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Antibiotic resistance - An emerging health problem: causes, worries, challenges and solutions – A review

Author: 
Ruchi Tiwari, Sandip Chakraborty, Kuldeep Dhama, Rajagunalan, S. and Shoor Vir Singh
Subject Area: 
Health Sciences
Abstract: 

Untreatable bacterial infections become treatable due to the discovery of antibiotics in the previous century but their inappropriate and irrational uses ultimately led to emergence of resistant microbial population. Genes responsible for conferring resistance are transferred horizontally via conjugation; transduction or transformation. Tetracyclines and beta lactams represent 50% each of the total antibiotics used in feeds and global antibiotic consumption respectively. Due to development of antibiotic resistance there may be failure of the resistant bacteria to respond to the prescribed treatment; risk of infectious diseases becoming uncontrollable; financial burden; advanced therapeutic approaches may get jeopardized and ultimately resistant organisms may spread to distant countries and continents. Both intrinsic and acquired resistance mechanisms are involved in bacterial antibiotic resistance. Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococci (VRE) are among the most striking antibiotic resistant microbes in the recent years. Factors driving antibiotic resistance include: inadequate national commitment; improper surveillance; irrational use of drugs; poor disease prevention and insufficient diagnostics and therapeutics etc. Limiting infectious diseases; judicious uses of antibiotics; precise selection and completing the full course of antibiotics; and regular surveillance, monitoring and continuous vigilance are the steps to limit antibiotic resistance. The most common antibiotic-resistant organisms sourced from animals are some strains of E. coli; Salmonella etc., which can also infect humans. Disc diffusion method and Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) methods; gas chromatography (GC); High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with UV mass spectrometry (MS) and nano quantity analyte detectors; microfluidic methods and electrochemical methods; European Union four-plate test (EU4pt); Frontier Post Test (FPT) are used to detect antibiotic residues. Use of penicillin or sulphonamides has raised public health and industrial issues. Prevention and control measures require involvement of various governmental agencies for accurate testing and screening; surveillance and monitoring. Along with this alternative therapeutic approaches viz. bacteriophages; virophage and mycophage; avian egg yolk antibody; cytokines and herbal; panchgavya and vaccine therapy; and diagnostics are the need of hours. The present review discusses all these aspects of antibiotic resistance and their solutions ultimately for social benefit with particular reference to emerging antibiotic resistance in animals and humans, its challenges, detection, antibiotic residues, prevention and control measures along with current and future scenario at International level, which would be helpful for formulating strategies for safeguarding health of animals as well as humans.

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