%), cefoxitin (99.4%), aztreonam (98%), ceftazidime (98%), cefotaxime (96.7%), amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (96%), ciprofloxacin (96%), tobramycin (93.3%), kanamycin (90%), cefuroxime (86.7%), gentamicin (76%), sulphamethoxazole/trimethoprim (22%), chloramphenicol (15.4%) and ampicillin (5%). RAPD analysis to determine the clonal relatedness of resistance strains grouped them into two clusters (A and B) based on band patterns. All strains resistant to ampicillin and chloramphenicol showed 100% similarity in band patterns (clonal group A) while strains resistant to sulphamethoxazole/trimethoprim showed different band patterns (clonal group B). Our findings revealed high resistant ampicillin, chloramphenicol and sulphamethoxazole/trimethroprim Klebsiella pneumoniae strains from different clinical strains belonging to two clusters. These resistant strains may have some public health implications as their spreading is not from single source.

  21. Okonkwo, C.J. and Njoku, O.U.

    The leaves of Ocimum gratissimum (OG) were assayed for its phytochemical, vitamin and essential mineral content. Also, ethanol leaf extract of OG was investigated for antioxidant activity against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced oxidative stress in Wistar albino rats. Plasma lipid peroxidation inhibition and activities of the antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathaine peroxidase (GPx) were used as antioxidant indices, while Vitamin E (1000 IU, d-alpha-tocopheryl acetate soft-gel capsule) served as reference. Phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of Flavonoids, terpenoids, alkaloids and glycosides. The mean levels of zinc (Zn), manganese (Mn), copper (Cu) and iron (Fe) were 1.54, 6.16, 4.76 and 21.16 ppm, respectively, while those of beta-carotene, vitamins C and E were 0.222  0.02, 1.59  0.15 and 19.96  0.69 mg/100g. Result of the bioassay demonstrated that the CCl4-intoxicated rats were subjected to oxidative stress as indicated by low activities of their antioxidant enzymes; SOD (54.0  8 U/l), GPx (67254  1790 U/l) and high plasma lipid peroxidation index (61.86  4.09 µg/ml) when compared with normal control rats value of 202.5  23 U/l, 81497  1012 U/l and 48.78  8.04 µg/ml, respectively. The ethanol extract of O. gratissimum leaf reversed this situation as shown by the increased activity of the antioxidant enzymes and lipid peroxidation inhibition. The results indicated that ethanol extract of O. gratissium leaf significantly protected the rats from CCl4-induced oxidative stress. Furthermore, its antioxidant effect is dose-related.

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