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Bacteriological examination of packaged milk marketed in zaria, Nigeria

Author: 
Umofia, I. D., Igwe, J. C., Adeshina, G. O., Ehinmidu, J. O., Ojiego B. O., Kachallah M., Enose O. Dauda, Oladipo H. O., Adeboye S., Sidi M. T. and Salihu M. S, Aliyu A.
Subject Area: 
Health Sciences
Abstract: 

Milk has an outstanding nutritional quality, but is also an excellent medium for bacteria growth and an important source of bacterial infection when consumed without pasteurization. This study was conducted to evaluate the hygienic quality of packaged milk and identify predominant bacteria in milk marketed in Zaria. Two hundred packaged milk samples were bought from five locations (forty samples from each) in Zaria. Isolation and identification of the bacteria species were carried out using standard bacteriological procedures. The study revealed that the four brands of packaged milk sampled in this study were contaminated. The bacterial load obtained from four brands of milk ranged from 19.40 – 1.10 x 106 cfu/ml. The bacteria identified and their prevalence rates were Escherichia coli (13.1%), Proteus species (2.6%), Salmonella specie (0.65%), Providencia species (3.26%), Enterobacter species (36.6%), Citrobacter spp.. (0.65%), Klebsiella species (1.31%), Yersinia specie (0.65%), Pseudomonas species (37.9%) and S. aureus (3.28%). One hundred and fifty-three bacterial isolates were identified from the two hundred milk samples, 27.5% were obtained from the first brand of milk sample, 21.6% from the second brand, 12.4% from the third brand and 38.6% from the fourth brand of milk samples. Most of the organisms identified belonged to enterobacteriaceae family, thus indicating probable faecal contamination of the milk as a result of poor hygiene during production processes. This shows that packaged milk is a potential hazard of pathogenic food borne bacteria that may have public health implications. This can pose health hazard to consumers of such milk products. There is the need for some additional food safety measures to be applied before the consumption of milk.

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