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Assessment of anatomic variation with the frequency, location, and morphology of mandibular lingual foramina using cone beam computed tomography

Author: 
Dr. Pratul Kumar Agrawal, Dr. Anupama, Dr. Shilpa Shetty and Dr. Nalinakshamma Muniswamy Reddy
Subject Area: 
Health Sciences
Abstract: 

Purpose: To assess the anatomic variation with the frequency, location, and morphology of mandibular lingual foramina using Cone Beam Computed Tomography. Methods: A retrospective study from CBCT examination of 200 subjects was conducted. The canal frequency (number), location, and travel direction were assessed by selecting images of the mandible. Also, linear dimensions such as the diameter of lingual foramina (D), the distance between the alveolar crest and the lingual foramina (L1), the distance between the tooth apex and the lingual foramina (L2) and the distance between the mandibular inferior border to the lingual foramina (L3) were examined. The differences in gender and age with respect to lingual foramina were also evaluated. Results: High frequency of lingual foramina (99.5%) in 200 subjects have been noted. Most subjects had two canals (44%) with mostly Medial Lingual Canal (97.14%). 2.57% canals were vertical in direction. 6.29% foramina were >1mm in diameter. In 14.85% subjects, the distance from apical crest to the lingual canal (L1) was found to be <12mm. No significant difference was found between various age groups in values of L1 and L2 and in the diameter of lingual foramina in male and female subjects (p>0.05). Conclusion: As the variations were shown in lingual foramina characteristics, it is mandatory to be aware of the structures present in anterior mandible to prevent the surgical complications. CBCT plays a pivotal role during the surgical phase of implant placement.

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