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Comparative evaluation of the physical and chemical properties of three different alloplastic bone graft materials used in periodontal regeneration

Author: 
Dr. Roshni Ramesh and Dr. Arun Sadasivan
Subject Area: 
Health Sciences
Abstract: 

Objective: The aim of the present study was to analyse the physicochemical characteristics of three different types of alloplastic bone graft materials used in periodontal regeneration. Materials and Methods: The materials used were Monophasic Hydroxyapatite – Biograft HA, Bioactive Glass- Perioglas and Tricalcium phosphate- Biograft TCP. The physicochemical properties of the materials were tested using Scanning Electron Microscopy, Thermogravimetry and Dissolution rates. Results: Perioglas and Hydroxyapatite showed smaller particle size while Tricalcium Phosphate showed larger particle size. Biograft HA and Biograft TCP showed rough and irregular surface while Perioglas showed a smooth surface. As the three materials were synthetic or alloplastic, there was the absence of lattice water or organic content. The tested materials were stable upto 10000C, which shows that they were thermally stable and phase pure and without any impurities. In the dissolution tests done for calcium, all the materials showed positive results. Bioactive glass had more dissolution compared to Hydroxyapatite and Tricalcium phosphate. In the dissolution test for silica, Perioglas showed increased dissolution of silica upto 24 hours. Conclusion: The alloplastic biomaterials belonged to calcium phosphate and bioactive glass group. It was found that even for those with similar chemical characteristics, significant differences were noted with regard to particle size, surface roughness and dissolution properties. Calcium phosphate based ceramic showed porous surface architecture conducive to cellular and vascular proliferation. All the tested materials were phase pure with no impurities. Increased dissolution of calcium and silica were seen in Perioglas when compared to calcium phosphate.

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