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Anatomy and relevance in pharmacotherapy of diseases related to Basal Ganglia

Author: 
Meera Rath, Biswa Bhusan Mohanty, Divya Agrawal, Sanjay Kumar and Sureswar Mohanty
Subject Area: 
Health Sciences
Abstract: 

Basal ganglia are group of subcortical nuclei which are components of modular circuits involving cerebral cortex, thalamus and brain stem related with cortical functions. Basal ganglia includes four to five distinct loop which is responsible for parallel processing of information and grouped into two distinct direct and indirect pathways. Thus, this dual system provides a motor centre exhibiting both excitatory and inhibitory effect. These circuits are involved in movement disorders categorized as Hyperkinetic and Hypokinetic movement disorder. In recent year, with the upcoming studies it has been clear that functions of basal ganglia not only focuses motor disturbances but also involves cognitive and emotional functions as well.

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