Subject Area

  • Life Sciences / Biology
  • Architecture / Building Management
  • Asian Studies
  • Business & Management
  • Chemistry
  • Computer Science
  • Economics & Finance
  • Engineering / Acoustics
  • Environmental Science
  • Agricultural Sciences
  • Pharmaceutical Sciences
  • General Sciences
  • Materials Science
  • Mathematics
  • Medicine
  • Nanotechnology & Nanoscience
  • Nonlinear Science
  • Chaos & Dynamical Systems
  • Physics
  • Social Sciences & Humanities

Why Us? >>

  • Open Access
  • Peer Reviewed
  • Rapid Publication
  • Life time hosting
  • Free promotion service
  • Free indexing service
  • More citations
  • Search engine friendly

Plagiarism Detection

IJCR is following an instant policy on rejection those received papers with plagiarism rate of more than 20%. So, All of authors and contributors must check their papers before submission to making assurance of following our anti-plagiarism policies.













July 2014

Introduction: Presence of different potent genotoxic substance in the aquatic environment has led to the development and adaptations of modern and reliable techniques for quick monitoring. Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD-PCR) is a remarkable technology that has immense application in clinical medicine, forensic science, pathogen detection, genotoxicants detection etc. Aim and Objectives: To assess the genotoxic effect of triazophos using RAPD. To assess the apoptosis induced by the triazophos using DNA ladder method.

Biological Park is within Bannerghatta National Park. Physico-chemical analysis was carried out on water samples of Kavalkere pond in Bannerghatta Biological Park area. The pond is used for recreation and the water analysis showed that water is slightly coloured and slightly contaminated while the other characteristics fall within Indian permissible limits.

Diabetes I am an expert in the arena of dermatoglyphics i.e. study of finger prints. On this discipline, I have an experience of 28 years. Consequently I have done some research work in the formation of Patterns on the first phalange of all the fingers and also on the skin of palms. By authenticating the finger impressions and its nature of forming ridge characteristics, ridges as well as its patterns, I have understood that each finger impression is working as an index of an organ which leads to the analysis of organ development and its condition.

The researchers focused on the challenges faced by women owned micro enterprises in accessing business information in Limuru Constituency, Kenya. Survey research design was used. The target population included 1764 women owned micro enterprises. Stratified random sampling and focus group discussions were utilized. The researchers found that the women respondents were fairly well educated as 77.2% of the women interviewed had secondary and post secondary education.

The institutional credit has been conceived to play an essential part in the agricultural development of India. A large number of institutional agencies are involved in the disbursement of credit to agriculture. In spite of various measures to rejuvenate farm credit, the flow of credit to agriculture sector remained inadequate quantitatively and qualitatively. In this backdrop, the present study has examined the inadequacies of institutional agricultural credit system and has identified the determinants of increased use of institutional credit at the farm household level in Coimbatore.

This paper discussing about the issue of corruption in India, specifically look on the links between media and corruption. This study discuss about the freedom limitation and importance of media in democracy like fourth pillar. Major issue of this paper is discussing about the role of media to fight against corruption. This paper provides an overview over the basic principles of media effects and illustrates these with a few case studies before presenting specific techniques of involving the media in the fight against grand corruption and every-day corruption.

This paper quantifies the predictability of two major components comprising the climate i.e temperature and rainfall. The quantification is done using a Fractal dimensional analysis of the corresponding time series. The Climate Predictability Index for temperature and rainfall is estimated for four station of Tamilnadu, India. The predictability index gives an indication of how predictable the climate is for a given station.

Set out to investigate the importance attached to quality of sachet water produced, the study used a sample of 215 respondents in the Tamale Metropolitan Area. The study established that, a significant number of producers of sachet water are not certified in the metropolis. It was also manifested from the study that, consumers of sachet water in the Tamale Metropolis are not sufficiently educated on their rights to information on the safety of sachet water sold in the metropolis.

The global water scarcity analysis shows that a large share of world population up to two thirds will be affected over next several decades in Asia and other region. The major reason for such situation is due to neglect of river basin approach and watershed management initiatives over a period of time. The macro level initiative of river basin includes micro molecules of watershed management. In India, watershed programs are implemented across many river basins for over three decades.

To be useful for decision making, costing reports produced by the cost accounting system should be characterized by various attributes (relevance, summarization, accuracy, etc.). This paper aims at exploring the associations between cost systems and the quality of costing reports attributes, specifically the cost accounting systems structures in terms of level of details, level of disaggregation, variances calculation, and frequency of reporting. It also intends to explain the variance in report attributes.

One of the leading sectors in current global business is tourism, responsible for significant proportion of world production, trade, employment and investment, helping inflow of foreign exchange and FDI. Although India’s share in global tourism remained meager till early part of last decade however the sector has taken rapid strides in recent years by attracting national and international visitors in number, contributing towards countries GDP, employment generation, etc.

In the present work, some polymeric additives were prepared via copolymerization of hexadecylacrylate and dodecylacrylate with styrene. Structure of the prepared compounds was confirmed by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (F.T.I.R.), Proton Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (1H-NMR), and Gel Permeation Chromatography (GPC). The rheological properties of lube oil (SAE-30) with and without additives were studied at different temperatures (40oC, 60oC and 100oC) and it was found that they behave as Bingham fluids. The sensitivity of the prepared terpolymers to mechanical stresses was studied.

The present paper is an outcome of an extensive comprehensive study in the villages where the Paite tribe of Manipur inhabited. This survey is taken up to explore the medicinal plants used by the Paite tribe in their surroundings. The Paite tribes are mostly occupied in Churachandpur district of Manipur. This paper includes the ways and the modes of using the plants in various ailments. From the survey, a total of 40 plants belonging to 31 families were recorded for different ailments.

Static access memory (SRAM) is a building block of several logic circuits. SRAM is a fast memory which consumes low power. It is a fundamental building block of central processing unit of a computer. In this paper we design a low power circuit for 64 bit 5T SRAM using bottom-up approach. We use 0.12 micron meter technology and 90 neno meter technology for designing and simulation low power dissipation SRAM with dsch and micro wind. In this paper we simulate that reduction of power consumption in .12 micro technologies and 90 neno meter technology is 93% and 94% respectively.

Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in multidrug resistance gene1 (MDR1) could alter the gene expression level and may have effect role in responses to drug therapy and diseases susceptibility. The aim of the present study is to investigate allele frequency in Iraqi healthy and AML patients to detect the susceptibility of C3435T genotype carrier to develop acute myeloid leukemia. Also the study aimed to correlate the expression level of MDR1 mRNA with MDR1 gene and C3435T polymorphism in de novo AML patients.

Keeping in view the guidelines given in the rulebook of the event Formula SAE 2013 (FSAE 2013), which is organized by SAE International, the chassis of car (which could successfully compete all events) was designed using Solid Works 2013. Various tests were performed using the same software. The weight of the car was set at an upper limit of 300 Kilograms. The front wheel track width was set at 52 inches and the rear wheel track width at 51 inches.

Protein-Protein interactions play a major role in carrying out biological functions including enzymatic catalysis, ion transportation and cellular regulation. Systems level understanding of cellular functions uncovers all functional interactions of proteins. It is, thus, important to have resources which make available structural details about these interactions.

Reduced Graphene Oxide (rGO) based Nickel Sulfide (NiS) anchor nanocomposites were developed via hydrothermal approach. We have investigated the effect of different concentration of thioglycolic acid on graphene oxide reduction. More the thioglycolic acid present with the graphene oxide, the reduction is more and high electrochemical activity is also achieved by the composite having high concentration of sulfur. We have achieved specific capacitance of 109.37 F/g at 2.5 A/g for the composite rGO-NiS using 2.7 ml of thioglycolic acid.

Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (AUV) is capable of performing point-to-point data collection underneath the thick winter ice sheet. The advantages of AUV instead of remote operable vehicles (ROVs) or towed unmanned vehicles are the lower cost involved and a better quality during the inspection missions. Modeling, system identification and control of these vehicles are still major active areas of research and development. The design and development of the vehicle consisted of implementing a mechanical and electrical system, as well as the integration of subsystems.

In this paper, two different approaches such as ranking value of a fuzzy number approach and a distinct approach to critical path analysis in project networks are presented in a fuzzy environment. In project network, the activity times are uncertain and are represented by interval valued fuzzy numbers (IVFNS) in the work. The corresponding fuzzy arithmetics and fuzzy ranking values of a fuzzy numbers are utilized to determine the fuzzy critical path without converting the fuzzy activity time to classical number.

This paper aims to describe the called Arabic Questions Generation (AQG) system. It automates the process of generating questions fill in the blanks from Arabic texts, based on pre-generated corpus pattern. The system as well uses Stanford Arabic Natural Languages Processing (NLP) tools to generate a morphological tagged tree from the Arabic text, which then be matched with the patterns to form the question.

This paper is a case study related to action research done while I was a teacher trainee doing teaching practice and it details about the specific problem of a dyslexic pupil of high school in the capital city of Kerala. The significance of the study, objectives, methodology adopted, analysis and interpretation and remedial measures taken are detailed.

The theoretical study of energy dependence of charged multiplicity could discriminate among the different theoretical models of particle production. In the present work, an attempt has been made to analyse the data on mean charged multiplicity in Hadron-Hadron interactions and also to modify the earlier parameterization with modified values of different parameters on the basis of some unambiguous phenomenon.

The nervous system is made up of a large number of interacting neurons or nerve cells. Neuron is an electrically excitable cell that processes and transmits information through electrical and chemical signals. A typical neuron possesses a cell body or (soma), dendrites, and an axon. In neurons, action potentials play a central role in cell-to-cell communication. Once an action potential is initiated at one point in the nerve cell, it propagates through the axon to the synaptic terminal region and from there signal is transmitted to next neuron.

Effects of the addition of 1.5 mol% CuSO4 on the growth and the various properties of Lithium Ammonium Sulphate (LAS) single crystals grown by the slow evaporation solution growth technique have been studied. The grown crystals were characterized by single crystal X- Ray Diffraction analysis (XRD), Fourier Transform Infrared spectral studies (FT-IR), UV-Vis- NIR, Atomic Absorption Study (AAS), Thermal analysis and Micro hardness studies. It is observed that the intensity of the plane (111) in pure LAS increases with that of CuSO4-doped LAS increases than in the pure LAS crystal.

The use of integrated circuits in high-performance computing, telecommunications, and consumer electronics has been growing at a very fast speed Typically, the required computational and information processing power of these applications is the driving force for the fast development. We propose a technique called self controllable voltage level (SVL) technique which significantly reduces the leakage current. Dynamic power dissipation is also reduced.

It is an acceptable fact that Yorùbá include in their vocabulary, expressive words, marked off from the rest of the vocabulary by similar phono-syntactic characteristics, which they call idiophones. This fact has long been recognized by the Yorùbá scholars at one time or the other, and have written extensively on it. Of particular interest to this paper is that of Newman (1968) who asserts that idiophones have some syntactic functions. Samarin (1967) also argues that idiophones should be identified primarily on the basis of syntactic behaviour rather than phono-semantic criterion.

India is the second largest producer of onions in the world after China. It enjoys 19% share of the global onion production. The annual average production is 12 lakh tones. The study has been undertaken to understand the effect of Area and Yield on Production of Onion and to study export trends of Onion. The production of onion has significantly increased over the past 30 years (1980-2012) but there has been lots of fluctuations specially from 1995 onwards indicating that production of onion is not steady year over year but sometimes increases and decreases.

Education brings excellence, enriches the mind and illuminates the spirit. It prepares a child for good citizenship. It liberates the from ignorance, superstition, prejudices and ultimately unfolds the vision and truth. Ignorance is the mother of weakness and helplessness, whereas education brings light of knowledge and knowledge in itself is power. Education is the process of getting knowledge. Right to education is a part and parcel of right to life and personal liberty. This right flows directly from right to life. A good quality education is the birth right of every child.

This study investigates the relationship between motivation, creativity, rewards and work related curiosity. The sample of this study consisted of 99 educationist of Universities of Pakistan. A questionnaire was used to gather data regarding above mentioned variables and demographic characteristics of the respondents. A positive strong significant relationship was found between motivation, creativity, and rewards and work related curiosity.

Shortage of water leads to drought stress. Drought stress causes generation of activated oxygen species (AOS) in plants. To overcome water shortage problem plants shows some adaptive mechanism such antioxidant defense and accumulation of osmolytes or osmoprotectants against “AOS”. Activity of enzymes such as catalase (CAT), proxidase (POD) and amylase, protein content and accumulation rate of osmoregulants such as proline and carbohydrate were studied in two wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars.

Treatment of malarial infection has becoming extremely challenging due to widespread resistance of the parasite towards available antimalarial drugs. In the present study, we investigated the antimalarial activity of the ethanolic extracts of Streptomyces sp (KMA08) in Plasmodium berghei infected mice. The antimalarial activities during early and established infections were evaluated using Peters’ 4-day suppressive test method. Different concentration of the crude extracts were orally administered to screen for their antimalarial activities.

Lymph node infarction refers to a syndrome of spontaneous coagulative necrosis. One case of lymph node infarction will be encountered in every 450 lymph node biopsied lesions. It is a rare phenomenon associated with various neoplastic and nonneoplastic conditions. The non-neoplastic conditions include polyarteritis nodosa, viral infections (Parvovirus B19, Infectious mononucleosis), thrombosis, gold injections, fine needle aspiration cytology and finally may be idiopathic. The neoplastic lesions most commonly associated with infarction are malignant lymphoma and metastatic melanoma.

Background: Worm infestation is the infection of intestinal tract with any of several species of helminthes or parasitic worms, including Ascaris (Round worm), Entrobius (Pin worm), Trichinella spiralis and various species of Cestodes (Tape worm). (Kumari 2006) The World Health Organization estimates that over one billion of the world’s population is chronically infested with soil transmitted helminthes. (Panwanda Geeta 2011) Worm infestation remains one of the main problems of child development. This is especially a great health hazard in developing countries.

Voluntary Counselling and Testing (VCT) provides people with the opportunity to learn and accept their sero status in a confidential environment. Recent studies have shown that VCT is a cost-effective intervention for reducing HIV amongst pregnant women. To know their HIV status is an important tool for prevention of mother to child transmission. VCT among pregnant women attending antenatal care (ANC) clinics is the first filter to access Prevention of Mother to Child Transmission (PMTCT).

Variations in the shape of aorta are very rare. These variations could be clinically significant and potentially fatal. Here we report a case of grooved ascending aorta with sinuous descending aorta associated with aneurysm formation and its clinical implications.

The intensive care unit is a unique hospital setting, not only because of its physical environment but also because the patients are unstable and submitted to physical and psychological stresses. Delirium is a common disorder in intensive care unit. It is still misdiagnosed by healthcare providers and is treated inappropriately or neglected. Nursing care for delirium includes regular assessment and monitor frequently for at risk patients. The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of educational program on nurses’ knowledge and practice regarding delirium among critically ill patients.

Chemotherapy is a cornerstone of therapy for most patients with leukaemia. It is often accompanied by a number of unwanted side effects, the most prevalent of which is nausea and vomiting. Despite use of antiemetics the incidence chemotherapy induced nausea and vomiting is greater than 50% even after antiemetic prophylaxis. Progressive Muscle Relaxation Technique (PMRT) and acupressure help to reduce the severity, frequency and duration of chemotherapy induced nausea and vomiting.

Fertility is an existential necessity and assumes overwhelming importance to men and women in all times. Existence depends upon fertility of land and live stock as well upon human procreation. With time, Social habits and religion influenced human perception of fertility or infertility. Pregnancy, child birth and child rearing generally have greater physical reality for women than men, as does the monthly reminder of the absence of a pregnancy for an infertile woman. This is compounded by a cultural belief that infertility is a woman’s problem.

Introduction: There has been a rise in the prevalence of myopia across the world. Although several hypotheses have been proposed, exact cause remains obscure. Methods: The study has been conducted on first MBBS students. After detailed history, ophthalmic examination was done including visual acuity and cycloplegic refraction. Prevalence of myopia was calculated and statistically analyzed. Results: Out of 150 (36 males) students myopia was found in (94) 62.66%. The number of myopic females was more than myopic males (61.7% vs, 38.29%, p < 0.005).

This study elaborates how John Habwe depicts Christianity in his book Paradiso (2005). Throughout the book, the writer shows how Christian religion can be used as a tool of oppression. Habwe uses examples from some churches to depict conflicts and hypocrisy in the church. This leads to the conclusion that Christianity has been used to con members of the church in order to enrich its leaders. This paper explains various types of oppression against believers in the church as portrayed in Paradiso.

A field experiment was conducted on silty clay loam soil of Organic farm of Department of Organic Agriculture, CSKHPKV, Palampur with 36 treatments of cropping systems, spatial arrangements and weed management with an objective to study the performance of various intercrops and spacings on weed suppression in wheat during the year 2010-11 & 2011-12. Cropping systems were comprised of wheat + gram, wheat + lentil and wheat + peas and wheat alone with three spatial arrangements of 15 cm, 22.5 cm and 30 cm and three weeding techniques viz. 1 handweeding, 2 handweedings and unweeded check.

Influenza A viruses are animal disease pathogens that ceaselessly mutated and flow into in many hosts, as birds, pigs, and human. The spectrum of morbidity and mortality of H1N1, H5N1, and H3N2 viruses are related mainly to the pathological lesions they turn out. H1N1 and H5N1 viruses are usually associated with inflammation, congestion and necrosis of the larger airway's epithelium with extension into the alveoli producing interstitial leukocytic infiltration and oedema. High morbidity by H1N1 virus is owned to infection of the epithelium at upper and lower airways.

Introduction: The research in the last decade emphasizes the need for uncovering the gender differences in vulnerability to and the impact of, specific health conditions. Therefore this study was undertaken to evaluate sex difference in body mass index (BMI) an indicator of obesity in healthy subjects and subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

The infant is a dynamic, ever-changing being who undergoes an orderly and predictable sequence of neuro developmental and physical growth. This sequence is influenced continuously by intrinsic and extrinsic forces that produce individual variation and make each infant’s developmental path unique. Parents need to understand growth and development in order to monitor child’s progress, to identify delays or abnormalities in development. By monitoring child and family the nurse can observe the inter-relationship of physical growth and cognitive, motor and emotional development.

Introduction: Tuberculosis, an infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. It primarily affects the lung causing pulmonary tuberculosis. It can also affect intestine, meninges, bones and joints, lymph glands and other organs of the body. The disease is usually chronic with varying clinical manifestations. The most important form is the pulmonary tuberculosis. Materials and Methods: This is a retrospective study had been carried out in The National Center of Neurological Sciences (NCNS), during January 2003 to December 2006.

Effectiveness is a measure of whether or not organizational objectives are accomplished. In contrast, efficiency is the relationship between outputs and inputs. Only monopolies can get away with being effective. Moreover, in an era of diminishing resources and increasing concern about civil rights, society is reluctant to label “effective” any organisation that wastes scare resources or tramples on civil rights. Management’s definition of organisation effectiveness therefore needs to be refined. The related issue of organisation decline also needs to be understood and skillfully managed.

Psychiatric clinical experience has been linked to high levels of stress and anxiety in nursing students and there is a link between the nursing student attrition and the stress related to the clinical experience. This study aimed to 1- Assess baccalaureate undergraduate nursing students' clinical anxiety in the first psychiatric clinical practice. 2-Determine the change in undergraduate nursing students' clinical anxiety at the end of the first psychiatric clinical placement. Descriptive and quasi experimental design were used in the study.

Background: Nursing care provided to mothers during post partum period constitutes an essential component of the package of maternal and child health services in any population. A woman's body undergoes several changes after delivery, these changes can be a source of considerable concern and may contribute to a number of adverse health conditions. For these reasons, Nursing care is of utmost importance in preventing adverse health outcomes for mothers and their newborn babies.

Introduction: In our presenting study we consider reproductive age of women 15 to 45 year. Prevalence of unnatural death among reproductive aged females significantly affects community. Study data included in our study are not sufficient and like tip of iceberg because only unnatural death and recorded victims are included. Aim of the study: by presenting study to aware about status of prevalence of unnatural death in reproductive aged group of women to upgrade autopsy center, improve education in rural area, health delivery system.

A gallstone is a crystallineconcretion formed within the gallbladder by accretion of bile components. These calculi are formed in the gallbladder, but may pass distally into other parts of the biliary tract such as the cystic duct, common bile duct, pancreatic duct or the ampulla of Vater. Presence of gallstones in other parts of the biliary tract can cause obstruction of the bile ducts, which can lead to serious conditions such as ascending cholangitis or pancreatitis. Either of these two conditions can be life-threatening, and are therefore considered to be medical emergencies.

Sciatic nerve is the widest, thickest nerve of the body, arising from lumbosacral plexus. It is near about 2 cm wide. Sciatic nerve is formed by anterior and posterior divisions of spinal nerves L4, L5, S1, S2, S3. It has two components common peroneal and tibial components. It is formed in pelvic region, it emerges out from pelvis into gluteal region through greater sciatic foramena by passing below piriformis as a single nerve trunk. Then it courses in back of thigh and at the apex of popliteal fossa where it terminates into tibial nerve and common peroneal nerve.

Introduction: The atlas vertebra consists of two lateral masses connected by a short anterior and a longer posterior arch. The superior surface of the posterior arch bears a wide groove for the vertebral artery and the first cervical spinal nerve.

Introduction: Majority of children being admitted in hospital become the recipients of intravenous cannulation for various reasons at some stage and fact has been proved that drugs or fluids given through intravenous line has a quick and better response than other routes. Despite the benefits of a peripheral line, the occurrence of phlebitis is at a higher rate. The main aim and objective of the study was to assess and compare the effectiveness of freshaloevera and glycerin magnesium sulphate application on phlebitis.

Background: Erythrocyte sedimentation rate, C-reactive protein, and leukocyte count are commonly used inflammatory markers. It is debatable whether each of these tests can be used individually or always these tests should be used in together. Objective: This study aimed to compare C-reactive protein, erythrocyte sedimentation rate and leukocyte count as inflammatory markers. Materials and Methods: This is an analytical comparative study; included 50 patients with different inflammatory disorders. Three blood samples were collected from each patient.

Pregnancy is a special event not only in the life of women but also to the family. But, as the pregnancy reaches the due date, the fear of labor pain and sometimes past bad experiences of labor pain makes the women to refuse the delivery in a natural way. Nurses are the direct health care providers who are responsible for overall management of labor.

Diabetes Mellitus (DM) is a major health problem worldwide. It is a disease which is not cured once it is developed, but it can be controlled. It causes many complications when uncontrolled but can be prevented with proper control. Overall knowledge on health promotion is essential to prevent complications of DM. The aim of this study is to assess the knowledge of DM, its treatments, complications, prevention of complications and maintaining general health among the Tamils attending the Diabetic Education Center at the Teaching Hospital, Batticaloa, Sri Lanka.

Introduction: Students are the major recipients of psychological guidance and counselling services in a university setting where each student is enable to derive optimal educational benefits so as to actualize his/her potentialities. Students face great challenges and difficulties ranging from individual personal problems, to institutional and general problems when they enter a university for the first time. Purpose of this study was to determine knowledge and attitudes of a selected group of undergraduates towards psychological guidance and counselling.

This study investigated the effect of 6-weeks of dynamic and contract- relax antagonist contract PNF stretching intervention on performance measures of long distance runners. To obtain data, the investigators had selected sixty (N=60) female long distance runners of 18-23 years of age to act as subjects The purposive sampling technique was used to select the subjects. All the subjects were purposively allotted to Contract Relax Antagonist Contract PNF (CRAC-PNF) stretching group (n1 =20); Dynamic stretching group (n2=20) & control Group (n3=20).

Scientific validation of ethno-medicines and their use as therapeutic intervention in the management of chronic diseases like diabetes can provide more effective and less toxic drugs. The aim of this randomized pilot clinical study was to evaluate the safety and therapeutic efficacy of Polyherbal Formulation (PHF) in comparison to Metformin in newly diagnosed type-2 diabetic patients.

Background: Patients with sickle cell disease (SCD) had a low serum level of vitamin D. Also, genotypic analysis in Bahraini SCD patient has not been investigated. Aim: To investigate gene polymorphisms (SNP) and to observe if genotyping, allelic discrimination or allele frequency have any effects on SCD patients compared to controls. Methods: For quantification of serum PTH, ELISA kits were used. Calcium (Ca), phosphate (Ph) and Alkaline Phosphatase (ALP) were measured using the auto analyzer (Cobas). Gene polymorphisms of VDR and PTH genes were investigated using real-time PCR.

The supply of adequate water and sanitation to marginalised communities since after the Nigerian civil war in 1970, has only achieved a little success. This is despite the interventions in the sector by government and some international agencies. Recent studies in many Sub-Sahara Countries show that new water supply projects stop functioning few years after they are completed and commissioned. The causes of this “low post construction sustainability” have been traced to technical, institutional, financial, social and environmental factors.

Making a successful international PhD application is always a nightmare to graduate students after the completion of their masters degree. Numerous documents need to be prepared to file in an international PhD application. There are different modes and specific processes involved in this task. Making the right use of available resources and expertise will lead to a desired PhD position. This short communication will serve as a cookbook to graduate students, guide them in a step-wise manner and encourage them to pursue their PhD overseas.

Agriculture is one of the key sectors of a country’s economy and the linchpin of rural development. Essentially, seventy-five (75%) of world’s rural population which lives in rural areas depend on agriculture for their livelihood. Hence, Agricultural growth is a crucial factor for inclusive growth and helps in raising rural income and purchasing power. However, agriculture in the rural areas is highly at the mercy of climatic parameters principally rainfall, which makes it critically vulnerable to climate change.

In this study, we compared to survival and growth rates of brown trout eggs afterhocks at different temperature. In this study, four temperatures and a control group were used. Eggs fertilized by milt of male fish were shocked for 7 minutes in the batches provided to 24±0.1˚C, 26±0.l˚C, 28±0.1˚C and 30±0.1˚C by aquarium heaters. The survival rates of eggs from fertilization to hatching were determined as 81,7% for the control group (9.6˚C), 72,5% for 24˚C, 70,1% for 26˚C and 39,7% for 28˚C, and 29,8% for 30˚C. The difference between groups was statistically significant (P<0.05).

Ailanthus triphysa is the most preferred species in the safety matches industry. Under the tree improvement programme, selections of this species are to be multiplied by vegetative means for large scale deployment in clonal plantations for productivity enhancement and to meet the industrial demand. Vegetative propagation by rooting of juvenile coppice shoots of A. triphysa was assessed by subjecting them into different concentrations of Indole Butyric acid (IBA). Juvenile shoots were collected from the stumps of the selected trees.

Toxicity analyses of the coal mine effluent (CME) on various blood parameters of catfish Heteropneustes fossilis exposed prior to, and after following phytoremediation individually with two macrophytes Azolla pinnata and Lemna minor were performed.

In India a number of agriculturally important crops are attacked by the obligate biotrophic fungi of the family Erysiphaceae (Ascomycota: Erysiphales) causing powdery mildew resulting in great economic losses. Psyllobora bisoctonotata (Mulsant) a mycophagous coccinellid (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) has been found to feed on powdery mildew in natural condition. A study was conducted to gather information on the development of P. bisoctonotata feeding on the powdery mildew (Erysiphe Polygoni) of the blackgram (Vigna mungo).

The present study reveled the importance of keratinous compost was significant resulted in to a high valued product acceptable in agricultural, as suitable organic nitrogen source obtained from hair and feather compost. The Application of hair and feather composts improves soil fertility along with other soil properties and could be an attractive natural fertilizer for crops. This method could be an alternative to farm composting to produce a community oriented and eco-friendly compost. The C.

The avifaunal diversity of Hokersar wetland was studied for a period of one year from December 2012 to December 2013. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the diversity and distribution of species in and around the wetland. A total of 58 species were recorded belonging to 27 families from 7 different habitats. Family Anatidae shows maximum species diversity. Among the recorded species(41%) were resident, summer migrant (28%), winter migrant (21%), and local migrant (10%).

Plant growth promotion using microorganisms is recently been studied extensively in order to compensate nutrient deficiencies and combat environmental hazards caused by chemicals. Apart from growth promotion microorganisms are also shown to affect the plant physiology, affecting tolerance to stress conditions, increase in active ingredients (colour, smell etc.,) etc. Pharmacological studies on various medicinal plants, including antibacterial, anti helmenthic, anticancer etc., are well documented.

Leaf blight of rice is a disease of major concern in rice cultivation. This disease caused by bacterial pathogen Xanthomonas oryzae pv oryzae creates major issues during export and import of food material between countries. World loss due to this disease is the major concern of today’s pathologists and food technologists. Conventional methods used for determining the disease consume time, not viable for accurate pathogen identification and thereby hinder the implementation of apt control measures.

The fruit fly Drosophila has been extensively important organism not only for genetic, molecular, developmental studies but for also medicinal science, because of similiarility in pharmacological and physiological properties common to humans. The seed of Mucuna pruriens suggested in the treatment of gonorrhea, general debility and many studies have showed that it possess a wide range of pharmacologic activities such as antimicrobial, anti-protozoal, anti-inflammatory, neuroprotective, antidiabetic and antioxidant and aphrodisiac property etc.

Like all other coastal areas in different parts of the world, the southern coastal tract of West Bengal has also been attracting the visitors and recreationists not only from home but also from abroad which can significantly contribute to the development of tourism as well as regional development in the area under study. Digha, Shankarpur, Mandarmani, Talshari, Bakkhali, Gangasagar, are major such sites of beach tourism along with wildlife ecotourism in the world- famous Sundarbans in the southern parts of 24-Parganas Districts.

Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) is a rapidly expanding global pandemic. Despite more than a decade of intense research to understand the HIV pathogenesis aimed at developing an effective therapy for AIDS, achieving a true eradication of HIV remains a daunting challenge. However, significant progress has been made in the management of HIV-1 replication using potent inhibitors. HIV-2 serotype of HIV was determined to be a cause of disease in the parts of the West African population, and there is evidence for its spread to Europe and Asia.

The study was conducted to investigate the relationship between Library management and the adoption of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in University Libraries in Akwa-Ibom and Cross River States, Nigeria. To achieve this, two hypotheses were formulated to guide the study. Survey research design was adopted for the study using a total of one hundred and fifty (150) respondents, through purposive sampling technique. A validated questionnaire with a reliability estimate of 0.86 was used for data collection.

The present paper describes the antibacterial activity of six plants traditionally used for the treatment of mastitis by Kattunaikka tribe of Wayanad district of Kerala. The antibacterial activity was tested by the disc diffusion assay. All the test plants showed antibacterial activity against all the tested microorganisms. Among these plants Elephantopus scaber and Annona reticulata showed promising activity against many of the tested microorganisms associated with bovine mastitis.

There have been several investigations using social science approaches into the impacts of fashion on how other people perceive us, as a result of the clothes we wear. Clothing is the most important feature in people’s lives. When we buy any article of clothing we consciously or unconsciously think about its relationship with our personality type. Dress, a visible symbol for fundamental beliefs, can be influenced by several factors.

The female specimens of Labeo rohita (body weight, 150-750 gm) had been assessed during the period of 15 June to 15 September, 2012. This season was particularly choosen because of the attainment of sexual maturity as well as optimum growth of the female ones. These specimens were assessed in three groups- young, matured and matured but adults.

The present research article reports the mechanical and morphological properties of a new nano composite material derived from aniline - ortho toludine - diethylaniline terpolymer (AOTDEA) and graphene oxide (GO). The composite under present investigation has shown significant improvement in its mechanical properties and morphological characters as compared to terpolymer alone. AOTDEA terpolymer was obtained by condensation polymerisation of the starting materials and its structure has been assigned by physicochemical and spectral evidences.

The fertigation level of 125 per cent of RDF as well as fertigation of recommended dose of N and K at every 2 days interval in equal splits up to 110 days + P as a basal dose to cucumber exhibited significantly maximum vine length & number of branches vine-1 compared to rest of the fertigation levels and schedules under polyhouse condition.

Monsoon is an annually recurring weather phenomenon due to variations in precipitation. Some regions in India receive very large monsoon precipitation causing floods and some parts are facing water scarcity problems due to low precipitation resulting in droughts condition. Almost half of the world's population lives in areas affected by the monsoons of Asia and most of these people are farmers, so the coming and goings of the monsoon are vital to their livelihood to grow food to feed them.

Several studies have demonstrated that bone marrow-derived stem cells are plastic, thus capable of being differentiated or transdifferentiated into specialized cells, each with new specialized cell function. It is hypothesized that bone marrow, in addition to hematopoietic stem cells (HSC), also houses heterogeneous population of cells used in regenerative medicine At present, bone marrow-derived stem cells are used for treating a wide spectrum of diseases (Pittenger et al., 1999; Deda et al., 2008; Kumar et al., 2009).





Rosane Cavalcante Fragoso, Brasil


Chief Scientific Officer and Head of a Research Group

Advantages of IJCR

  • Rapid Publishing
  • Professional publishing practices
  • Indexing in leading database
  • High level of citation
  • High Qualitiy reader base
  • High level author suport













Luai Farhan Zghair
Hasan Ali Abed Al-Zu’bi
Fredrick OJIJA
Firuza M. Tursunkhodjaeva
Faraz Ahmed Farooqi
Saudi Arabia
Eric Randy Reyes Politud
Elsadig Gasoom FadelAlla Elbashir
Eapen, Asha Sarah
United State
Dr.Arun Kumar A
Dr. Zafar Iqbal
Dr. Ruchika Khanna
Dr. Recep TAS
Dr. Rasha Ali Eldeeb
Dr. Pralhad Kanhaiyalal Rahangdale
Dr. Nicolas Padilla- Raygoza
Dr. Mustafa Y. G. Younis
Dr. Muhammad shoaib Ahmedani
Saudi Arabia
United State
Dr. Lim Gee Nee
Dr. Jatinder Pal Singh Chawla
Dr. Devendra kumar Gupta
Dr. Ali Seidi
Dr. Achmad Choerudin
Dr Ashok Kumar Verma
Thi Mong Diep NGUYEN
Dr. Muhammad Akram
Dr. Imran Azad
Dr. Meenakshi Malik
Aseel Hadi Hamzah
Anam Bhatti
Md. Amir Hossain
Mirzadi Gohari