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Adaptation of duck plague virus (DPV) in baby hamster kidney cell line (BHK-21) towards vaccine development

Author: 
Sinthia Tahmina, Khondoker Moazzem Hossain, Hafizur Rahman, Anwar Hossain, Amal Kumar Saha, Shaima Anjuman and Giasuddin
Subject Area: 
Life Sciences
Abstract: 

Duck plague (DP) is a worldwide acute, lethal, sometimes chronic, contagious virus infection of ducks caused by duck plague virus (DPV), also known as duck enteritis virus (DEV). The control of duck plague is considered as one of the biggest challenges in which vaccination is an efficient way to control DPV. Till now, vaccination is done mainly with chicken embryo adapted live virus that is known to be poorly immunogenic and elicits only partial protection. Further, the presence of other avian pathogens in the embryo propagated vaccine may pose a threat. To overcome these drawbacks, an attempt was undertaken for the first time regarding propagation and adaptation of isolates of DPV in baby hamster kidney (BHK-21) cell line. In this study, duck embryo fibroblast cell (DEFC) culture method was used to isolate DPV which were then adapted in the BHK-21 cell line. The characteristic cytopathic effects (CPE) of clumping and fusion of BHK-21 cells were observed starting from the 5th passage onwards. The presence of the virus and its multiplication in BHK-21 cell line was confirmed by detection of viral specific DNA by using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) targeting DNA polymerase gene (446 bp). The BHK-21 cell culture system is free from other infectious agents by comparing to chicken embryo adapted duck plague vaccine. Therefore, we can consider BHK-21 cell line as a suitable candidate for cultivation and propagation of DPV for vaccine development. The present study provides a scope to undertake further research on duck plague to explore the feasibility of utilizing this BHK-21 cell culture adapted DPV isolates for developing an attenuated vaccine against duck plague.

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