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Assessment of the vulnerability of groundwater to pollution in n’djamena (Chad) using the drastic index method

Author: 
ABDERAMANE Hamit, KENGNI Lucas, IDDO Ernest Sakamou and NJUEYA Kopa Adoua
Subject Area: 
Social Sciences and Humanities
Abstract: 

N’Djamena, the capital city of Chad has been experiencing a rapid population growth and a fall in water resources for the past years. In order to preserve and protect these resources, this work aims at assessing the vulnerability of aquifer to pollution. The overall objective is to identify areas prone to high risk of contamination, no matter the type of pollutant is. The DRASTIC approach required the inclusion of data from different sources such as field campaigns, borehole data, DEM satellite image, geological and hydro-climatic data. Finally, a map illustrating the water vulnerability was developed based on the seven parameters required by this method. The water table is deeper as one moves away from the banks of the Logone and Chari rivers. The study area is mostly covered with recent deposits of clay and loamy clay. The slopes below 5% cover 98% of the area, indicating a greater potential infiltration of contaminants. While the aquifer consists only of fine-grained sand, almost impermeable surface layers, combined with low slopes, explain that water tends to stagnate on the surface after rainfall. The values of the DRASTIC index vary from 75 to 145 underscoring three vulnerability classes. However, the classes of high to average intrinsic vulnerability cover 61. 39% of the study area, located in the northwest and south-central part of N’Djamena. The level of vulnerability is strongly influenced by the depth values in this sector and the nature of the unsaturated area made up of compact clay materials.

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