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August 2011

The false-positive PCR DNA fragments are often obtained due to many factors. Whether the DNA fragments were the target need to be identified by some methods, such as electrophoresis, sequencing eta. Here, we describe a simple PCR amplified products indentified method by endonuclease enzyme digestion. The DNA fragments were amplified by PCR method, then digested by endonuclease enzymes that determined by internet Software. If the digested products were consistent with the analysis of Software, they were sequenced further.

The present study describes the antimicrobial activity of the acetone, ethanol and petroleum ether extracts of the leaves, stem and root of Aristolochia bracteolata Lam. using agar diffusion method against human pathogenic bacteria, such as Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillus aureus and Klebsiella pneumoniae. In the present research, all the extracts were found to be effective against four human bacterial species, E.coli, P.aeruginosa, K.pneumoniae and B.aureus sensitive to all the plant extracts.

Environmental dynamics with a view of understanding the nutrient fluxes and the factors regulating phytoplankton production, in waters off Bhavnagar, Gulf of Khambhat, were investigated during 1996-2007. The coastal waters of Bhavnagar revealed normal pH (7.97±0.12) and enhanced DO (4.81±1.47 ml/l) level. The fluctuation of salinity (29.7 ± 4.21 ppt) was due to freshwater influx through several rivers.

Considering the existence of rice and wheat rotation on 50 thousand hectares of Khuzestan province and the necessity of efficient use of soil, crop year study period (2009-2010) in the city were examined Shoushtar. This research project as chopped blocks in a randomized complete block with three replications was carried out.

Cleaning validation is an integral part of current good manufacturing practices in any Biopharmaceutical industry. Drug products usually get contaminate with residue of other drug products or cleaning agents manufactured in the same equipments, if the cleaning procedure is not proper. We studied the cleaning validation of GCSF Injection on three consecutive batches in multi product manufacturing facility. Various acceptance limits for product carryover was calculated based on 0.1 % of therapeutic dose, 10 ppm and 1/1000 Therapeutic daily dose of the drug.

Biodiversity of halophilic phosphate solubilizing bacteria were assessed from root, rhizosphere soil, non-rhizosphere soil and water from Manakkudi mangrove ecosystem of South West Coast of India. Nine phosphobacterial species Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus megaterium, Micrococcus roseus, Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli, Arthrobacter illicis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterobacter aerogenes and Micrococcus luteus were identified.

In this paper least cost design of a prismatic simple supported singly reinforced rectangular beam with varied spans of 5m, 7m, 9m, 11m and 13m and uniform concentrated load of 100KN based on flexural constraint of the American Concrete Institute (ACI 318/95) is reported. The cost function of the beam was developed based on the unit costs of 1:2:4 concrete mix, formwork, steel and link reinforcements. The unit cost of 1:2:4 concrete mix used was 30,000 per m3 of concrete, 1,000 per m2 of formwork, 300 per kg of steel reinforcement.

Conservation of mangrove through improved mangrove nursery technologies using bacterial bio-fertilizers will be appropriate solution for deforestation. Members of the genus Paenibacillus widely reported for its nitrogen fixing character from various environments. In this study we identified a halophilic nitrogen fixing bacterium from Pichavaram mangrove rhizosphere soil of Avicennia marina, which is dominant flora in the forest.

AM fungi is the most abundant kind of mycorrhizae and develops association with most of the plant species in the earth and enhances the growth and development of associated plants through the transport of required nutrients from the non-rhizosphere soil particularly phosphorus. The plants like sugarcane needs association of AM fungi to overcome ‘P’ deficiency due to its long standing periods in the same rhizosphere soil and leads to depletion of ‘P’ in the rhizosphere soil.

Plant Galls are external expression of mysterious interaction between two biological entities namely, the insects and the plants. It is abnormal, uncontrolled, largely independent growth of the host tissues which arise under the influence of an external stimulus. The growth of the host tissues by means of hyperplasy, hypertrophy and hypoplasy. Guru Nanak College is a semi arid dry Scrub Jungle harbours a few curious morphologically diversified plant galls on different plant species with specific plant organs.

The course timetabling problem is a special version of the optimization problem and it is computationally NP-hard. In this paper two methods one using binary weight and another one using normal weight instead of binary weight to teachers have been presented. Genetic algorithm in which selective two point multiple years crossover and mutation cum sequential evaluation (SMCMSE) algorithm is introduced in both the methods and test results have been compared. Both of them are proved to be useful in solving College Department as well as entire Institution Timetabling problem.

To determine the effect of ‘flare’ spreader size on the fracture resistance of mandibular premolar roots prepared using variable taper rotary files. Crowns of 50 mandibular first premolars having no carious lesions, devoid of any aberrant anatomy were resected 2mm coronal to the cemento-enamel junction. Root canals were prepared in different groups: 1. No canal preparation. 2. Preparation using crown down technique to a size F2 MAF with no obturation performed. 3.

Glutathione- S -Transferase (GST) might be involved in the initial reduction of arsenate to arsenite and subsequent oxidative methylation (Sampayo 2000, Zakharyan 2001). Humans with null genotype of GST M1 and T1 have been considered to be a high risk group of people who retain arsenic in their body due to incomplete metabolism of arsenic.In order to elucidate the relationship among clinical severity, urinary excretion of arsenic and genetic polymorphisms of GST M1 and T1, a total of 100 study subjects were recruited from the villages of southern region of WestBengal, India.

This paper is based on a study to determine Vitamin A, C and riboflavin content of red marrow from Good and Choice grade steers so that the nutritional contribution of marrow to Mechanically Separated Meat (MSM) could be more fully defined. Vitamin A analysis was also performed on ten liver samples from the same steers to more fully define the nutritional status of the animals. Total vitamin A of twelve marrow samples ranged from 9,057-24,727 IU/l00g with a mean of 13,927. Vitamin C values of sixteen marrow samples ranged from 3.05-4.63 mg/l00g with a mean of 3.67.

Mechanisms that afforestation projects in Nyando River Basin had put in place for sustainability of afforestation activities were explored. Data was collected from 150 respondents who were selected from a sample population of 1,928 households using systematic random sampling technique. Data was collected using a standardized questionnaire, Focus Group Discussions (FGDs) and Key Informant Interviews.

Probiotics are defined as “live microorganisms which when administered in adequate amounts confer a health benefit on the host”. The rationale for probiotics is that the body contains miniature ecology of microbes, collectively known as the gut flora. At present it is generally recognized that an optimum ‘balance’ of microbial population in our digestive tract is associated with good nutrition and health. Bermuda grass is abundantly found in our country. Its botanical name is Cynodon dactylon. Bermuda grass juice has wonderful medicinal properties.

Fish cultures are especially at risk to the adverse effects of stress. Blood chemistry and hematological measurements can provide valuable physiological indices that may offer critical feedback on different stressors. Blood samples were collected from the finger lings of Cyprinus carpio after subjected to stressors and parameters such as Hemoglobin, RBC, and WBC and activated neutrophils were estimated for 0,6,24 and 48 hours. Fishes were treated with Stresroak immersion in four concentration ie ,10, 20, 30 and 40mg/l.

Salinity is one of the major abiotic factors which limit the plant growth. The purpose of present investigation is to study the responses of the finger millet genotypes under saline condition at germination and seedling stage. Seeds were sown in Petri-dishes, lined with Whatman filter paper and moistened with 10 ml of saline solutions of different EC levels (viz. 3, 6, 7.2, 10, 12 and 14 dSm-1). The result showed a gradual and significant reduction in % germination at all salinity levels except in cv. Local Hills at 3 EC.

Critical analysis of community participation in the various stages of the project cycle of afforestation projects (Identification, Planning, Implementation and Monitoring and Evaluation) was done. Data was collected from 150 respondents who were selected from a sample population of 1,928 households using systematic random sampling technique. Data was collected using a standardized questionnaire, Focus Group Discussions (FGDs) and Key Informant Interviews and analysed using quantitative and qualitative techniques.

This paper presents an originally encryption system implemented on a structure of hybrid additive programmable cellular automata (HAPCA). As the development of cellular automata (CA) applications is generally an experimental effort, the research implies the exploration through simulation of the huge space of cellular automata local rules and global states. The encryption and decryption modules are identically and the cryptosystem is featured by its large key space and high speed due to cellular automata’s parallel information processing.

The purpose of this study was to forecast secondary schools enrolment in the year 2012 and the number of teachers who would be required to teach the forecasted students. The study was based in Nandi North and South Districts in the Rift Valley Province, Kenya. The survey design employed by the study was the descriptive survey. Purposive sampling technique was employed in choosing the sample size for the study. The sample for the study was the Education Officers in charge of Statistics and the Teachers Service Commission Unit representatives at the District Education Offices.

The struggle for independence in Kenya was won through the experience and struggle against oppression and brutal exploitation of the Kenyan people. The need to overthrow all forms of oppression and exploitation constitutes the emergence of a tradition of struggle for social and political rights. The agenda is far from complete, particularly in the face of the new challenges that have arisen in the wake of uncritical liberalization, naively embraced by the Kenyan system of governance and political leadership.

Participation in sports and games dates to antiquity and not a single theory or explanation can account for why humans continue to engage in sports. It is particularly important to understand why youths participate in sport as this may influence the formation of future lifestyle and inform the design of appropriate sport and recreation programmes to meet their interests and needs. This study undertaken to evaluate the factors, which influence college athletes’ intention to participate in sports.

In the context of the National policy of the Government of India of Empowering women to make them economically independent and self reliant on equal footing along with their counterparts, the paper examines the pattern of credit flow to the most weaker category of women in India referred as scheduled caste women.

This study investigated the relationship between the stock market returns and volatility in Nigerian stock market using the EGARCH – in–mean framework. To carry out this investigation, end of the month stock price data were sourced from the Nigerian stock Exchange Fact Book. The result reveals that the forecast of variance cannot be used to predict expected returns in the Nigerian stock market. The Nigerian stock market is volatile implying that there exists a high level of risk in stock trading.

In India, prevalence of HIV/AIDS is relatively high and very little is known in the context of HIV/AIDS related stigma and discrimination. To prevent HIV/AIDS associated stigma and discrimination, it is important to understand the factors related to stigma and discrimination towards People Living with HIV/AIDS (PLHAS) in India. A community based survey of 796 male youth in urban slum aged 18-23 years is conducted in Tamil Nadu.

The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of methanolic extract of Diacure a Polyherbal Formulation for antihyperlipidemic effects in Streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. Its effect was compared with that of glibenclamide, a reference antidiabetic drug. White albino male rats were administered With Diacure a Polyherbal Formulation (100mg /kg body wt) orally for 30 days.

This article focuses on the impact of mindset on the implementation of Performance-Based Reward System (PBRS) in secondary schools in Botswana. In order to understand the impact of mindset on the implementation of PBRS, the results of the study involving a sample of 200 teachers and ancillary staff selected from the ten secondary schools in Kgatleng district in Botswana were analysed and presented. The data was analyzed using statistical methods with the help of the SPSS statistical computer software.

This paper focuses on attitude towards Music and achievement in primary school. The author attempted to establish the existence of the relationship between pupils' attitude towards music and achievement in their end of year music assessment. It is based on a study that sought to: identify pupils' most prevalent attitudes towards Music; establish whether pupils' attitudes towards Music were related to their achievement, and the extent to which the attitudes were correlated to achievement.

Investigation of 10 commercial honeys from India was analyzed for quality according to the Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS) and Agricultural Marketing Adviser to the Government of India (AGMARK). Moisture content, total reducing sugars (TRS), sucrose, fructose-glucose ratio (FGR), acidity, Fiehe’s test, hydroxymethyl furfural (HMF) content, total pollen counts (TPC) and absorbance of honey samples were examined. The aim of the present work was to analyze the physical and chemical quality of some Indian honeys and find out whether they meet national standards of honey specifications.

Beetroot peel contained higher antioxidant compounds thus promising a more intense utilization of the peels in food and nutraceuticals. The betalains and phenolics found in beetroot peel. Osmotic dehydration is used as a pretreatment for many processes which is used to improve nutritional, sensorial and functional properties of food without changing its integrity.

Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) is a common gram-positive pathogen, which predominates as a global cause of bacterial infections. S. aureus uses the saeRS- two component system to control the expression of many virulence factors. SaeR the response regulator is one of the potent virulence factor that can cause many bacterial infections. So far the structure of saeR is not predicted.

Present study deals with common diseases treated with the help of herbal formulations, used by rural peoples in Marathwada. Marathwada region comprising of seven districts viz. Aurangabad, Beed, Jalna, Latur, Nanded, Osmanabad and Parbhani forms the part of the vast Deccan plateau of India and its located at 70o 5’-78o 5’ E longitude and 17o 5’-20o 5’ N longitude. Authors have collected the traditional knowledge from villages through interviews. For this author visited the villages such as Daheli, Bhagwati, Tuppa, Mahur, Kinwat, Nanded, Renapur, Saradgaon, Parli-Vaijnath, Ambajogai.

The aqueous extract of floral parts of Shorea robusta (Dipterocarpaceae) was prepared with cold water maceration. Well diffusion method was employed to determine the effect of antibacterial potential against Gram positive bacteria viz. Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis and Gram negative bacteria viz. Klebsiella pneumoniae and Serratia marcescens. Aqueous extract of the plant has showed significant inhibitory activity on different bacterial species tested against penicillin as standard antibacterial agent.

Climate change will affect on vegetation directly because of increased CO2 concentration and green house gases and indirectly through stratospheric ozone layer depletion. Increased CO2 level could increase photosynthesis and water use efficiency. However high temperature and green house gases will modify rainfall, evaporation, runoff and soil moisture storage and will adversely affect growth and productivity.

A 76 days study was carried out to evaluate the growth performance and nutrient utilization of African catfish fed diets containing Rumen Epithelial scraping meal (RESmeal). Four isonitrogeneous diets containing 32.04%, 32.15%, 32.32%, 32.38% crude protein were formulated. Fishmeal was partially replaced with RESmeal. Diet A being the control contain 100%, diet B has 25% replacement, diet C has 50% replacement and diet D with 75% replacement. The result obtained in this study, showed an excellent growth performances and status of experimental fish.

Sickle cell disease (SCD) or sickle cell anemia (SCA) is an autosomal recessive genetic blood disorder, characterized by red blood cells that assume an abnormal, rigid, sickle shape. Dermatoglyphics, the patterns of ridges on the skin of the fingertips, palms, and soles are mostly related with inheritance. These patterns may represent the genetic make up of an individual and therefore their predisposition to certain diseases.

In mammalian cell culture, modified polystyrene (PS), polyethylene terephthalate (PET) discs are being used for adhesion of cells during packed bed fermentation. These discs are expensive, not easily available and non biodegradable. Hence, in the present study, bacterial cellulose (BC) membrane produced by Gluconacetobacter intermedius was tested as an alternative adherent surface material for anchorage dependent mammalian cell culture. The recombinant CHO cells were adhered poorly to native BC.

Breast cancer is one of the leading causes of mortality among women, and the early diagnosis is of significant clinical importance. To perform classification of medical data, the neural network was trained and tested with breast cancer database by using feed forward neural network multilayer perceptron model and back propogation learning algorithm with Levenberg Marquardt learning and variable learning rate. The performance of the network was evaluated and the experimental results showed that by applying this neural network model, stable and accurate results could be achieved.

Present study was conducted on the rural females with the objective to assess their diet pattern, nutrient intake, nutrient deficiency, energy deficiency levels followed by recommendations for nutritional improvement. A household survey was conducted by questionnaire method on 400 rural poor families of Phansidewa block under Darjeeling district of West Bengal state to measure the various attributes related to the dietary intake. The average nutrient intake of the females is much less than the Recommended Dietary Allowances. The energy deficiency is highest in non-pregnant group.

Diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular diseases represent an enormous, medical, social and economic burden to the public. Many genetic and lifestyle factors are involved in the etiology of these diseases. Hence, the present study was undertaken with an objective to select and study the background information and nutritional status of hyperlipidemic diabetics, elicit details on medical history and to study the impact of ash gourd and curry leaves on the blood glucose and lipid profile. A group of 200 diabetics were selected initially.

Considering the existence of rice and wheat rotation on 50 thousand hectares of Khuzestan province and the necessity of efficient use of soil, crop year study period (1389-1388) in the city were examined Shoushtar. This research project as chopped blocks in a randomized complete block with three replications was carried out.

Educators all over the world are concerned about the decline in discipline by students as it is critical to the attainment of positive school outcomes. It is in view of this concern that a study to investigate the impact of discipline and authority on student’s perception in Taita Taveta County was envisioned. A descriptive survey design was adopted in the study. The study samples were drawn from randomly selected secondary schools. The sample size comprised of 200 Form Three students, 40 teachers, 5 deputy head teachers.

The Purpose of the present paper is to find out the effectiveness of a Leadership Development Intervention in improving Leadership Skills among students. Three hundred and forty three students at P.S.G. College of Arts and Science, Coimbatore, India formed the sample for the present investigation. A Single group Pre-test, Post-test and Follow-up quasi-experimental design was used. All the students received the Leadership Development Intervention voluntarily and were assessed at Pre and Post-test and Follow-up periods.

The concept of inadequate political accountability and transparency, coupled with ineptitude leadership and bad governance remain a major challenge in many nation states in Sub-Saharan Africa as elections have proved to be a great litmus test. Election processes have since been widely condemned as not free and fair; falling below international standards in Afghanistan (2009), Togo (2005), Uganda (2006), Nigeria (2007), Kenya (2007), Zimbabwe (2008), Ethiopia (2005, 2010) and Sudan (2010).

The UN Millennium Goal (MDG) 7 aims to ensure environmental sustainability, with some of its targets being halving the proportion of people without access to safe water and reversing loss of environmental resources by 2015. Although challenges exist for developing countries like Kenya in this endeavor including climate change, financial scarcity and impropriety, impressive progress is feasible with workable checks in natural resource exploitation. For example, actively engaging all stakeholders in implementing UN Agenda 21 is important in this regard.

The study sought to establish the effects of liberalization on performance of the dairy cooperatives in Western Province of Kenya. It sought to find out if there were any dairy cooperatives that collapsed due to liberalization, registered drop in its membership, or reduced milk volumes handled. Primary data was obtained from dairy cooperative officials, KDB and MOCDM officers. All the 27 dairy cooperatives in Western province, Kenya formed the population to provide data for this research.

Considering the advent of modern and advanced weaponry and the significance of the needed time for applying these weapons when the country is invaded by enemies, we were committed ourselves to conduct a research military project for automation of 106mm cannon. It must be noted that there were some discrepancies in the conventional cannons for chambering and shooting for which the improving solutions have been investigated in this research so as to take advantage of this crucial defensive weapon in potential wars threatening our nation.

The purpose of present investigation was to examine the Self-Perception between Sportspersons and Non-Sportspersons. The investigators had randomly selected two hundred [N=200] male and female subjects. Out of which one hundred [n=100] Sportspersons (n=50 male and n=50 female) and one hundred [n=100] Non-Sportspersons (n=50 male and n=50 female) who were studying in various affiliated colleges of Panjab University and Panjab University campus, Chandigarh.

It was projected that the population of Enugu area will grow at approximately 300% by the year 2020. The information is further strengthened by the projected 3,237,298 population figure of the area. This implies that there is the expectation of overpopulation of the area in future. Unemployment and lowering of people’s standard of living are always associated with over population. It therefore, becomes necessary to map out areas on a sustainable basis and most suitable for the sighting of industries to employ the teeming population.

The present experimental study is concerned with the heat transfer during nucleate pool boiling of milk in a stainless steel pot under closed conditions. Reported are the results of the effect of the different heat rate of inputs varying from 240 to 360 watts on the heat transfer coefficient under pool boiling. The evaporated water condensed at the inner surface of the condensing cover was collected as fresh water. To quantify the effect of rate of heat input on the convective heat transfer coefficient, the Rohsenow correlation was applied with the constants from the experiments.

In this research paper, the convective heat transfer coefficients of khoa were investigated in an open sun and greenhouse drying for natural as well as forced convection modes. The khoa was dried in open sun conditions and in the roof type even span greenhouse with a floor area of 1.2×0.8 m2 in natural and forced convection mode at atmospheric pressure till there is almost no variation in its mass.

Grid is a computing and data management infrastructure whose goal is to provide electronic underpinning for a global society in business, government, research, science and entertainment. Being a distributed system, grid is complex due to the heterogeneous nature of the underlying software and hardware resources forming it. The heterogeneous nature of grid will hinder interoperation of grid applications. In this paper, we present a framework for integrating grid applications in spite of its distributed and heterogeneous nature.

This paper advocates for the involvement civil society organizations in community initiatives for civic awareness and reconstructing ethnic harmony. It mainly explores the potential role of the civil society as a facilitator in closing the national-local gap in National reconciliation efforts. Much emphasis is placed on the civil societies’ ability – in conjunction with community leadership and institutions – to operationalize a community-interst approach to reconciliation, which is both location and situation specific.

The present study was undertaken to determine the level of thinness using body mass index (BMI) among school going adolescent (11-16 years) of peri-urban area of West Bengal. Height and weight measurements were taken from 385 subjects (207 boys and 178 girls). BMI was computed by standard formula. Age and sex specific cut-off values of BMI were used to identify thinness. The overall (age-combined) mean BMI among boys and girls were 16.16 and 16.41 respectively. There were no significant sex differences in mean BMI at any age.





Rosane Cavalcante Fragoso, Brasil


Chief Scientific Officer and Head of a Research Group

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Luai Farhan Zghair
Hasan Ali Abed Al-Zu’bi
Fredrick OJIJA
Firuza M. Tursunkhodjaeva
Faraz Ahmed Farooqi
Saudi Arabia
Eric Randy Reyes Politud
Elsadig Gasoom FadelAlla Elbashir
Eapen, Asha Sarah
United State
Dr.Arun Kumar A
Dr. Zafar Iqbal
Dr. Ruchika Khanna
Dr. Recep TAS
Dr. Rasha Ali Eldeeb
Dr. Pralhad Kanhaiyalal Rahangdale
Dr. Nicolas Padilla- Raygoza
Dr. Mustafa Y. G. Younis
Dr. Muhammad shoaib Ahmedani
Saudi Arabia
United State
Dr. Lim Gee Nee
Dr. Jatinder Pal Singh Chawla
Dr. Devendra kumar Gupta
Dr. Ali Seidi
Dr. Achmad Choerudin
Dr Ashok Kumar Verma
Thi Mong Diep NGUYEN
Dr. Muhammad Akram
Dr. Imran Azad
Dr. Meenakshi Malik
Aseel Hadi Hamzah
Anam Bhatti
Md. Amir Hossain
Mirzadi Gohari