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July 2014

  1. Jayakumar, A., Dr. Sudarsanam, D., Praveena, P. and Joel Singh, D.

    Introduction: Presence of different potent genotoxic substance in the aquatic environment has led to the development and adaptations of modern and reliable techniques for quick monitoring. Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD-PCR) is a remarkable technology that has immense application in clinical medicine, forensic science, pathogen detection, genotoxicants detection etc. Aim and Objectives: To assess the genotoxic effect of triazophos using RAPD. To assess the apoptosis induced by the triazophos using DNA ladder method. Recovery of triazophos exposed Anabas test udineus using fresh medium. Materials and Methods: Test species - Fresh water fingerlings of Anabas testudineus of length 16cm±1cm and weight 72±1g were procured from the fish farm at kolathur, Tamilnadu, Chennai, South India. The collected fishes were acclimated to laboratory conditions in dechlorinated tap water for 15 days. The fish specimens were fed with commercial fish a feed during acclimation. The physiochemical characteristics of the water used throughout the experiments. Results: In the present study the RAPD was performed on gill tissues Anabas testudineus from control and fishes exposed to triazophos for 3 days and followed by 3, 6 days of exposed to fresh medium confirmed remarkable recovery on remutial. Three different 10 primers were used to study the genotoxic effect of the pesticide. The triazophos exposure shows variation and polymorphism in band patterns from that of the control samples. Minimum variation in polymorphism was observed in primer 3, gill samples. Maximum variation in DNA band polymorphism was observed in primer 1 gill sample. DNA band intensity variation was also observed in the treated fish compared to control samples. Discussion: In the present study the RAPD analysis on the fish exposed to triazophos for 3 days of followed by 3, 6 days of recovery in water. Three different 10 primers were used to study the genotoxic effect of the pesticide. The triazophos exposure shows variation and polymorphism in band patterns from that of the control samples. Minimum variation in polymorphism was observed in primer 3, gill samples. Maximum variation in DNA band polymorphism was observed in primer 1 gill sample. Summary and Conclusion: The pesticide triazophos is found to be more toxic to the fish Anabas testudineus. The acute toxicity studies in Anabas testudineusat 96 hrs of LC50 value for triazophosis was0.270 ppm. The histological investigations in Anabas testudineus exposed to Triazophos were found to be highly toxic and the histological alterations were increasing with increase in concentration and duration. The triazopohs exposure shows variation and polymorphism in band patterns from that of the control samples

  2. Gopalakrishna, Ganesh, U., Dr. Sumer Singh and Dr. Chakrapani, B. K.

    Biological Park is within Bannerghatta National Park. Physico-chemical analysis was carried out on water samples of Kavalkere pond in Bannerghatta Biological Park area. The pond is used for recreation and the water analysis showed that water is slightly coloured and slightly contaminated while the other characteristics fall within Indian permissible limits.

  3. Venkateswara Rao Madduru

    Diabetes I am an expert in the arena of dermatoglyphics i.e. study of finger prints. On this discipline, I have an experience of 28 years. Consequently I have done some research work in the formation of Patterns on the first phalange of all the fingers and also on the skin of palms. By authenticating the finger impressions and its nature of forming ridge characteristics, ridges as well as its patterns, I have understood that each finger impression is working as an index of an organ which leads to the analysis of organ development and its condition. For declaring this statement, I have verified thousands of finger impressions formed at first phalange of fingers.

  4. Kiarie Grace Wambui and Ndung’u Stephen Kanini

    The researchers focused on the challenges faced by women owned micro enterprises in accessing business information in Limuru Constituency, Kenya. Survey research design was used. The target population included 1764 women owned micro enterprises. Stratified random sampling and focus group discussions were utilized. The researchers found that the women respondents were fairly well educated as 77.2% of the women interviewed had secondary and post secondary education. Lack of information systems presented the biggest challenge at 76.5% followed by information available being expensive (71.6%) and business information available not being applicable to the local context (66.8%). To a lesser but still significant degree, outdated information, lack of knowledge on the availability of information and lack of relevant skills to access the information were identified. Information that was most sought after was in finance/credit, markets and investments while the least sought after was on taxation and insurance. Through cross tabulation and correlation analysis, it was found that there was minimal relationship between most of the factors above. The conclusion was that while an area may be in a rural setting, having an information system which disseminates relevant information may be a greater determinant of access to information than the geographical location.

  5. Kalidas, K. and Akila, K.

    The institutional credit has been conceived to play an essential part in the agricultural development of India. A large number of institutional agencies are involved in the disbursement of credit to agriculture. In spite of various measures to rejuvenate farm credit, the flow of credit to agriculture sector remained inadequate quantitatively and qualitatively. In this backdrop, the present study has examined the inadequacies of institutional agricultural credit system and has identified the determinants of increased use of institutional credit at the farm household level in Coimbatore. The study is based on a random sample of 130 farm households covering 4 blocks in Coimbatore, comprising 26 marginal, 26 small, 26 semi-mediums, 26 medium and 26 large farmers and pertains to the year 2012-13. The quantum of institutional credit availed by the farming households is affected by a number of socio-demographic factors which include education, farm size, family size, gender, occupation of household, etc. The total debt per sample farm household from both institutional and non-institutional sources has been found to be Rs 22, 66,369 in the year 2012-13. The institutional sources have contributed about 92 per cent to the total debt and non-institutional 8 per cent. Although the institutional credit has increased rapidly in recent years in Coimbatore, it still lacks behind the productive needs of the farmers in Coimbatore. In the case of term loans, extent of credit gap was estimated to be 9 per cent in the study area. About 60 per cent farmers have reported the procedure to get loans from the institutional agencies to be complicated and time-consuming. Policy implications include simplification of loan application form and maintenance of proper records of loan applications and making disbursement of loan mandatory.

  6. Jeevan Singh Rajak

    This paper discussing about the issue of corruption in India, specifically look on the links between media and corruption. This study discuss about the freedom limitation and importance of media in democracy like fourth pillar. Major issue of this paper is discussing about the role of media to fight against corruption. This paper provides an overview over the basic principles of media effects and illustrates these with a few case studies before presenting specific techniques of involving the media in the fight against grand corruption and every-day corruption.

  7. Indira, P., Samuel Selvaraj, R. and Stephen Rajkumar Inbanathan, S.

    This paper quantifies the predictability of two major components comprising the climate i.e temperature and rainfall. The quantification is done using a Fractal dimensional analysis of the corresponding time series. The Climate Predictability Index for temperature and rainfall is estimated for four station of Tamilnadu, India. The predictability index gives an indication of how predictable the climate is for a given station. Further, since the predictability index gives a single dimensionless number for each process, it can be used to roughly quantify the interplay between temperature and rainfall.

  8. NuhuYidana, Ibrahim Osman, Joseph DeryNyeadi and ZakariaYidana

    Set out to investigate the importance attached to quality of sachet water produced, the study used a sample of 215 respondents in the Tamale Metropolitan Area. The study established that, a significant number of producers of sachet water are not certified in the metropolis. It was also manifested from the study that, consumers of sachet water in the Tamale Metropolis are not sufficiently educated on their rights to information on the safety of sachet water sold in the metropolis. It further became apparent from the findings that sachet water consumers are aware of the existence of uncertified producers who violates regulations on consumer safety but are not aware of any available channel for such complaints to be made. In view of the findings, the study recommends that the regulators intensify their monitory activities and in collaboration with other relevant stakeholders engage the public in education to avoid uncertified sachet water.

  9. Murugan, S. V., Ramasubramaniyan, M. R. and Kennedy Stephenson Vaseekaran, M

    The global water scarcity analysis shows that a large share of world population up to two thirds will be affected over next several decades in Asia and other region. The major reason for such situation is due to neglect of river basin approach and watershed management initiatives over a period of time. The macro level initiative of river basin includes micro molecules of watershed management. In India, watershed programs are implemented across many river basins for over three decades. However, most of the watershed management projects carried out till date have not addressed the “basin perspective” but implemented in isolated manner by different agencies. This paper focuses on impact of watershed program on river basin perspective. The Palar and Ongur river basins 33 watershed have been studied out of 40 watersheds implemented at Kancheepuram District of Tamilnadu state in India. The results show that the Palar basin is better than Ongur in Total factor productivity. The people in Palar basin are adopting technology as well as deriving benefits from watershed leading to benefiting the community at large. However this study has to be done with all river basins in order to maximize the benefits to the people living in the planet earth. The better connectivity between river basin and watershed will be the likely solution for solving water scarcity in the near future.

  10. Laila M. Al-Taweel

    To be useful for decision making, costing reports produced by the cost accounting system should be characterized by various attributes (relevance, summarization, accuracy, etc.). This paper aims at exploring the associations between cost systems and the quality of costing reports attributes, specifically the cost accounting systems structures in terms of level of details, level of disaggregation, variances calculation, and frequency of reporting. It also intends to explain the variance in report attributes. Data collected from Syrian Corporations listed in the Syrian Commission of Financial Markets & Securities using the survey strategy. Questionnaires were sent by email and data was collected during the first three months in 2014. The empirical analysis supported the theoretical argument between cost accounting systems structure and costing report attributes. However, explaining the variance in report attributes by cost systems structure has not yet been studied in management accounting literature, which is the main contribution of this study. It is believed that managerial reporting has not got sufficient attention comparing with financial reporting by accounting researchers.

  11. Dr. K. Adak and Dr. PradyutGuha

    One of the leading sectors in current global business is tourism, responsible for significant proportion of world production, trade, employment and investment, helping inflow of foreign exchange and FDI. Although India’s share in global tourism remained meager till early part of last decade however the sector has taken rapid strides in recent years by attracting national and international visitors in number, contributing towards countries GDP, employment generation, etc. The geographical diversity in terms of climate, culture, flora and fauna, nature (snow capped mountain ranges to desert, plain, rainforests, hills and plateaus, white water rivers, wild life, historical temples and monuments and its colorful people and culture) across various regions are amazing for attracting tourist in India. India’s North East region is a virgin unexplored terrain with vast tourism potential in the form of wild life sanctuaries, holy shrines, lush green tea gardens, adventure tourism assets, diverse cultural heritage, multi faceted fairs & festivals, world famous Buddhist monasteries etc. However, the difficult terrain with transport bottlenecks, limited alternative for tourist accommodation, wayside amenities, poor law and order condition has constrained promotion of tourism in India’s North East region so far. The 4th sectorial summit of N.E.C primarily addressed the issues on the problems on the way of promotion of tourism in N.E region and has taken initiative in support with Ministry of Tourism and DoNER. Mizoram is a mountainous state nestling in the southern tip of the north-east region of India. Important tourism attraction is verdant forests cover dominated by thick bamboo groves, teeming with vibrant wildlife, sheer cliffs and breath-taking waterfalls, dotted with unique landmarks of myriad folklores and picturesque villages of houses built on stilts, a land of dramatic seas of morning mists that enfold islands of hills and peaks, pleasant weather. Present study attempts to understand the influence of tourism on the GDP of the Mizoram considering different related factors, the paper will also throw some light on the growth of tourism in the state.

  12. Amal M. Nasser, Nehal S. Ahmed and Rasha S. Kamal

    In the present work, some polymeric additives were prepared via copolymerization of hexadecylacrylate and dodecylacrylate with styrene. Structure of the prepared compounds was confirmed by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (F.T.I.R.), Proton Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (1H-NMR), and Gel Permeation Chromatography (GPC). The rheological properties of lube oil (SAE-30) with and without additives were studied at different temperatures (40oC, 60oC and 100oC) and it was found that they behave as Bingham fluids. The sensitivity of the prepared terpolymers to mechanical stresses was studied. It was found that the sensitivity increases with increasing the molecular weight of the prepared additives.

  13. Ranibala Devi, L., Ajit Kumar Das and Dutta, B. K.

    The present paper is an outcome of an extensive comprehensive study in the villages where the Paite tribe of Manipur inhabited. This survey is taken up to explore the medicinal plants used by the Paite tribe in their surroundings. The Paite tribes are mostly occupied in Churachandpur district of Manipur. This paper includes the ways and the modes of using the plants in various ailments. From the survey, a total of 40 plants belonging to 31 families were recorded for different ailments. It is found that the leaves (17 plant species) are found to be the highest used plant part in curing ailments followed by roots, fruits with 7 plant species each. The plants are found to be widely used in curing urinary troubles, diabetes and animal bites followed by cold & fever with 5 plant species. The recorded plants were collected with tags and ethnobotanical notes of the plants were recorded at the spot.

  14. Rupesh Maheshwari, Yogeshver Khandagre and Alok Dubey

    Static access memory (SRAM) is a building block of several logic circuits. SRAM is a fast memory which consumes low power. It is a fundamental building block of central processing unit of a computer. In this paper we design a low power circuit for 64 bit 5T SRAM using bottom-up approach. We use 0.12 micron meter technology and 90 neno meter technology for designing and simulation low power dissipation SRAM with dsch and micro wind. In this paper we simulate that reduction of power consumption in .12 micro technologies and 90 neno meter technology is 93% and 94% respectively.

  15. Abdul Hussein M. AL-Faisal and 2Kifah Jabbar Alyaqubi

    Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in multidrug resistance gene1 (MDR1) could alter the gene expression level and may have effect role in responses to drug therapy and diseases susceptibility. The aim of the present study is to investigate allele frequency in Iraqi healthy and AML patients to detect the susceptibility of C3435T genotype carrier to develop acute myeloid leukemia. Also the study aimed to correlate the expression level of MDR1 mRNA with MDR1 gene and C3435T polymorphism in de novo AML patients. The results showed there was a significant difference in genotype and allele frequency with heterozygous CT and mutant T-allele. The results also showed that there was no significant difference between genotype and allele frequency in healthy control and AML patients. According to the clinical outcome status MDR1 3435CT showed statistically high significant differences, while CR group was showed significantly with homozygous TT. Both NR and CR group in AML patients showed high mutant-T allele frequency. In regard with gene expression, the healthy control showed significantly high level of MDR1 mRNAs expression in CC genotype at position 3435 compared with CT and TT. Whereas MDR1 heterozygous 3435CT genotype showed a highly significant difference in MDR1 mRNA expression among AML patients. In conclusion healthy Iraq populations and AML patients have predominantly CT genotype and mutant-T allele frequency for MDR1 C3435T polymorphism. MDR1 3435CT/TT genotype in regard with MDR1gene expression in de novo AML patients associated with poor prognosis, while CC genotype was protective Carrier.

  16. Pramod Bhatia, Raunaq Kudesia and Shikhil Munjal

    Keeping in view the guidelines given in the rulebook of the event Formula SAE 2013 (FSAE 2013), which is organized by SAE International, the chassis of car (which could successfully compete all events) was designed using Solid Works 2013. Various tests were performed using the same software. The weight of the car was set at an upper limit of 300 Kilograms. The front wheel track width was set at 52 inches and the rear wheel track width at 51 inches. Front impact, rear impact and side impact tests were performed, in order to establish the maximum displacement that the vehicle chassis may undergo in the event of collision

  17. Sachinkumar Kanti, Shambhu, M. G. and Anshul Sukhwal

    Protein-Protein interactions play a major role in carrying out biological functions including enzymatic catalysis, ion transportation and cellular regulation. Systems level understanding of cellular functions uncovers all functional interactions of proteins. It is, thus, important to have resources which make available structural details about these interactions. In present study, a new database called PPI database has been developed which contains information about oligomerisation status, interacting partners and closest homologues for all the structural domains of Single-Membered and Two-Membered Superfamilies of the already existing in-house database, PASS2. Residues present at the protein-protein interface have been analyzed and the ones which provide stability to the complex, i.e. hotspot residues, have been predicted and recorded.

  18. Benorita Prusty, Munesh Chandra Adhikary and Chapal Kumar Das

    Reduced Graphene Oxide (rGO) based Nickel Sulfide (NiS) anchor nanocomposites were developed via hydrothermal approach. We have investigated the effect of different concentration of thioglycolic acid on graphene oxide reduction. More the thioglycolic acid present with the graphene oxide, the reduction is more and high electrochemical activity is also achieved by the composite having high concentration of sulfur. We have achieved specific capacitance of 109.37 F/g at 2.5 A/g for the composite rGO-NiS using 2.7 ml of thioglycolic acid. Energy density and power density of this composites show9.72Wh/kg and 1000W/kg, respectively.

  19. Sathishkumar, R. and Rajavel, R.

    Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (AUV) is capable of performing point-to-point data collection underneath the thick winter ice sheet. The advantages of AUV instead of remote operable vehicles (ROVs) or towed unmanned vehicles are the lower cost involved and a better quality during the inspection missions. Modeling, system identification and control of these vehicles are still major active areas of research and development. The design and development of the vehicle consisted of implementing a mechanical and electrical system, as well as the integration of subsystems. The present work discusses the sensor and communication systems of a typical AUV. The overall design concept, operation of the system is analyzed.

  20. Stephen Dinagar, D. and Abirami, D.

    In this paper, two different approaches such as ranking value of a fuzzy number approach and a distinct approach to critical path analysis in project networks are presented in a fuzzy environment. In project network, the activity times are uncertain and are represented by interval valued fuzzy numbers (IVFNS) in the work. The corresponding fuzzy arithmetics and fuzzy ranking values of a fuzzy numbers are utilized to determine the fuzzy critical path without converting the fuzzy activity time to classical number. Relevant numerical examples are also included to justify the proposed notions.

  21. MohamedElbasyouni, Elsaeed Abdelrazek and AbeerSaad

    This paper aims to describe the called Arabic Questions Generation (AQG) system. It automates the process of generating questions fill in the blanks from Arabic texts, based on pre-generated corpus pattern. The system as well uses Stanford Arabic Natural Languages Processing (NLP) tools to generate a morphological tagged tree from the Arabic text, which then be matched with the patterns to form the question. The system provides the teacher with a Graphical user interface to facilitate the process of generating a test from the set of Questions, as it has many complex problems and issues in the Natural Languages Processing. The system useful for teachers for the generating questions automatically Instead of the manual method. It used to assessing learners’ achievements of learning. Grades were calculated based only on generated questions from The System Out of all grading criteria, The System less in the syntactic correctness of generated questions. The System did the best in Relevance.

  22. Priya, K.

    This paper is a case study related to action research done while I was a teacher trainee doing teaching practice and it details about the specific problem of a dyslexic pupil of high school in the capital city of Kerala. The significance of the study, objectives, methodology adopted, analysis and interpretation and remedial measures taken are detailed.

  23. Hardik P. Trivedi and Anil Kumar

    The theoretical study of energy dependence of charged multiplicity could discriminate among the different theoretical models of particle production. In the present work, an attempt has been made to analyse the data on mean charged multiplicity in Hadron-Hadron interactions and also to modify the earlier parameterization with modified values of different parameters on the basis of some unambiguous phenomenon. The mean charged multiplicity has been calculated at different energies, ranging between 1.0 GeV to 1500 GeV for proton-antiproton interactions and the results are compared with experimental data as well as, with other theoretical results. Proposed parameterization is found to be capable of predicting the entire data, even at threshold energy.

  24. Suman Bhatia

    The nervous system is made up of a large number of interacting neurons or nerve cells. Neuron is an electrically excitable cell that processes and transmits information through electrical and chemical signals. A typical neuron possesses a cell body or (soma), dendrites, and an axon. In neurons, action potentials play a central role in cell-to-cell communication. Once an action potential is initiated at one point in the nerve cell, it propagates through the axon to the synaptic terminal region and from there signal is transmitted to next neuron. Propagation and generation of action potentials have so far been studies by treating the whole system as consisting of electric circuit having conductance and resistances. However (from cell biology) we know that lot more is happening while action potential is being propagated through axon. Additionally with the advent of computers, now, we can afford to undertake more complicated modelling and analysis of action potential propagation. This will lead to improved understanding and better ability to improve neuronal performance. We therefore propose the possibility of modeling action potential propagation using Fluid equations and Maxwell equations.

  25. Balasubramanian, K., Selvarajan, P., Subramanian, S., Muthuraj, D., Seethalakshmi, A. N. and Vela, T.

    Effects of the addition of 1.5 mol% CuSO4 on the growth and the various properties of Lithium Ammonium Sulphate (LAS) single crystals grown by the slow evaporation solution growth technique have been studied. The grown crystals were characterized by single crystal X- Ray Diffraction analysis (XRD), Fourier Transform Infrared spectral studies (FT-IR), UV-Vis- NIR, Atomic Absorption Study (AAS), Thermal analysis and Micro hardness studies. It is observed that the intensity of the plane (111) in pure LAS increases with that of CuSO4-doped LAS increases than in the pure LAS crystal. The strong peak for both crystals in the region 1120 -1130 cm-1 in FTIR spectra corresponds to the SO42- symmetric stretching modes. UV-Vis-NIR spectra revealed that absorption occurs at 205 nm. The metal contents in the doped LAS crystals were estimated as 662 ppm from the Atomic Absorption studies. Thermal studies indicate that the decomposition temperature of the crystal are decreased in CuSO4 - doped LAS crystals. Vicker’s micro hardness study reveals that the addition of CuSO4 increases the hardness of the crystal.

  26. Shivam Singh Kushwah, Alok Dubey and Yogeshver Khandagre

    The use of integrated circuits in high-performance computing, telecommunications, and consumer electronics has been growing at a very fast speed Typically, the required computational and information processing power of these applications is the driving force for the fast development. We propose a technique called self controllable voltage level (SVL) technique which significantly reduces the leakage current. Dynamic power dissipation is also reduced. In the proposed technique, we reduce 93% of leakage current by using self controllable voltage level technique and This technique is applied in 1- bit adder and simulation is done by using a MICROWIND 3.1 and DSCH 2 with 90nm technology.

  27. Timothy Adeyẹmi Akanbi

    It is an acceptable fact that Yorùbá include in their vocabulary, expressive words, marked off from the rest of the vocabulary by similar phono-syntactic characteristics, which they call idiophones. This fact has long been recognized by the Yorùbá scholars at one time or the other, and have written extensively on it. Of particular interest to this paper is that of Newman (1968) who asserts that idiophones have some syntactic functions. Samarin (1967) also argues that idiophones should be identified primarily on the basis of syntactic behaviour rather than phono-semantic criterion. While some scholars see idiophones as adverbs (Bamgbose 1966, 1972, 1990; Awobuluyi 1975, 1978), others see them as nouns (Rowland 1970). Some even advocate a separate category for idiophones (Awoyale, 1981). However, our focus in this paper will go along the line of Newman (1968). In this paper, therefore, we examine the grammatical implication of tone on idiophones, the selectional restriction and sub-categorization restriction. The paper is discussed under four sections. While section one is purely introductory, section two discusses tone implication on idiophones. Section three looks at the selectional and sub-categorization restrictions; section four gives the summary.

  28. Manesh Choubey

    India is the second largest producer of onions in the world after China. It enjoys 19% share of the global onion production. The annual average production is 12 lakh tones. The study has been undertaken to understand the effect of Area and Yield on Production of Onion and to study export trends of Onion. The production of onion has significantly increased over the past 30 years (1980-2012) but there has been lots of fluctuations specially from 1995 onwards indicating that production of onion is not steady year over year but sometimes increases and decreases. Such fluctuations may arise due to dependency of agricultural crops on rainfall and monsoons. Excess rainfall or less rainfall hampers the production of crops among other factors.

  29. Prof. R. J. Jawale

    Education brings excellence, enriches the mind and illuminates the spirit. It prepares a child for good citizenship. It liberates the from ignorance, superstition, prejudices and ultimately unfolds the vision and truth. Ignorance is the mother of weakness and helplessness, whereas education brings light of knowledge and knowledge in itself is power. Education is the process of getting knowledge. Right to education is a part and parcel of right to life and personal liberty. This right flows directly from right to life. A good quality education is the birth right of every child. Education is a necessary condition for the development of any country. It directs the political, social, cultural and economic life into desirable channels. Education shall be directed to the full development of the human personality. Right to Education is the basic fundamental human Right and it should be properly protected and promoted in India. The right to life under Article 21 and the dignity of an individual cannot be assured unless it is accompanied by the right to education. The State Government is under an obligation to make endeavor to provide educational facility at all levels to its citizens. In 2002, the 86th amendment to the Constitution introduced Article 21-A making the right to education a fundamental right. The right to education which is implicit in the right to life and personal liberty guaranteed by Article 21 must be construed in the light of the directive principles in Part IV of the Constitution.

  30. Nadia Riaz and Hina Affandi

    This study investigates the relationship between motivation, creativity, rewards and work related curiosity. The sample of this study consisted of 99 educationist of Universities of Pakistan. A questionnaire was used to gather data regarding above mentioned variables and demographic characteristics of the respondents. A positive strong significant relationship was found between motivation, creativity, and rewards and work related curiosity.

  31. Pise, D. C., Shinde, S. S. and Deokule, S. S.

    Shortage of water leads to drought stress. Drought stress causes generation of activated oxygen species (AOS) in plants. To overcome water shortage problem plants shows some adaptive mechanism such antioxidant defense and accumulation of osmolytes or osmoprotectants against “AOS”. Activity of enzymes such as catalase (CAT), proxidase (POD) and amylase, protein content and accumulation rate of osmoregulants such as proline and carbohydrate were studied in two wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars. The results suggest that water stress increased the activity of enzymes and rate of accumulation of proline and carbohydrate in both cultivars. But out of these two cultivars rain fed cultivar showed significant response during drought stress.

  32. Sweetline, C., Usha, R., Dhanabalan, R. and Palaniswamy, M.

    Treatment of malarial infection has becoming extremely challenging due to widespread resistance of the parasite towards available antimalarial drugs. In the present study, we investigated the antimalarial activity of the ethanolic extracts of Streptomyces sp (KMA08) in Plasmodium berghei infected mice. The antimalarial activities during early and established infections were evaluated using Peters’ 4-day suppressive test method. Different concentration of the crude extracts were orally administered to screen for their antimalarial activities. The extracts significantly inhibited parasitemia dose-dependently. Each extract showed variable level of parasitemia suppression in dose related manner. The ethanolic extract of Streptomyces sp was found to produce 47.5% (30ml/kg) parasite suppression. The test substance observed to be safe with no toxicity on the mice even at 30 ml/kg. Results showed that significantly improved the suppression of parasitemia. The results of the present work supported the use of the Streptomyces sp against malaria and confirmed the antimalarial activity. Moreover, antimalarial compounds can be isolated and tested against human malaria parasite in the future.

  33. Kumar Sharad Sinha, Anilkumar Sirasagi and Surekha U Arakeri

    Lymph node infarction refers to a syndrome of spontaneous coagulative necrosis. One case of lymph node infarction will be encountered in every 450 lymph node biopsied lesions. It is a rare phenomenon associated with various neoplastic and nonneoplastic conditions. The non-neoplastic conditions include polyarteritis nodosa, viral infections (Parvovirus B19, Infectious mononucleosis), thrombosis, gold injections, fine needle aspiration cytology and finally may be idiopathic. The neoplastic lesions most commonly associated with infarction are malignant lymphoma and metastatic melanoma. Case report: A 40 year HIV infected male presented with fever, cough with expectoration and generalized weakness since 10 days and a solitary right axillary swelling measuring 2x1 cm, tender and mobile on palpation. Fine needle aspiration cytology of the lymph node was performed which revealed poorly preserved morphology of polymorphous population of lymphocytes with amorphous debris and focal areas of necrosis. Secondary causes for lymph node infarction like tuberculosis and fungal infections were ruled out by specific and systemic investigations. Conclusion: Fine needle aspiration cytology remains a very important tool for diagnosing the non-neoplastic and neoplastic lesions of lymph nodes.

  34. Mrs. Rimple Sharma, Ms. Poonam Sharma and Ms. Harpreet Kaur

    Background: Worm infestation is the infection of intestinal tract with any of several species of helminthes or parasitic worms, including Ascaris (Round worm), Entrobius (Pin worm), Trichinella spiralis and various species of Cestodes (Tape worm). (Kumari 2006) The World Health Organization estimates that over one billion of the world’s population is chronically infested with soil transmitted helminthes. (Panwanda Geeta 2011) Worm infestation remains one of the main problems of child development. This is especially a great health hazard in developing countries. Impure water, low socio-economic state, poor sanitation coupled with low literacy rates of parents particularly the mothers are the main causes of this prevalent malady (Gupta 2009). Aim: The Aim of the study is to compare knowledge of urban and rural mothers regarding worm infestation in children, with a view to enhance their knowledge on prevention and management of worm infestation, by distributing pamphlets. Material and Methods: A Quantitative Research approach and Non Experimental Comparative research design was used to assess the knowledge regarding worm infestation in children among urban and rural mothers attending OPD in Guru Teg Bahadur Sahib (C) Hospital, Ludhiana, Punjab. Using convenient sampling technique a sample of 100 mothers including 50 residing in urban area and 50 residing in rural area and having children in the age group of 0 -10 years were selected. Data was collected using self structured questionnaire and results were analysed using descriptive and inferential statistics. Results: The findings of the present study revealed that mean knowledge score of urban mothers was higher (18.86) as compared to rural mothers (16.96) regarding worm infestation in children. The difference between mean knowledge score was found to be statistically non-significant. Conclusion: It was found that there was no impact of demographic variables on knowledge score of urban and rural mothers.

  35. Genevieve Yiripare and Africanus L. Diedong

    Voluntary Counselling and Testing (VCT) provides people with the opportunity to learn and accept their sero status in a confidential environment. Recent studies have shown that VCT is a cost-effective intervention for reducing HIV amongst pregnant women. To know their HIV status is an important tool for prevention of mother to child transmission. VCT among pregnant women attending antenatal care (ANC) clinics is the first filter to access Prevention of Mother to Child Transmission (PMTCT). The objective of this study is to investigate into factors responsible for the acceptance of VCT among pregnant women in the Wa Municipality. The study is a descriptive cross-sectional study which adopts both qualitative and quantitative methods of data collection. Two hundred pregnant women attending ANC were exit interviewed using a structured questionnaire. Key Informant Interview was conducted for 10 health providers involved in VCT and ANC activities. The study shows that 83 percent of pregnant women attending ANC had knowledge on VCT services though acceptance level was only 32 percent. Forty-four percent of them mentioned that the main barrier was fear, stigma and discrimination. Intensive health education on VCT using available methods like mass communication, peer group education, community meetings are recommended. VCT being the entry point for PMTCT should be strengthened.

  36. Shilpa Naik, Sangeeta, M., Varalakshmi, K. L. and Jyothi N. Nayak

    Variations in the shape of aorta are very rare. These variations could be clinically significant and potentially fatal. Here we report a case of grooved ascending aorta with sinuous descending aorta associated with aneurysm formation and its clinical implications.

  37. Gehan A. Younis and Sabah M. Abo Elfetoh

    The intensive care unit is a unique hospital setting, not only because of its physical environment but also because the patients are unstable and submitted to physical and psychological stresses. Delirium is a common disorder in intensive care unit. It is still misdiagnosed by healthcare providers and is treated inappropriately or neglected. Nursing care for delirium includes regular assessment and monitor frequently for at risk patients. The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of educational program on nurses’ knowledge and practice regarding delirium among critically ill patients. The study was conducted at intensive care unit at Tanta university hospital. It included 40 critical care nurses working in the previously mentioned setting. Also, fourty critically ill patients were used in this stud. They divided into two equal groups. 20 critically ill patients were evaluated before implementation of educational program. Another 20 critically ill patients were evaluated after implementation of educational program. Three tools were used in the study for data collect tool 1: structure questionnaire sheet. It divided into two parts: part A: nurses socio demographic assessment sheet. Part B: nurse’s knowledge assessment sheet, tool 2: Observational checklist and tool 3: intensive care delirium screening checklist (ICDSC). The main results of this study were that, the majority of the studied nurses have good knowledge after educational program. Also, the majority of studied nurses (97.5%) have poor score in their practice pre educational program compared while77.5% of studied nurses have good score in their practice post program. Also, about 30% of pre test group had delirium at 5th, 6th, and 7th days of admission compared with 10% in the post program group. The study recommended that In-services training program should be donاe continuously for updating critical care nurses’ knowledge and practices regarding delirium detection and prevention. Incorporating cognitive assessment in general and delirium assessment in particular into nursing education courses.

  38. Nagwa Ramadan Esmail Magor, Azza Mostafa Darwish, Ebtisam Mohamed El Sayed, 4Mohamed Ramadan El- Shanshory and 5Hanan Mohamed El Saadany

    Chemotherapy is a cornerstone of therapy for most patients with leukaemia. It is often accompanied by a number of unwanted side effects, the most prevalent of which is nausea and vomiting. Despite use of antiemetics the incidence chemotherapy induced nausea and vomiting is greater than 50% even after antiemetic prophylaxis. Progressive Muscle Relaxation Technique (PMRT) and acupressure help to reduce the severity, frequency and duration of chemotherapy induced nausea and vomiting. This study aimed to compare the effect of progressive muscle relaxation technique versus acupressure on chemotherapy induced nausea and vomiting in leukemic children. The study sample comprised 90 children's of age 7-18 years, diagnosed as Acute Lymphoblast leukaemia (ALL), free from other chronic diseases. They were equally divided into three groups. The first study group who received progressive muscle relaxation technique, the second study group who received acupressure technique at P6, St 36 and Lv 3 acupoints and the third studied group received routine hospital care only (control group). Three tools were used to collect the required data: Medical assessment sheet, Rodes Index of Nausea and Vomiting Form 2 (INVR) and Behavioural relaxation self rating scale. The main yielded results indicated that the total anticipatory nausea and vomiting was experienced significantly less often in children performing the progressive muscle relaxation technique than in children within acupressure group and control group. While the mean value of total acute and delayed nausea and vomiting experience which occurred during the first day after chemotherapy administration were lower in children within acupressure group than in children in both progressive muscle relaxation technique group and control group. The study recommended that acupressure and progressive muscle relaxation technique must be included in the chemotherapy protocol of management of leukemic children.

  39. Balqis Victor

    Fertility is an existential necessity and assumes overwhelming importance to men and women in all times. Existence depends upon fertility of land and live stock as well upon human procreation. With time, Social habits and religion influenced human perception of fertility or infertility. Pregnancy, child birth and child rearing generally have greater physical reality for women than men, as does the monthly reminder of the absence of a pregnancy for an infertile woman. This is compounded by a cultural belief that infertility is a woman’s problem. A study of married couples found that while wives experienced infertility as cataclysmic role failure, husbands tended to see infertility as a disconcerting event but not a tragedy. Both partners tended to see infertility as a problem for wives. Therefore an exploratory study to assess the psychosocial and physical problems among infertile women in selected hospital of Ludhiana Punjab was undertaken with the objectives: to assess the psychosocial and physical problems among infertile woman and to ascertain the relationship of psychosocial and physical problems with selected demographic variables. A non-experimental, exploratory study was conducted in infertility clinics of selected hospital Ludhiana, Punjab. The study sample consisted of total 100 infertile women. Data was analyzed by inferential statistics and presented through tables and figures.

  40. Pratibha Mehta and Rishi Mehta

    Introduction: There has been a rise in the prevalence of myopia across the world. Although several hypotheses have been proposed, exact cause remains obscure. Methods: The study has been conducted on first MBBS students. After detailed history, ophthalmic examination was done including visual acuity and cycloplegic refraction. Prevalence of myopia was calculated and statistically analyzed. Results: Out of 150 (36 males) students myopia was found in (94) 62.66%. The number of myopic females was more than myopic males (61.7% vs, 38.29%, p < 0.005). Low myopia, moderate myopia and high myopia were found in 75%, 20.21% and 7.44% students respectively. Conclusion: Myopia is highly prevalent among medical students. Near work can be the most important associated environmental risk factor.

  41. Daniel Kiprugut Ngetich

    This study elaborates how John Habwe depicts Christianity in his book Paradiso (2005). Throughout the book, the writer shows how Christian religion can be used as a tool of oppression. Habwe uses examples from some churches to depict conflicts and hypocrisy in the church. This leads to the conclusion that Christianity has been used to con members of the church in order to enrich its leaders. This paper explains various types of oppression against believers in the church as portrayed in Paradiso. It was found out that religious leaders and believers employ the following in oppressing other believers: use of oppressive religious regulations, hiding behind religious fellowship, promise of economic prosperity, justifying wrong deeds, use of propaganda and scramble for power.

  42. Saini, J. P., Rameshwar, Chadha, S., Raj Kumar and Nisha Rana

    A field experiment was conducted on silty clay loam soil of Organic farm of Department of Organic Agriculture, CSKHPKV, Palampur with 36 treatments of cropping systems, spatial arrangements and weed management with an objective to study the performance of various intercrops and spacings on weed suppression in wheat during the year 2010-11 & 2011-12. Cropping systems were comprised of wheat + gram, wheat + lentil and wheat + peas and wheat alone with three spatial arrangements of 15 cm, 22.5 cm and 30 cm and three weeding techniques viz. 1 handweeding, 2 handweedings and unweeded check. The interaction between cropping systems with spatial arrangements and weeding techniques was found significant for weed biomass and grain yield. Among the cropping systems, wheat + lentil with wider row spacings of 22.5 cm and 30 cm and 2 hand weedings resulted in significantly lower weed dry weight and higher weed control efficiency resulting in significantly higher wheat equivalent yield over other treatments.

  43. Ahmed H. Osman

    Influenza A viruses are animal disease pathogens that ceaselessly mutated and flow into in many hosts, as birds, pigs, and human. The spectrum of morbidity and mortality of H1N1, H5N1, and H3N2 viruses are related mainly to the pathological lesions they turn out. H1N1 and H5N1 viruses are usually associated with inflammation, congestion and necrosis of the larger airway's epithelium with extension into the alveoli producing interstitial leukocytic infiltration and oedema. High morbidity by H1N1 virus is owned to infection of the epithelium at upper and lower airways. On the other side, seasonal H3N2 virus has primarily displayed inflammation, congestion and tissue injuries of the larger airways with lesser extension into alveoli. Localization of the inflammatory reactions depends upon the presence of virus in membrane tissue cells of the airways, alveolar macrophages, and pneumocytes. Throughout this review, we tend to explain and compare the pathology of these viruses in human cases and animal models.

  44. Subbalakshmi, N. K., Sathyanarayana Rao, K. N. and Sheila R Pai

    Introduction: The research in the last decade emphasizes the need for uncovering the gender differences in vulnerability to and the impact of, specific health conditions. Therefore this study was undertaken to evaluate sex difference in body mass index (BMI) an indicator of obesity in healthy subjects and subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Materials and Methods: BMI was calculated in male and female healthy subjects ( n= 87 and 54 respectively) and in male and female diabetics (n= 115 and 91 respectively) BMI was compared among the male and female healthy and diabetic subjects by employing Kruskal-Wallis test followed by multiple comparison by Dunn test. P < 0.05 was taken as statistically significant. Result: In healthy subjects BMI was significantly higher in males compared to females (P < 0.05). In type 2 diabetics BMI was significantly higher in females compared to males (P< 0.001). BMI of female diabetics was significantly higher compared to healthy females (P<0.001). There was no significant difference in BMI between healthy males and type 2 diabetic males. Conclusion: There is a differential influence of sex on BMI in health and in type 2 diabetes. In healthy subjects BMI is higher in males and in type 2 diabetics, females have higher BMI compared to their counterparts.

  45. Deepika David, Mrs. Khushlata J. Toppo and Mrs. Kamla Saini

    The infant is a dynamic, ever-changing being who undergoes an orderly and predictable sequence of neuro developmental and physical growth. This sequence is influenced continuously by intrinsic and extrinsic forces that produce individual variation and make each infant’s developmental path unique. Parents need to understand growth and development in order to monitor child’s progress, to identify delays or abnormalities in development. By monitoring child and family the nurse can observe the inter-relationship of physical growth and cognitive, motor and emotional development. Therefore a descriptive study to assess the knowledge of mothers regarding developmental milestones of infants in selected hospital of Ludhiana Punjab was undertaken with the objectives: to assess the knowledge of mothers regarding developmental milestones of infant and to ascertain the relationship of knowledge of mothers with selected demographic variables. A non-experimental, descriptive study was conducted in various child care areas of selected hospital Ludhiana, Punjab. The study sample consisted of total 100 mothers of infants from child care areas. Data was analyzed by inferential statistics and presented through tables and figures. Findings revealed that maximum number of mothers (53%) had good knowledge score regarding developmental milestones of infants. Mean percentage and rank order of knowledge score was highest in introduction (63% and rank 1st) and lowest in the area of social development (21% and rank 6th). Variables i.e. age, parity, educational status, occupation, monthly family income, source of information, place of living and number of children were found to be non significant.

  46. Mohamed Saad A. Saad, 1Sawsan A. H. Aldeaf, Alsadig Gassoum, Hajir Sir Elkhatim, Bashir M. Bashir, Kamal Akasha and Mohamed A. Arbaab, Kamal Okasha

    Introduction: Tuberculosis, an infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. It primarily affects the lung causing pulmonary tuberculosis. It can also affect intestine, meninges, bones and joints, lymph glands and other organs of the body. The disease is usually chronic with varying clinical manifestations. The most important form is the pulmonary tuberculosis. Materials and Methods: This is a retrospective study had been carried out in The National Center of Neurological Sciences (NCNS), during January 2003 to December 2006. All Sudanese patients attending National center for Neurological Sciences and diagnosed clinically and Radiologically as having pott,s disease were included in the present study. Polymerase chain reaction was performed on all selected patients as a confirmatory diagnostic tool. Results: Thirty patients were included in the present study, male were 15 constituting 50%, and female were 15 and constituting 50%. The most affected age group was (50-59 )years (26.7%). 50% of the patients from Khartoum State, followed by, 10% from Kassala state. 25 of the patients (83%) were positive PCR for mycobacterium tuberculosis . Plain X-ray radiographs of the vertebral spine showed both vertebral destruction and wedge fracture in 26 patients (86.7%) , only wedge fracture in 2 patients (6.7%) and vertebral destruction in 1 patient (3.3%). MRI showed cord compression in all patients, and 27 patients had paravertebral abscess.

  47. Kaavya, S. V., Gowthami, M., Malleeswari, D. and Rukmathan, R.

    Effectiveness is a measure of whether or not organizational objectives are accomplished. In contrast, efficiency is the relationship between outputs and inputs. Only monopolies can get away with being effective. Moreover, in an era of diminishing resources and increasing concern about civil rights, society is reluctant to label “effective” any organisation that wastes scare resources or tramples on civil rights. Management’s definition of organisation effectiveness therefore needs to be refined. The related issue of organisation decline also needs to be understood and skillfully managed. Organisation effectiveness, also called as organisational success or growth, is defined and conceptualized in different ways, and no unanimity is found in different approaches, though a large volume of literature is available on the concept and working of the organisational effectiveness.

  48. Mervat Hosny Shalaby and Amal Ibrahim Sabra

    Psychiatric clinical experience has been linked to high levels of stress and anxiety in nursing students and there is a link between the nursing student attrition and the stress related to the clinical experience. This study aimed to 1- Assess baccalaureate undergraduate nursing students' clinical anxiety in the first psychiatric clinical practice. 2-Determine the change in undergraduate nursing students' clinical anxiety at the end of the first psychiatric clinical placement. Descriptive and quasi experimental design were used in the study. The study was carried out at Faculty of Nursing – Tanta University. The target population, all baccalaureate undergraduate nursing students who were going to start their first psychiatric clinical practice. Tools:- I - Structured self-report Questionnaire, it aimed at assess the respondents' perception about mentally ill patients, concerns, feelings, and suggestions for reducing clinical anxiety. II - State – Anxiety scale (SAS), aimed to measure the anxiety at the moment, both tools used twice (pre-post). The results, The study showed that there is a negative change in the clinical anxiety practice of baccalaureate undergraduate nursing students after completion of the first psychiatric clinical practice The study recommended that, it is essential to address learner anxiety in fresh ways, such as introducing psychiatric nursing skills in the first year of university program.

  49. Sahar Mansour Lamadah and Nahed Saied El –Nagger

    Background: Nursing care provided to mothers during post partum period constitutes an essential component of the package of maternal and child health services in any population. A woman's body undergoes several changes after delivery, these changes can be a source of considerable concern and may contribute to a number of adverse health conditions. For these reasons, Nursing care is of utmost importance in preventing adverse health outcomes for mothers and their newborn babies. Thus, the aim of this study was to assess mothers' satisfaction regarding quality of postpartum nursing care and discharge teaching plan at Ain Shams Maternity and Gynecological Hospital –Cairo, Egypt. Subjects and Methods: The study was conducted in the postpartum ward at Ain Shams Maternity and Gynecological Hospital – Cairo, Egypt. A convenient sample of one hundred and four postpartum mothers and their neonates were recruited for this study according to the inclusion criteria. An Interviewing Assessment Sheet was designed by the researcher to collect data. Results: The results of the present study revealed that less than three quarters of mothers (71.0%) were not satisfied by the quality of post natal care services provided to them. In addition, 83.0% of women were not satisfied by the instructions of the discharge teaching plan. In addition, the older, low educated, rural area resident, housewives women and those who had low parity were more satisfied with the quality of postpartum care and discharge teaching plan. However, the difference observed was statistically significant. Conclusion and Recommendations: it can be concluded that most of the mothers and their newborn did not receive important aspects of postpartum care and required health education rendering postpartum nursing care poor. The hospital should implement regular checks on the postpartum nursing care given to mothers. So, health care providers will have a sense of duty consciousness.

  50. Dr. Awdhesh Kumar, Dr. Surendra Kumar Pandey, Dr. Singh, T. B., Dr. Thripathi, S. K.

    Introduction: In our presenting study we consider reproductive age of women 15 to 45 year. Prevalence of unnatural death among reproductive aged females significantly affects community. Study data included in our study are not sufficient and like tip of iceberg because only unnatural death and recorded victims are included. Aim of the study: by presenting study to aware about status of prevalence of unnatural death in reproductive aged group of women to upgrade autopsy center, improve education in rural area, health delivery system. Material and Method: The present retrospective study has been conducted for the period of 5 consecutive years i.e. 2009 to 2013 based on autopsy record of the unnatural death cases resulting from electrocution deaths. During study period total no. of unnatural Death cases were 10195 and deaths among reproductive age were 2268.These cases were brought to the Department of Forensic Medicine, IMS, BHU, Varanasi and have been analyzed retrospectively. Result: The year-wise distribution of deaths in women of reproductive age shows an increasing trend from 2009 to 2012 i.e. 19.23%, 21.90%, 23.04%, 24.17% respectively and in 2013 little decreases to22.73%. Most common cause is burn (58 %). Marital statuses show that 79.6% are married, 15.4% are unmarried. Most of the death victims are in 15 to 25 year age group. Predominant method of accidental death were caused by road traffic accident (67%). rural habitat are most common locality 2039 (89%) followed by urban locality 140 (6.2%) and unknown habitat cover 89 (3.9%). Discussion: Death among women of reproductive age has a marked effect on resources and management outcomes in the family and community. An epidemiological assessment of causes of death among women of reproductive age is needed for increased awareness of health problems in this population group, allocating public-health resources and appropriately developing strategies for prevention. Conclusion: Analysis of data for retrospective study suggests that age, sex, habitat, marital status, religion and manner of death significantly affect community.

  51. Ramya, D. R., BalwinNambikkairaj and Manley Backyavathy, D.

    A gallstone is a crystallineconcretion formed within the gallbladder by accretion of bile components. These calculi are formed in the gallbladder, but may pass distally into other parts of the biliary tract such as the cystic duct, common bile duct, pancreatic duct or the ampulla of Vater. Presence of gallstones in other parts of the biliary tract can cause obstruction of the bile ducts, which can lead to serious conditions such as ascending cholangitis or pancreatitis. Either of these two conditions can be life-threatening, and are therefore considered to be medical emergencies. Thirty-two rats were divided into an experimental and a control group, with 16 hamsters in each group. Fenofibrate, cholestyramine and a low protein and high cellulose diet will be given for 6 weeks to induce the formation of pigment gallstones in the experimental group and a normal diet was given to the control group. Ursodiol will be given to control treatment group and plant extract such as leaves of Borreriaarticularis, Peppermint leaf extract and Ginger root extract has been given separately to test treatment group. Liver function tests, Lipid profile, renal function tests has been assessed and statistically interpreted after 6 weeks. All the values are statistically treated.

  52. Dr. Kathe Dinesh Prakash, Dr. Bhusari Prashant Amanrao, Dr. Khairnar Karan, and Dr. Shinde Santosh

    Sciatic nerve is the widest, thickest nerve of the body, arising from lumbosacral plexus. It is near about 2 cm wide. Sciatic nerve is formed by anterior and posterior divisions of spinal nerves L4, L5, S1, S2, S3. It has two components common peroneal and tibial components. It is formed in pelvic region, it emerges out from pelvis into gluteal region through greater sciatic foramena by passing below piriformis as a single nerve trunk. Then it courses in back of thigh and at the apex of popliteal fossa where it terminates into tibial nerve and common peroneal nerve. There are numerous variations in it’s course. The main variation is in relation to it’s exit from pelvis and division of sciatic nerve into terminal branches. These variations are of clinical importance and these may lead to compression of nerve called as sciatica. These variations are also important for anesthetist as this nerve commonly used for peripheral nerve block i.e. sciatic nerve block and variation in division and course may lead to failed block or sparing of block. The aims and objectives of present study are to find out variation in exit pattern of sciatic nerve and level of bifurcation of sciatic nerve and it’s clinical correlation of above variations. In our study, we found that single trunk of sciatic nerve coming out in gluteal region below piriformis 75%, piercing piriformis 3.33% cases. Two divisions of sciatic nerve coming out in gluteal region common peroneal and tibial nerve passing below piriformis 11.67%, common peroneal piercing piriformis and tibial nerve passing below piriformis 6.67%, common peroneal passing above pyrifomis and tibial nerve passing below piriformis 3.33% cases. Terminal divisions of sciatic nerve in pelvis 21.67%, in upper part of thigh 5% and at apex of popliteal fossa 73.33%. These variations are of clinical importance and these may lead to compression of nerve called as sciatica. These variations are also important for anesthetist as this nerve commonly used for peripheral nerve block i.e. sciatic nerve block and variation in division and course may lead to failed block or sparing of block.

  53. Dr. Anupama, K., Dr. Shailaja Shetty, Dr. Jyothi, K. C. and Dr. Snigdha Das

    Introduction: The atlas vertebra consists of two lateral masses connected by a short anterior and a longer posterior arch. The superior surface of the posterior arch bears a wide groove for the vertebral artery and the first cervical spinal nerve. An anomalous bony bridge between the posterior portion of superior articular process and the superior margin of the posterior arch of atlas is known as “Ponticulus posticus” and the foramen formed by it is known as “Arcuate foramen” Observation: During routine dissection for the undergraduate students it was found that there was a bony outgrowth over the third part of the vertebral artery converting the vertebral groove into a foramen. Conclusion: Patients with ponticulus often show symptoms of vertebrobasilar insufficiency such as headache, vertigo and diplopia. It can also be mistaken for broad posterior arch during surgeries which could cause injury to vertebral artery. Hence knowledge of ponticulus posticus is very useful for the neurophysician, neurosurgeons and radiologist who deal with such patients.

  54. Junia.D. Susanna, Sr. Winnifred D’ Souza and Malarvizhi, M.

    Introduction: Majority of children being admitted in hospital become the recipients of intravenous cannulation for various reasons at some stage and fact has been proved that drugs or fluids given through intravenous line has a quick and better response than other routes. Despite the benefits of a peripheral line, the occurrence of phlebitis is at a higher rate. The main aim and objective of the study was to assess and compare the effectiveness of freshaloevera and glycerin magnesium sulphate application on phlebitis. Materials and Methods: Two group pre-test post-test time series design was used for the study. The sample consisted of 60 children who were purposively assigned to fresh aloevera group(N=30)and glycerinema gnesiumsulphate group(n=30). An observation checklist was used as tool for assessing the severity of phlebitis. Results and Discussion: There was a significant difference in mild phlebitis (Z=2.16, P<0.05), in moderate phlebitis (Z=2.11, P<0.05), in severe phlebitis (Z=2.68, P<0.05) in fresh aloevera and glycerinema gnesiumsulphate application based on the level of severity of phlebitis. Thus the study concludes that there was a significant difference in both fresh aloeveraand glycerinema gnesium sulphate group on the severity of phlebitis.

  55. Sheraz Alrashed Ibrahim and Elshazali Widaa Ali

    Background: Erythrocyte sedimentation rate, C-reactive protein, and leukocyte count are commonly used inflammatory markers. It is debatable whether each of these tests can be used individually or always these tests should be used in together. Objective: This study aimed to compare C-reactive protein, erythrocyte sedimentation rate and leukocyte count as inflammatory markers. Materials and Methods: This is an analytical comparative study; included 50 patients with different inflammatory disorders. Three blood samples were collected from each patient. Erythrocyte sedimentation rate was measured by Erythrocyte sedimentation rate fast detector, C-reactive protein was measured by immunofluorcent assay, and total and differential leukocyte counts were performed by automated haematology analyzer. Results: All patients were found to have high C-reactive protein and high erythrocyte sedimentation rate; while 19(38%) were had leuckocytosis, 25(50%) had normal leukocyte count, and 6(12%) had low leukocyte count. The correlation analysis showed a significant positive correlation between the C-reactive protein and each of total leukocyte count, absolute neutrophil count, absolute monocyte count, and absolute eosinophil count. Conclusion: As inflammatory markers, C-reactive protein and erythrocyte sedimentation rate can be used as interchangeably, while leukocyte count, when used, should be accompanied with either C-reactive protein or erythrocyte sedimentation rate.

  56. Sandeep Rawat, Mrs.Nidhi Sagar, Dr. (Mrs.) Jasbir Kaur and Mrs Mamta

    Pregnancy is a special event not only in the life of women but also to the family. But, as the pregnancy reaches the due date, the fear of labor pain and sometimes past bad experiences of labor pain makes the women to refuse the delivery in a natural way. Nurses are the direct health care providers who are responsible for overall management of labor. Considering this, a quasi experimental was undertaken to assess the effectiveness of heat therapy on low back among women in labor pain during the first stage of labor to be conducted in the Labor room of DMC & Hospital and ESIC Model Hospital, Ludhiana, Punjab. The sample consisted of 60 subjects in labor pain during the first stage of labor (30 in each experimental and control group). Experimental group received heat therapy with silica gel pack, while control group got the routine care. The pain severity was assessed by numeric rating scale. The findings revealed that heat therapy affects the severity of pain in the first stage in experimental group (p=0.00)

  57. Kisokanth, G., Prathapan, S., Indrakumar, J. and Joseph, J.

    Diabetes Mellitus (DM) is a major health problem worldwide. It is a disease which is not cured once it is developed, but it can be controlled. It causes many complications when uncontrolled but can be prevented with proper control. Overall knowledge on health promotion is essential to prevent complications of DM. The aim of this study is to assess the knowledge of DM, its treatments, complications, prevention of complications and maintaining general health among the Tamils attending the Diabetic Education Center at the Teaching Hospital, Batticaloa, Sri Lanka. A descriptive cross sectional study involving a systematic sample of 384 patients was conducted using an interviewer administered semi structured questionnaire in Tamil diabetic patients attending the Diabetic Education Center at the Teaching Hospital, Batticaloa, Sri Lanka. Majority of patients (73.3%) scored less than 50 in the knowledge test and critical gaps in knowledge were revealed, especially regarding knowledge of risk factors, symptoms, type of DM and fasting blood sugar level. However patients of younger age (less than 50 years), higher education levels, high monthly income, with a family history of diabetes and unemployed obtained significantly higher mean knowledge score (P<0.05). Knowledge among subjects (80%) regarding complications of DM was optimal. Many subjects (95.3%) reported routinely controlling their DM through modifying diet. A majority of subjects had an unsatisfactory level of overall knowledge related to DM. Further, education programmes are needed to address critical gaps in patients’ knowledge.

  58. Abhayasinghe, M P K W.

    Introduction: Students are the major recipients of psychological guidance and counselling services in a university setting where each student is enable to derive optimal educational benefits so as to actualize his/her potentialities. Students face great challenges and difficulties ranging from individual personal problems, to institutional and general problems when they enter a university for the first time. Purpose of this study was to determine knowledge and attitudes of a selected group of undergraduates towards psychological guidance and counselling. Methodology: This was a descriptive cross sectional study, conducted in first year undergraduates of the Faculty of Allied Health Sciences, KDU. A pilot study was carried out with 05 first year undergraduates of the B.Sc. Nursing Programme at University of Sri Jayewardenepura, to test the study instrument. Ethical clearance was obtained from the Ethical Review Committee of the Faculty of Medicine, KDU. Pre tested, self – reported questionnaire focused on attitudes and knowledge on guidance and counselling was administered to 177 fist year undergraduates of FAHS, KDU after obtaining informed consent from the participants. Data analysis was done using SPSS software. Results: The study population included109 (61.6%) females and 68(38.4%) males. High proportion of students (75.7%) reported awareness of guidance and counselling services provided by the university. Students’ knowledge level towards psychological guidance and psychological counselling were at a higher level. Considering attitudes towards guidance and psychological counselling, more than half the population showed negative attitudes towards the three domains of attitudes; that is, psychological openness, indifference to stigma and help seeking behaviour. Conclusion: Majority of undergraduates had a good knowledge on guidance and counselling. However attitudes towards psychological openness, indifference to stigma and help seeking behaviour were negative. It is recommended to conduct workshops or awareness programmes to enhance students’ knowledge and positive attitudes towards guidance and counselling services especially during their orientation period and promote future research to provide effective psychological guidance and counselling services for undegraduates of KDU.

  59. Manharleen Kaur

    This study investigated the effect of 6-weeks of dynamic and contract- relax antagonist contract PNF stretching intervention on performance measures of long distance runners. To obtain data, the investigators had selected sixty (N=60) female long distance runners of 18-23 years of age to act as subjects The purposive sampling technique was used to select the subjects. All the subjects were purposively allotted to Contract Relax Antagonist Contract PNF (CRAC-PNF) stretching group (n1 =20); Dynamic stretching group (n2=20) & control Group (n3=20). All the subjects, after having been informed about the objective and protocol of the study, gave their consent and they volunteered to participate in this study. An Analysis of Covariance was employed to determine the intra group differences among the three groups. When a significant difference among the groups was observed, a pair-wise comparison of the groups was done by using the LSD post-hoc test to identify direction and significant differences between the groups. To test the hypothesis, the level of significance was set at 0.05. The results revealed insignificant differences among long distance runners of three groups on the balance. Significant differences were observed on the variable of agility, flexibility and muscular endurance among the three groups of long distance runners (p≤0.05). Thus, when LSD Post-Hoc test was applied to study the direction and significance of differences between the paired adjusted final means for flexibility and muscular endurance, the experimental groups were found to be significantly different when compared with the control group. It has been observed that dynamic stretching group had demonstrated significantly better on agility, flexibility and muscular endurance whereas CRAC- PNF stretching group had demonstrated better on agility than control group though not significantly. However, CRAC- PNF stretching group has demonstrated significantly better on flexibility than control. This study concludes that significant differences are observed in agility, flexibility and muscular endurance whereas insignificant differences are observed in balance with regard to long distance runners of three groups.

  60. Harshika Awasthi, Kauser Usman, Anuradha Nischal, Dayanandan Mani, Sanjay Khattri, Rakesh Kumar Dixit, Kamal Kumar Sawlani and Rajendra Nath

    Scientific validation of ethno-medicines and their use as therapeutic intervention in the management of chronic diseases like diabetes can provide more effective and less toxic drugs. The aim of this randomized pilot clinical study was to evaluate the safety and therapeutic efficacy of Polyherbal Formulation (PHF) in comparison to Metformin in newly diagnosed type-2 diabetic patients. 46 Patients, newly diagnosed with Type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) were included in the study and randomized into 2 sex, age and BMI matched groups, Group 1 was administered with PHF (2-3 g/day) and group 2 received Metformin (0.5-1.5 g/day) for a period of 16 weeks. Fasting blood glucose (FBG) and post prandial blood glucose (PPBG) was measured every week and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) was measured before and after 3 months. 16 weeks treatment with PHF significantly reduced the PPBG by 20 % relative to 18 % decrease in Metformin. Significant improvement in blood glucose level was also depicted by the reduction in FBG and HbA1c in PHF group, compared to the baseline values. PHF is well tolerated, and the study confirms its antidiabetic activity by reducing the blood glucose in T2DM patients. A larger study is warranted for its use as an adjunctive therapy.

  61. Diab Diab, Adla Hassan, Einas M Al-Harbi, Tayser Garadah, Ammar Khamis, Abdulla Madani and Moiz Bakheit

    Background: Patients with sickle cell disease (SCD) had a low serum level of vitamin D. Also, genotypic analysis in Bahraini SCD patient has not been investigated. Aim: To investigate gene polymorphisms (SNP) and to observe if genotyping, allelic discrimination or allele frequency have any effects on SCD patients compared to controls. Methods: For quantification of serum PTH, ELISA kits were used. Calcium (Ca), phosphate (Ph) and Alkaline Phosphatase (ALP) were measured using the auto analyzer (Cobas). Gene polymorphisms of VDR and PTH genes were investigated using real-time PCR. Results: Genotypic analysis in the VDR gene revealed complete absence of homozygous allele A (the mutant allele) among both SC patients and controls. AG genotypes was more frequent than the GG genotypes in patient and controls (p<0.012). The percentage of allele A frequency was 61.4% and 66.1% within patient and controls, respectively with no statistical difference. Yet, the analysis showed no association within sex between genotypes and allele’s frequency. In the PTH gene, the GG-genotype was more frequent than the AG genotype in patients and controls (p<0.022). The percentage of A allele was 34.3% in patients and 25.8% in controls, but the difference was not significant. No association was found between GG genotype in sex and allele frequency and sex in PTH gene. Conclusion: In the VDR gene the AG genotype is associated with SCD, while in PTH gene the GG genotype is associated with SCD. There was no statistical difference in allele’s frequencies between patients and controls in both VDR and PTH genes. Moreover, no association was found between VDR and PTH gene polymorphisms and their corresponding serum levels suggesting that allele A may be associated with vitamin D serum level.

  62. Ezenwaji, E. E., Ahiadu, H. O., Eduputa, B. M. and Otti, V. I.

    The supply of adequate water and sanitation to marginalised communities since after the Nigerian civil war in 1970, has only achieved a little success. This is despite the interventions in the sector by government and some international agencies. Recent studies in many Sub-Sahara Countries show that new water supply projects stop functioning few years after they are completed and commissioned. The causes of this “low post construction sustainability” have been traced to technical, institutional, financial, social and environmental factors. However, the most critical factor often mentioned in the literature for these failures areinadequate and unsustainable financing of operation and maintenance of the projects. This problem calls for the sourcing of financial model(s) which is/are home grown to various cultures and localities in Nigeria. This paper, therefore, assesses five financial models already developed and are in use in some parts of Nigeria and other countries of Sub-Sahara Africa with a view to recommending those that can be used by the most marginalised communities in the country. This will no doubt end our long search for financial sustainability of our water and sanitation projects especially in the affected communities.

  63. Arun S. K. Shunmugam

    Making a successful international PhD application is always a nightmare to graduate students after the completion of their masters degree. Numerous documents need to be prepared to file in an international PhD application. There are different modes and specific processes involved in this task. Making the right use of available resources and expertise will lead to a desired PhD position. This short communication will serve as a cookbook to graduate students, guide them in a step-wise manner and encourage them to pursue their PhD overseas.

  64. Idoma Kim, Ashiki, Godwin Masin, Apesughur Dominic Achiv and Ibrahim Umar Abdullahi

    Agriculture is one of the key sectors of a country’s economy and the linchpin of rural development. Essentially, seventy-five (75%) of world’s rural population which lives in rural areas depend on agriculture for their livelihood. Hence, Agricultural growth is a crucial factor for inclusive growth and helps in raising rural income and purchasing power. However, agriculture in the rural areas is highly at the mercy of climatic parameters principally rainfall, which makes it critically vulnerable to climate change. Anchoring on exploratory research method and considerable reliance on secondary sources of data, the paper probes in-depth the nexus between climate change and agricultural development cum rural transformation. The mainspring of this article is to analyse the effects of climate change on the role of agriculture in rural development in terms of food production, reduction of poverty and hunger, creation of jobs and exports. To sum up, the paper contends that agriculture should be accorded its prime position in the national economy. It calls for concerted and informed efforts by government to create the enabling environment for Climate Change mitigation, agricultural development and rural transformation, especially in terms of policy formulation, articulation and implementation that would eventually enhance the living conditions of the rural dwellers.

  65. Tayfun Karataș and Esat Mahmut Kocaman

    In this study, we compared to survival and growth rates of brown trout eggs afterhocks at different temperature. In this study, four temperatures and a control group were used. Eggs fertilized by milt of male fish were shocked for 7 minutes in the batches provided to 24±0.1˚C, 26±0.l˚C, 28±0.1˚C and 30±0.1˚C by aquarium heaters. The survival rates of eggs from fertilization to hatching were determined as 81,7% for the control group (9.6˚C), 72,5% for 24˚C, 70,1% for 26˚C and 39,7% for 28˚C, and 29,8% for 30˚C. The difference between groups was statistically significant (P<0.05). All of groups applied heat shocks were 100% diploid. No significant differences between groups with regard to weight gain (WG) and feed conversion rates (FCR), specific growth rates (SGR) of fry at the end of the 150-days experiment were determined. However, WG, FCR and SGR rates of fish shocked in 26˚C were found to be higher than that the other groups (P˃0.05). Finally, the heat shock applied in 26˚C may be important for the optimal development in brown trout.

  66. Bachpai, V. K. W., Rajasugunasekar, D.,Menason, E., Manimuthu, l. and Gurudev Singh, B.

    Ailanthus triphysa is the most preferred species in the safety matches industry. Under the tree improvement programme, selections of this species are to be multiplied by vegetative means for large scale deployment in clonal plantations for productivity enhancement and to meet the industrial demand. Vegetative propagation by rooting of juvenile coppice shoots of A. triphysa was assessed by subjecting them into different concentrations of Indole Butyric acid (IBA). Juvenile shoots were collected from the stumps of the selected trees. IBA with different concentrations (250 ppm, 500 ppm, 750 ppm, 1000 ppm, 1500 ppm, 200 ppm, 2500 ppm, 3000 ppm, 3500 ppm, 4000 ppm and control) were tried to initiate rooting. 2000 ppm concentration was performing maximum level of rooting. This treatment may be used for mass multiplication of A.triphysa.

  67. Sandhya Bharti and Tarun Kumar Banerjee

    Toxicity analyses of the coal mine effluent (CME) on various blood parameters of catfish Heteropneustes fossilis exposed prior to, and after following phytoremediation individually with two macrophytes Azolla pinnata and Lemna minor were performed. Raw CME exposure cause decrease in total erythrocyte count (TEC) (75.13%), hemoglobin (Hb) (82.40%), hematocrit (Hct) (54.75%), mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH) (29.43%), mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC) (61.17%), O2 carrying capacity (82.42%) and total protein concentration (72.39%) and increase in total leucocyte counts (TLC) (145.80%), glucose (73.89%), lipid (262.94%), cholesterol (110.50%) of fish blood. Further, fourfold increase in activities of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and 2 to 3 time rise in the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and lipid peroxidase (LPO) in the serum illustrate toxic manifestation of raw CME on fish tissues. Following exposure to Lemna minor and Azolla pinnata phytoremediated CMEs there were significant but incomplete improvements in most of the hematological and biochemical parameters of serum of fish. This could be probably due to higher amount of total accumulated metals (Metal Pollution Index) in the blood of raw CME exposed fish than in the fish exposed to either of the phytoremediated CMEs.

  68. Navodita G. Maurice

    In India a number of agriculturally important crops are attacked by the obligate biotrophic fungi of the family Erysiphaceae (Ascomycota: Erysiphales) causing powdery mildew resulting in great economic losses. Psyllobora bisoctonotata (Mulsant) a mycophagous coccinellid (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) has been found to feed on powdery mildew in natural condition. A study was conducted to gather information on the development of P. bisoctonotata feeding on the powdery mildew (Erysiphe Polygoni) of the blackgram (Vigna mungo). Results indicate short developmental duration and higher survival ratio.

  69. Sreenivasa Nayaka

    The present study reveled the importance of keratinous compost was significant resulted in to a high valued product acceptable in agricultural, as suitable organic nitrogen source obtained from hair and feather compost. The Application of hair and feather composts improves soil fertility along with other soil properties and could be an attractive natural fertilizer for crops. This method could be an alternative to farm composting to produce a community oriented and eco-friendly compost. The C. roseus Plant grown in soil mixed with composts like hair, feather, mulberry leaves of debris compost, cow dung and urea fertilizer used as compared to control one without compost used. The effect of different composts on the biochemical contents of carbohydrates, proteins, amino acid, nucleic acid, indole acetic acid, chlorophyll, carotenoids, phenol, proline, hydrogen peroxide, ascorbate and glutathione were studied in the leaves of C. roseus. The treated compost C. roseus plant observed significantly increases in hair and feather compost and gradually decreases in debris of mulberry leaves, cow-dung and urea and control plant.

  70. MudasirHabib

    The avifaunal diversity of Hokersar wetland was studied for a period of one year from December 2012 to December 2013. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the diversity and distribution of species in and around the wetland. A total of 58 species were recorded belonging to 27 families from 7 different habitats. Family Anatidae shows maximum species diversity. Among the recorded species(41%) were resident, summer migrant (28%), winter migrant (21%), and local migrant (10%). Open water habitat supports most of the winter migrant birds and plantation supports most of the summer migrant species. Most of the species belong to insectivorous category (45%) and most of the waterfowl species were herbivorous (14%).The vegetation structure and diversity of habitats provide food and shelter for thousands of waterfowl in winter. The main threats responsible for the destruction of the wetland are invasive plants, eutrophication, urbanization, hunting, landscape alteration,soil erosion and flooding.

  71. Vijender Reddy, A., Pramod, D. and Kishore, N.

    Plant growth promotion using microorganisms is recently been studied extensively in order to compensate nutrient deficiencies and combat environmental hazards caused by chemicals. Apart from growth promotion microorganisms are also shown to affect the plant physiology, affecting tolerance to stress conditions, increase in active ingredients (colour, smell etc.,) etc. Pharmacological studies on various medicinal plants, including antibacterial, anti helmenthic, anticancer etc., are well documented. But the effect of microorganisms in increment of pharmacological effect in plant is studied at remote. In the present paper an attempt was made to study the impact of PGPR on increment of antimicrobial activities of different plant parts in Abrus precatorious. In general phytochemical properties of Abrus precatorious was found improved when treated with PGPR but antimicrobial activity was not significantly high compared to non treated plants. [

  72. Pramod, D., Kishore, N., Vijender Reddy, A. and Nasaruddin

    Leaf blight of rice is a disease of major concern in rice cultivation. This disease caused by bacterial pathogen Xanthomonas oryzae pv oryzae creates major issues during export and import of food material between countries. World loss due to this disease is the major concern of today’s pathologists and food technologists. Conventional methods used for determining the disease consume time, not viable for accurate pathogen identification and thereby hinder the implementation of apt control measures. Molecular methods for identification of pathogen are often reliable, econometric, less time consuming and flexible for easy usage. The regulatory measures levied for controlling the movement of pathogen from one country to other country can be addressed by molecular identification methods determining pathogenic and non-pathogenic Xanthomonads. In the present paper an attempt was made to identify wild xanthomonads using conventional and molecular methods (16S r DNA).

  73. Suchitra, G., Palaksha and Shakunthala, V.

    The fruit fly Drosophila has been extensively important organism not only for genetic, molecular, developmental studies but for also medicinal science, because of similiarility in pharmacological and physiological properties common to humans. The seed of Mucuna pruriens suggested in the treatment of gonorrhea, general debility and many studies have showed that it possess a wide range of pharmacologic activities such as antimicrobial, anti-protozoal, anti-inflammatory, neuroprotective, antidiabetic and antioxidant and aphrodisiac property etc. Thus the present study is focused on the aphrodisiac property of the Mucuna pruriens seed on courtship behaviour and fitness of D. melanogaster. To examine this, D. melanogaster flies were treated with aqueous extracts of Mucuna pruriens seeds by adult feeding method along with control. Mating latency and copulation duration was observed and the same flies were used to check their egg laying ability and fertility. The results revealed that there is decrease in the mating latency and increase in copulation duration compared to control. Flies have showed increased fecundity and fertility compared to untreated flies. There is 10-15% increase in reproductive ability of the flies.

  74. Syfujjaman Tarafder and Jana, N. C.

    Like all other coastal areas in different parts of the world, the southern coastal tract of West Bengal has also been attracting the visitors and recreationists not only from home but also from abroad which can significantly contribute to the development of tourism as well as regional development in the area under study. Digha, Shankarpur, Mandarmani, Talshari, Bakkhali, Gangasagar, are major such sites of beach tourism along with wildlife ecotourism in the world- famous Sundarbans in the southern parts of 24-Parganas Districts. The present paper attempts to highlight the nature, scope and extent of tourism development in coastal West Bengal along with environmental concerns and their management for the sustainable development of ecotourism. This is a study based on available data and information from the secondary sources substantiated with primary level observations. The objectives in the present context are the management of coastal tourism in general and coastal resorts in particular without hampering the coastal environment in the light of eco-friendly tourism development.

  75. Samriti Sharma, Ravneet KaurGrewal and Mohit Chawla

    Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) is a rapidly expanding global pandemic. Despite more than a decade of intense research to understand the HIV pathogenesis aimed at developing an effective therapy for AIDS, achieving a true eradication of HIV remains a daunting challenge. However, significant progress has been made in the management of HIV-1 replication using potent inhibitors. HIV-2 serotype of HIV was determined to be a cause of disease in the parts of the West African population, and there is evidence for its spread to Europe and Asia. It has also been found that HIV-2 reverse transcriptase (RT) demonstrates intrinsic resistance to non-nucleoside RT inhibitors, one of the two classes of anti- AIDS drugs that target the viral RT. The given article is an attempt towards designing a potent drug that can block the activity of HIV-2 RT. This has been achieved by conducting a comparative analysis between the reverse transcriptase from the two strains of HIV viz. HIV-1 and HIV-2. After the comparative analysis of two genomes and structure of the enzyme, molecular docking of the HIV-2 RT was performed using phytochemicals in order to gain insights pertaining to mechanism of binding of the ligand to the receptor. Docking results revealed that Curcumin, Astralgin and Tiliroside bind to pocket 2 (Pkt 2) with higher binding energies as compared to pocket1 (Pkt1).

  76. Ottong, Eno Joseph and Robert Blessing E.

    The study was conducted to investigate the relationship between Library management and the adoption of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in University Libraries in Akwa-Ibom and Cross River States, Nigeria. To achieve this, two hypotheses were formulated to guide the study. Survey research design was adopted for the study using a total of one hundred and fifty (150) respondents, through purposive sampling technique. A validated questionnaire with a reliability estimate of 0.86 was used for data collection. Data collected were analyzed through the use of Pearson Product Moment Correlation Analysis technique. The testing was carried out at .05 level of significance. Results of the analysis among other things revealed that, planning of library services and staffing have statistically significant relationship with the adoption of ICT in University libraries in Akwa-Ibom and Cross River States, Nigeria. Based on the findings of the study, it was recommended that: proper planning should be a continuous process in order to improve ICT competences among institutional administrators. It was equally suggested that library staffs and education planners should be properly trained in the use of ICT in library operations in other to enhance the advantages derivable from library services.

  77. Ragi, P. R., Joseph John, Sujana, K. A. and Anil Kumar, N.

    The present paper describes the antibacterial activity of six plants traditionally used for the treatment of mastitis by Kattunaikka tribe of Wayanad district of Kerala. The antibacterial activity was tested by the disc diffusion assay. All the test plants showed antibacterial activity against all the tested microorganisms. Among these plants Elephantopus scaber and Annona reticulata showed promising activity against many of the tested microorganisms associated with bovine mastitis. Tinospora cordifolia showed low activity against all the tested microorganisms and in lowest concentration of plant extract no activity was observed for Klebsiella pneumonia and Staphylococcus aureus. Among the various concentrations of aqueous extracts tested for the antimicrobial studies 100% found to be highly effective followed by 50% and 25%. The study reveals the importance of plants in the control of dreadful disease like mastitis. Potential herbal drugs will be developed from these plants that can reduce the burden of antibiotics and the resultant emergence of antibiotic resistant microorganisms.

  78. Mantyi-Ncube, B. and Langwenya, W.

    There have been several investigations using social science approaches into the impacts of fashion on how other people perceive us, as a result of the clothes we wear. Clothing is the most important feature in people’s lives. When we buy any article of clothing we consciously or unconsciously think about its relationship with our personality type. Dress, a visible symbol for fundamental beliefs, can be influenced by several factors. Swaziland, through print media has published concerns on female students’ dress code, especially during graduation ceremonies, asserting that students dressed inappropriately. This descriptive study therefore, was conducted to ascertain factors that influenced University of Swaziland (UNISWA) female students’ dress-code; and, also to determine types of clothes students perceived as modest. Furthermore, the study sought to determine how respondents prioritised purposes of clothing. A closed-ended questionnaire was validated, pilot-tested with UNISWA students, at Mbabane Campus; a reliability coefficient of 0.881 obtained. Questionnaires were distributed to ninety six 3rd and 4th year Luyengo Campus female students’ residents. SPSS version 17.0 was used for data analysis. Study results indicated that students’ dress code was influenced by competition among friends (32.3%), celebrities’ lifestyles (32.7%), while self-confidence (35.0%) was the most influential factor. With reference to purposes of clothing, protection (46.8%) was the most important, and modesty (23.0%) being the least important to respondents. Thus, it can be concluded that respondents considered protecting themselves from the harsh weather conditions and the environment whenever making clothing selections, with little consideration on modest clothing in their clothing selections.

  79. Susmita Das, A. K. Patra and Utpal Kumar Sar

    The female specimens of Labeo rohita (body weight, 150-750 gm) had been assessed during the period of 15 June to 15 September, 2012. This season was particularly choosen because of the attainment of sexual maturity as well as optimum growth of the female ones. These specimens were assessed in three groups- young, matured and matured but adults. The study revealed that the values of gastrosomatic index (GSI), gonadosomatic index (GnSI), hepatosomatic index (HSI) and conditional factor (K) were 0.408, 0.235, 0.699, 1.618 and 0.395, 0.296, 0.708, 2.169 and 0.413, 0.374 0.982, 2.194 in young, matured and matured but adults respectively. Above index values and conditional factor had been observed to be high in matured but adult females than other female ones. Attempts and achievements of this work showed that the growth rate of female ones was proper and aquatic condition viz. (pH-8.0, alkalinity-66.0mgl-1, free CO₂, dissolved O₂, total solid-114.0 mgl-1, total hardness-60.0 mgl-1, total suspended solid-4.0 mgl-1, Chloride-10.6 mgl-1) was favourable.

  80. Bahekar, V. R., Rahangdale, P. K., Thakare, S. R. and Shende, S. S.

    The present research article reports the mechanical and morphological properties of a new nano composite material derived from aniline - ortho toludine - diethylaniline terpolymer (AOTDEA) and graphene oxide (GO). The composite under present investigation has shown significant improvement in its mechanical properties and morphological characters as compared to terpolymer alone. AOTDEA terpolymer was obtained by condensation polymerisation of the starting materials and its structure has been assigned by physicochemical and spectral evidences. GO was prepared from graphite using a modified Hummers method. GO was used as a nano-filler for the fabrication of AOTDEA-GO composite. It is evident that addition of 5% by weight of GO led to significant enhancement in tensile strength of the composite. It is supported by the drastic decrease in the Young’s modulus values of terpolymer and its composite with GO that is 3.9 GPa and 2.3 GPa respectively. It is further supported by increased elongation at break values. The decrease in volume resistivity values suggests that incorporation of GO during composite fabrication served as a conducting filler material to form elec-trical percolation networks in the composites. The improved morphological properties are supported by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images.

  81. Tekale C. D., Tumbare A. D., Tekale G. S., Danawale N. J. and Tambe S. T.

    The fertigation level of 125 per cent of RDF as well as fertigation of recommended dose of N and K at every 2 days interval in equal splits up to 110 days + P as a basal dose to cucumber exhibited significantly maximum vine length & number of branches vine-1 compared to rest of the fertigation levels and schedules under polyhouse condition. Application of 125 per cent of RDF along with fertigation of recommended dose of N and K at every 2 days interval in equal splits up to 110 days + P as a basal dose to cucumber recorded significantly higher fruit length, number of fruits vine-1& average fruit weight than rest of the treatment combinations during first year, second year and on pooled mean. Application of 125 per cent of RDF coupled with fertigation of recommended dose of N and K at every 2 days interval in equal splits up to 110 days + P as a basal dose to cucumber recorded significantly maximum cucumber fruit yield per unit area of polyhouse than rest of the treatment combinations during both the years and on pooled mean. Application of 125 per cent of RDF coupled with fertigation of recommended dose of N and K at every 2 days interval in equal splits up to 110 days + P as a basal dose to cucumber obtained significantly maximum gross monetary returns and B: C ratio under polyhouse condition.

  82. Anjali Verma and Dr. Narendra Kumar

    Monsoon is an annually recurring weather phenomenon due to variations in precipitation. Some regions in India receive very large monsoon precipitation causing floods and some parts are facing water scarcity problems due to low precipitation resulting in droughts condition. Almost half of the world's population lives in areas affected by the monsoons of Asia and most of these people are farmers, so the coming and goings of the monsoon are vital to their livelihood to grow food to feed them. Ministry of Water Resources and the Central Water Commission formulated a number of inter-basin water transfer links under a National Perspective Plan (NPP) in 1980, to overcome the problems of flood and drought. The purpose of the inter-basin water transfer links is to transfer surplus water from surplus regions to deficit regions which will help in minimizing the problem of flood and drought in India.

  83. Ramesh K Garg, Sudarsanam, D., Jenifer M Ambrose and Praveena, P.

    Several studies have demonstrated that bone marrow-derived stem cells are plastic, thus capable of being differentiated or transdifferentiated into specialized cells, each with new specialized cell function. It is hypothesized that bone marrow, in addition to hematopoietic stem cells (HSC), also houses heterogeneous population of cells used in regenerative medicine At present, bone marrow-derived stem cells are used for treating a wide spectrum of diseases (Pittenger et al., 1999; Deda et al., 2008; Kumar et al., 2009). Hence, in this study, heterogenous population of cells was isolated from the mononuclear cells of bone marrow source and they were characterized based on their cell surface markers expression using flowcytometry. Also, the cell enumeration and viability testing were done to determine the total number of viable cells isolated from the bone marrow. It was found that hematopoietic stem cells, mesenchymal stem cells, and endothelial progenitor cells were present in bone marrow. Furthermore, it was observed that side population cells also reside in bone marrow and they were characterized based on their immunocytochemistry. Further studies need to be carried out to understand the role of side population in the potential of bone marrow derived stem cells, which could provide new insight in to the regeneration process of bone marrow stem cells that are used in therapeutics.

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