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Diabetic foot: a clinicoepidemiological and investigative study in a tertiary care hospital

Author: 
Dr. Nitish Sharma, Dr. Nidhi Sharma
Subject Area: 
Health Sciences
Abstract: 

Background: Diabetic foot ulcer is one of the common and dreaded long term complication of diabetes mellitus especially in developing countries. This study attempted to determine the disease burden in terms of epidemiology and clinical profile of diabetic foot ulcer (DFU) at a tertiary care hospital in North India. Methods: In this descriptive study, the patients with known diabetes presenting with foot ulceration were enrolled over a one year period. The demographic profile, duration of diabetes, clinical presentation, type of ulcer, isolated microorganism and treatment taken were studied. Results: A total of 50 patients were included in the study. The average age of patients was 55.7 year (with range from 44 to 80 years). Majority of patients were males. 68% patients belonged to low socioeconomic status. History of smoking was seen in 44% of the cases. All patients had type 2 diabetes mellitus. The average duration of diabetes was 7.1 years. Foot ulcers in 26 patients were pure neuropathic, 4 patients had ischemic-type, while 10 had neuro-ischemic origin. 67.4% positive culture were obtained and gram negative organisms were most commonly isolated. Conclusions: Diabetic foot is a dreaded disability with long stretches of hospitalization and with the ever dangling end result of an amputated limb. It is, no wonder, one of the most feared complications of diabetes. Preventing the diabetic foot should be the first priority and it can be achieved by identifying the high-risk individuals, proper glycemic control, wound care, microbiological control and patient education.

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