Analysis on returns to levels of education and challenges faced by the motor spare parts urban self employed in Kisii county, Kenya

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Author: 
Eliud Nyakundi, Prof. Enose M.W Simatwa and Prof Theodore. M. Ayodo
Subject Area: 
Physical Sciences and Engineering
Abstract: 

The self-employment sector provides an avenue for workers to earn a living.. There exists earning differentials among workers with various levels of education worldwide In Kisii county there are worker entering into employment with various levels of education. The return to the self-employed varies. The returns to the self-employed are important in determing individual and government investment in education. The purpose of the study was to establish education returns spare parts self-employment activities in urban Kisii County. The study objectives were to; determine the returns to education of various levels of education of the self-employed in motor spare parts industry, determine the challenges facing the self-employed, determine effectiveness of intervention measures by Kenya government to assist the self-employed in their work. The study used descriptive and correlation design. Human capital theory was used. The population of the study was 11240.That is in computer service industry 6400 and spare parts 4840 workers. The study used Fisher’s model to derive a sample of 166 spare parts self-employed workers. Questionnaire and interview schedules were used to collect data for the study. Quantitative data was analyzed using descriptive statistics and regression analysis. Qualitative data was transcribed and analyzed in emergent themes and sub-themes. Government intervention was not effective in the provision of: market stalls, loans and market for finished products, but effective in provision of: security, electricity and infrastructure. In spare parts the results showed that on average; respondents with KC.P.E earned Ksh 16, 786.3636, K.C.SE earned 16855.8140; certificate earned 16825.9259 qualifications earned nearly similar amount of money. Diploma graduates earnings were 22584.2105 and bachelors earned 29,150.000. Analysis of pearson’s r indicate; For k.cpe was 0.617, k.c.se 0.009, certificate 0.130, diploma 0.129 and bachelors 0.297. The Pearson’s r2 results were: kcpe was 0.413, kcse 0.011, certificate 0.016, diploma 0.038 and degree 0.002. The adjusted R results were: kcpe 0.373. kcse 0.002, certificate 0.002, diploma 0.001 and degree 0.075. The ANOVA results were: Forkcpe(F(1,20)12.282, P=0.002), kcse (F(1,84)0,007, P=0.935), certificate was (F(1,25,) 0.428,P=0.519), diploma was (F(1,17)1.290, P=0.597) and bachelors degree was(F(1,10)0.0.964,P=0.349).The Pearson’s r results were’ kcpe 0.643, kcse 0.104, certificate 0.128, diploma 0.195 and bachelors degree 0.045. The Pearson’s r2results were: kcpe was 0.413, kcse 0.011, certificate 0.016, diploma 0.038 and degree 0.002.The r adjusted results were :kcpe 0.373. kcse 0.002, certificate 0.002, diploma 0.001 and degree 0.075. The ANOVA results were computed as: For kcpe (F(1,15)10.572,P=0.005), kcse was (F(1,70)0,761, P=0.386), certificate was (F(1,52,)0.868, P=0.356), diploma was (F(1,28)1.031, P=0.319 and bachelor results were (F(1,13)0.006,P=0.874). The model summary indicated that the independent variables (K.C.P.E, K.C.S.E, Certificate, Diploma and Undergraduate levels of education) explained up to 22.6% of the variation of average earnings 77.4% remained unexplained. The study concluded that; there was a significant and positive association between returns to education and increasing level of education, and lack of capital was a challenge to the self-employed. The study recommended government intervention in funding the self-employed in their activities, reduced electricity charges and blackouts. The study is important in formulation of education programmes relevant to the self-employed and government intervention in support of the self-employed.

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Editorial Board Member's

Dr.Geetanjali Joshi Mishra
Lucknow, UP, INDIA
Dr. Sankalp Verma
India
Tannu Arora
India
Prof Dr. Lee Mun Seng
Malaysia
Dr. Muhammad shoaib Ahmedani
Saudi Arabia
Dr. Lim Gee Nee
Malaysia
DANA MOHAMMED
UK
Ali Majnoony Tootakhaneh
Iran
Prof. Somchai Amornyotin
Thailand
Nurhodja Akbulaev
Turkey
Muhammad Hamid
Pakistan
MOHAMMAD GHOLAMI
Iran
MAVLYANOV ISKANDAR RAKHIMOVICH
Uzbekistan
Hasan Ali Abed Al-Zu’bi
Jordan
Faraz Ahmed Farooqi
Saudi Arabia
Eric Randy Reyes Politud
Philippines
Eapen, Asha Sarah
USA
Dr. Ruchika Khanna
India
DR. MUHAMMAD ISMAIL MOHMAND
UK
DR. MAHESH SHIVAJI CHAVAN
India
Dr. Lokesh Gambhir
India
DR. IRAM BOKHARI
Pakistan
Dr. FARHAT NAZ RAHMAN
Pakistan
Dr. Charu Bisaria
India
Dr. Achmad Choerudin
Indonesia
Bensafi Abd-El-Hamid
Algeria
Dr. Pralhad Kanhaiyalal Rahangdale
India
Dr. ASHWANI KUMAR DUBEY
India
Dr. Arun Kumar
India
DR. M. ARUNA
India
ALIIHSAN SEKERTEKIN
Turkey
Yassine KADMI
French
Tariqual Islam Sajeeb
Dhaka
Jiban Shrestha
Nepal
Fredrick OJIJA
Tanzanian
Dr. Rasha Ali Eldeeb
Egypt
DR. PATRICK D. CERNA
Philippines
Dr. Amzad Basha Kolar
India
Prof. Suhail Hussein Al-Fatlawi
Iraq
ZiedIBN El Hadj
Tunisia
Zafer Omer Ozdemir
Turkey
Uthumporn Utra
Malasiya
Tarek Habeeb Ramadan Ahmed
Egypt
Syed Abdul Rehman Khan
China
Sri. P.C. Puri
India
Dr. Mohd Ramzi Bin Mohd Hussain
Malasiya
Peter Changilwa Kigwilu
Africa
P. Rajasulochana
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Lachachi Abdelheq
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Firuza M. Tursunkhodjaeva
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Elsadig Gasoom FadelAlla Elbashir
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DR. Yogesh Dnyandeo Narkhede
India
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Dr. Ashok Kumar
India
Arshad Mehmood
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Ahmed I.S. Ahmed
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Yaling Lin
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Nihad Abdel Latif Ali Kadhim
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Muhammad Aslam
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Dr. Shahera S.Patel
India
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Mexico
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India
Dr. Devendra Kumar Gupta
India
Diones Krinski
Brasil
Aberham Kebedom Darge
Ethiopia
Atiya Firdous
Pakistan
Prof. Marco Nemesio E.Montano
Phillippines
Prof. Zora Singh
AUSTRALIA
Dr. Alaa Fahmy Mohamed
Egypt
Moataz Mostafa El-Nahas Ali El-sherbini
Egypt
Prof. M. Abdul Mottaleb
Maryville
Dr. Ali Seidi
Iran