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May 2011

In survival analysis, the Cox PH model is a breakthrough in that the effects of the covariates on survival times have been studied, by fitting models using the sample data. Once a model has been fitted, there are a number of aspects of the fit of the model that need to be studied. One of the model checking procedures is based on quantities known as residuals, such as Cox-Snell residuals, Schoenfeld residuals etc. TB Meningitis is one of the diseases which mainly affect children.

This paper discusses the extent of underground economy in Malaysia, with a special reference to smuggling activities in Penang. Although the impact of underground economy on developed countries could be minor but it has a serious implication on developing countries. Nonetheless, the study about underground economy is relative scarce. By focusing on the smuggling activities, this study attempts to measure the extent of underground economy in Malaysia. The data are from the confiscated and contrabands smuggled to Malaysia, but limited to cases observed in Penang.

We propose a solution to determine the optimal elastic matching of a deformable template to an image. The central idea is to cast the optimal matching of each template point to a corresponding image pixel as a problem of finding a minimum cost cyclic path in the three-dimensional product space as well as in four-dimensional product space spanned by the template and the input image.

Over the time, the profitability of the course programs should be monitored and the corresponding Organization Development Intervention (ODI) on the marketing strategies should be assessed. This study involved marketing strategy interventions on the course programs offered.The results of the study showed significant improvements in the obtained t-values. Marketing strategies on Course program operation improved with an average obtained t-value of 5.81. Marketing strategies on Leadership improved with an average obtained t-value of 5.91.

Islamic banks are said to possess ethical identity because their social goals are just as important if not more important than financial goals because of the fact that they are based on religious foundations, i.e. the Islamic Shari’ah which has as its ultimate goal, the betterment of society. Islamic banks are thus expected to portray a high level of corporate social responsibility which would be evident in their social reporting practices as evidenced in their annual reports.

Children are victims of disenfranchised grief because of their age factor and the circumstances of some deaths (e.g. AIDS related deaths, suicide, criminal offences). The school is the child’s second home and thus an important grieving ground for the bereaved child. The school community interacts with the bereaved child, hence it has a role to play in the child’s grief process. At the same time, mourning process is necessary for one to cope with bereavement. During the mourning process children have grieving needs.

For many years, academic performance among learners in primary schools has been inclined towards gender orientation. Boys have performed impressively in mathematics and sciences while their female counterparts have done quite well in languages. This study sought to investigate the effects of gender role stereotyping on academic aspirations of primary school pupils. The study adopted the descriptive survey research design. The study population comprised of the 62 primary schools in Butula district of Western province in Kenya.

The present study analyzed the agricultural infrastructure and level of modernization among the rural farmers during the 80’s. The Main Sources of data were based on primary and secondary data. Primary data was collected from 100 respondents during the authors’ M.Phil research period (1990-91). The geographical data was collected from the statistical office at Madurai. The questionnaire information was suitably converted into tables. Simple statistical techniques were extremely employed to analyze the data and determination of the findings.

This study explores why women in India experiences of impact of partners presence and absence in their professional perception. Two focus groups were conducted in Tamil and English language with working high profile (class-I level) women of Institutions and other organizations. 50 married and 50 single women (widow) participated with a mean age of 42 years (range 29–52years). Normative survey method was adopted in this study. The study was carried out with five dimensions are 1) Professional competency2) Professional qualities 3) Professional attitude. 4) Professional psychology.

The present investigation is intended to study the profession development of geography teachers high schools from perception of the class room teacher and how far the professional development is enabled to the students for better of their education. The scale of profession commitment and profession perspectives is constructed. Samples from 444 high schools geography teachers with normative survey and purposive sampling method. Statistical techniques were applied to draw the result.

Thum is amorphous because it has broadened its corpus to include not only the Luo lyre, but also the fiddle, accordion and guitar musics unlike what was before the coming of Europeans. The introduction of the acquired instruments became a threat to the well-being of thum. To counteract the threat, thum players adopted the trappings of the acquired instruments, reduced the size, painted the resonator, and tuned it to an octave higher than before.

Tero Buru was one of the Luo rites of passage performed at the funerals of adult members of the community. As a funeral rite, it was performed as the last rite before the body of the deceased is washed and taken to the grave for burial. It was similar to the requiem, the contemporary Church Service performed by Priests at funerals of the deceased Christian believers in the Luo territory. In Tero Buru the eldest son of the deceased played a leading role.

This study aims to investigate EFL learners’ viewpoints toward English test delivered in different modes; namely, computer-adaptive test (CAT), computer-based test (CBT) and conventional paper-pencil test (PPT). The participants were forty-nine (N=49) students from two colleges in Taiwan who had experience of taking all these three types of English tests. Additionally, five graduate students were invited to validate the contents of AHP questionnaire. Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) was the major research method employed by the present study to construct the framework of research.

This paper titled “Partnering of Entrepreneurship and Information Technology (IT) for a better world” , considers the possible inherent entrepreneurial nature of IT; how to foster IT innovation; and examination of the inherent difficulties currently found within the IT of Nigerian Universities in regards to supporting the development of innovative and creative ideas. Case study and survey were used as methodology for the research. Close to 200 students participated in the survey with each student answering ten multiple choice questions.

The theoretical relationship between FDI and export growth can be explained by using the flying geese model, Vernon’s product life cycle theory and the new growth model. These three theories have different explanations of FDI flows; however, they all agree that FDI has an influence on the recipient economy. First, MNE subsidiaries exploit the host country’s factor endowments for lowering production costs to increase their export competitiveness. Therefore, the host country’s export expansion by MNE subsidiaries is to be expected (capacity-increasing effect).

Qualitative approach and case study design was used to get rich and in depth information from respondents on how counseling helps them make decisions as they prepare to go back to their communities after school. The study was conducted in the current Butula District which was previously known as Busia District in Western province. 5 teachers and 50 young adults and their parents were selected for the study. Interview guides were used to collect data.

Over the past two decades, there has been an explosion in the number of civil society organizations in Kenya. The rapid increase has been as result of development gaps left by the government, which needs to be filled; significantly as well there has been increased competition for the scarce donor funds among Civil Society Organizations (CSOs) which donors prefers currently to be utilized on intangible projects like capacity building, while on the other hand the community prefer physical projects like construction of school which answers their needs directly.

‘Field experiment was conducted during 2008 to 2009 to evolve the suitable planting techniques for yield maximization of sugarcane.

This paper considers various models for first birth interval to a married woman with an aim to pick up a model which is best fit. For fitting the various models, the Bayes estimates of the parameters involved in the models are obtained using WinBUGS based on the Markov Chain Monte Carlo technique. The comparison of the models regarding their fitness is made on the basis of DIC criterion. The data used in the present study is taken from National Family Health Survey III Uttar Pradesh.

The study conducted here was to investigate the gene and protein expression of Toll like receptor 9 when human bronchial epithelial cells were induced by lipopolysaccharide. TLRs are pattern recognition receptor (PRR) which plays a key role in innate immunity. They recognise the molecules that are shared by pathogens but distinguishes from the host which is referred to as pathogen associated molecular patterns (PAMPs). The HBECs were first cultured and once it becomes confluent they were induced with 10ng/ml of LPS.

In this work, we report a combined experimental and theoretical study on molecular structure, Vibrational spectra and NBO analysis of tranexamic acid (TA). The FT-Raman and FT-IR spectra of TA wear recorded in the solid phase. The molecular geometry, harmonic vibrational frequencies and bonding features of TA in the ground state have been calculated by using density functional method (B3LYP) with standard 6-31G (d,p) basis set. Stability of the molecule arising from hyper conjugative interactions, charge delocalization has been analyzed using natural bond orbital (NBO) analysis.

This review article will present the concrete educational, research strategies and a discussion of the genetics into the dental curriculum. Dentists are now entering the era in which genetics and genomics will play a vital role in both oral health research and dental practice. Dental professionals should understand the basic concept of genetics and genetic disorders that contribute to common dental concerns where more than 300 genes have so far been associated with tooth development is under strict genetic control.

Adenocarcinoma is the most common type of lung cancer, making up 30%-40% of all cases. Recently PET (Positron emission tomography) scan has played remarkable role to identify lung adenocarcinoma as well as the progression of disease in metastatic stage.

This investigation examines uptake of heavy metals, Zinc and Nickel in the tissues of the fish, Cyprinus carpio exposed to lethal and sublethal concentrations of Singanallur waste water for 3,10 & 20 days. The concentration of zinc varied from 0.29mg / gm to 0.72mg / gm (Liver), 0.56mg / gm to 0.58mg / gm (Kidney), 0.33mg / gm to 0.52mg / gm (Muscle) and Nickel concentration was varied from 0.54mg / gm to 1.60mg / gm (Liver), 10.81mg / gm to 3.63mg / gm (Kidney) and 0.75mg / gm to 1.31mg / gm (Muscle).

Medicinal plants have been reported to play an important role in modulating glycemic responses and has preventive and therapeutic implications for certain conditions such as diabetes, hyperlipedemia etc. Costus igneus. Nak known to possess hypoglycemic effect was supplemented to streptozotocin induced diabetic rats and compared with that of conventional hypoglycemic agents (Insulin and Glibenclamide). Costus igneus powder at a level of 500mg/kg body weight, reduced blood glucose in the animals by 37% after 45 days of supplementation.

Carrier based preparations of Azospirillum lipoferum (AZ 204) inoculant, developed using two different sources of biochar (acacia wood and coconut shell) were evaluated in comparison with lignite for their suitability as a best alternate to lignite for biofertilizer production. The survival of the microbial inoculant was estimated over a period of 180 days. Among the different carriers, coconut shell based biochar recorded a maximum population of log 10.79 cfu g-1 of carrier on 180 days after inoculation with a maximum moisture content of 25.22%.

Results obtained using multifactorial stress model (air-exposure, submergence, hypoxia) showed that elevation of RBC, HB, Ht and blood glucose was linearly correlated with progressive stress uniformly. Submergence caused rapid stress with blood glucose reaching 50% elevation within 60 min. Hypoxic water with access to air had very little effect on blood glucose. Similarly, lowering the temperature significantly affected the blood parameters. The air-exposure model was also used for testing lysozyme activity and phagocytosis assay during stress.

Edible vaccines or Food Vaccine hold great promise as an easy-to-administer, cost-effective, easy-to-store, and socio-culturally willingly acceptable vaccine delivery for the developing countries. Edible vaccines offer exciting opportunities for significantly reducing the burden of diseases like hepatitis, cholera & measles, mainly in the developing world where the administrating & storage of vaccines is at major concern.

Jhansi which is situated in Central part of India of Bundelkhand region of Uttar Pradesh, India having two rivers namely Betwa and Pahuj in East and West part of the city respectively. The present investigation was carried out on both of the river to find out the assessment of water quality. The sampling locations were chosen carefully in order to get maximum representation of the diverse eco-hydrological environments within the river system. Our investigation showed that the water of Betwa and Pahuj River are alkaline in nature with higher concentration of cations.

Soil properties are governed by biotic and abiotic components including land use management. Hyphae of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) are considered to be primary soil nutrient promoters and there is a positive correlation between AMF hyphae and soil fertility in natural systems. Both past and recent evidences prove that, these symbiotic fungi are present in most terrestrial ecosystems especially in tropics and play a major role in both the growth of plants and important ecosystem processes. AM has a cementing capacity to maintain soil health.

Ageing is a complex phenomenon accompanied by physiological, psychological and sound changes which often results in a decline in health status (Hemalatha, 1999). Ageing is a continuous process that begins with conception and ends with death. Ageing is not a disease but a biological process (Henry, 2000). Ageing is a gradual developmental process of biological, psychological, sociological and behavioural change that begins at the moment when an individual is born (Chandrasekhar and Bhooma, 1999).

The extent of bioavailability of iron and zinc from meals is of great health concern since these micronutrients play key role in mental performance and immune response in human beings. In this study the bioavailability of iron and zinc from maize and bean composite was investigated and found to at 13% for iron and 27.7% for zinc. The inclusion of cabbage enhanced the bioavailability of both to 98.8% and 83.9% respectively to the extent that the differences in the concentrations of iron and zinc in the non-digested and digested samples were not significant (iron, p=0.12 : Zinc, p=0.263).

The exploitation of AM fungi is highly significant to massive crop improvement programmes. It is important to withstand drought in the nursery and in the field. Improved growth of many crops, resistance of plants to drought stress and root pathogens due to application of AM fungi was emphasized by many workers. Considerable research efforts have been made to demonstrate that Mycorrhizal and N2 fixing symbionts benefit the plant growth and these two symbionts can be used in agriculture to improve nursery quality and subsequent growth in the field.

Heavy metal contamination in the aquatic environment is a potential threat for aquatic organisms, when exposed to significant amounts of metals as consequences of industrial, agricultural and anthropological activities. Heavy metals at high concentrations can cause harmful effects on metabolic, physiological, and biochemical systems of fishes and it causes long-term eco-toxicological effects.

The potential use of seasonal climate forecasts in farm and resource management has been studied in a number of cultural contexts around the world. Many of these studies reveal difficulties that smallholders encounter in accessing, interpreting and applying forecasts for their own benefit. This study looked at the awareness of and usage of climate forecast information in central Kenya in the aftermath of the 1997/98 El Niño event. Household surveys were conducted in Machakos District, Kenya, in January 2001.

The ever-increasing demand in the use of software in business, industry, administration, games and researches have made software engineering and development more complex. This calls for the need for higher-level abstraction of software systems in order to develop real-world systems that meets the new challenges facing software engineering and development process. This paper presents component-based software engineering (CBSE) as a solution to the complexities facing software usability and applicability.

The Model Based Testing is one of the modern automated testing methodologies used to generate test suites automatically from the abstract behavioral or environmental models of the System Under Test (SUT). The Model based testing can be applied in different ways and it has several dimensions during implementation that can changes with nature of the SUT. With the automatic generation of test cases, requirements change is very easy to handle with the model based testing as it requires fewer changes in the models and reduces rework.

Software provides a means for productive activities of man and industries. Indeed the strength, intelligence and vastness of the use of computer lie on the software. Sequel to the above, this paper discusses the component- based system development life cycle, reusability and identifies the acquisition and elicitation of requirements in combination with COTS selection as a multi- criteria decisions process which possess great problem. It suggests the use of cyclic life cycle paradigm as a solution to this great problem.

A study was undertaken to econometrically analyse the association between the socio-economic characteristics of farm women and the extent of their participation in dairy cow keeping. The sample households consisted of 30 women respondents each from the categories of landless, marginal, small and large farmers in the Namakkal district of Tamil Nadu.

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