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Acute toxicity and antidiarrhoeal activity of the crude ethanolic extract of the Operculina turpethum

Author: 
Mohammad Abu Bin Nyeem, Md. Moniruzzaman Khan, Rabiul Islam, B. M., Md. Abu Hossain, Meher Nowrose and Md. Abdul Awal
Subject Area: 
Health Sciences
Abstract: 

Operculina turpethum is a perennial with milky juice belongs to family Convolvulaceae. This plant was widespread in old tropics from E. Africa to N. Australia and common in Godavari, Andhra Pradesh India & Bangladesh. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the acute toxicity and antidiarrhoeal activity of the ethanolic extract of the Operculina turpethum in mice. Ethanolic extract of the Operculina turpethum (Linn.) was administered orally in mice at various dose levels to determine the acute toxic effects and the median lethal dose (LD50). Antidiarrhoeal activity was tested by castor oil induced diarrhoea in mice, at the doses of 500 mg/kg body weight comparable to the standard drug loperamide at the doses of 50 mg/kg body weight. The acute toxicity of the ethanolic extract was found to be 5.0 gm/kg body weight within 95 % confidence limits. The mice showed signs of cerebral irritation before dying. Histopathological examinations of the viscera showed necrosis of the liver and kidneys. The antidiarrhoeal effects increased mean latent period and decreased the frequency of defecation significantly (P<0.05; P<0.01). This study suggested that the extract possess antidiarrhoeal activity. It was concluded that the extract of Operculina turpethum is safe and possess antidiarrhoeal activity, however the cerebral mechanism that lead to the death of the mice need to be investigated and find out the active metabolites responsible for antidiarrhoeal activity.

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