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Dimensions of Self-concept and its gender differences in young students of Psychology at the Autonomous University of Campeche

Author: 
Luz Virginia Pacheco Quijano, Betty Sarabia Alcocer, Ana Rosa Can Valle and Liliana García Reyes
Subject Area: 
Health Sciences
Abstract: 

Self-concept can be defined as a set of perceptions that the subject has about himself, perceptions from the private experiences of each individual, and from the consideration and testimony he receives from significant people who are close to He: family, school, same (Calleja, 2005). A social order of representations around gender allows individuals to perceive themselves and others by virtue of concepts and stereotypes endowed with a certain degree of consistency. It is evident that the attitude that has towards itself has a powerful influence in the adjustment, personal well-being and its professional development; Thus constituting a frame of reference through which the individual interacts with the world, which affects his way of thinking, feeling and behaving. It has been proven that the person who has a realistic, integrated, extensive and adapted self-concept generally behaves in a healthy, trusting and constructive way, because he feels less threatened by difficult tasks, people and situations, he relates better, he perceives Reality more correctly and is more respectful of herself and others. Therefore, the objective of this study is to know the dimensions of self-concept and the gender differences existing among new students in the Degree in Psychology of the Autonomous University of Campeche, Mexico. The method used was a descriptive, non-experimental study, since there was no active manipulation of any variable, but rather observed these variables as they occur naturally, without intervening in their development. We worked with a sample of 127 students of new admission to the Degree in Psychology, denominated basic area in the Autonomous University of Campeche. It is made up of 81 (64%) women and 46 (36%) men, between 18 and 21 years old, of low socioeconomic level. They were applied as instrument, the questionnaire of Self-concept form 5 (AF5), by Musitu and García (2001). The results obtained from the group of 46 men (36%) in the averages of the self-concept dimensions were: academic work (average 55.13), social (average 77.95), emotional (average 59.21), family (average 35.37), and physical 60.94); And in the group of 81 (64%) women, presented the following averages: academic work (average 52.64), social (average 41.05), emotional (average 54.64), family (average 63.78) and physical (mean 56.68). Because we can conclude that there are significant differences between genders in two of the dimensions of self-concept valued as men obtain higher levels of physical self-concept and women stand out in family self-concept. Men have a much higher perception of themselves in social self-concept than women, among the possible explanations of the differences is the construction of gender in society where differential expectations are especially accentuated. In contrast to previous data, women reach higher levels of family self-concept than men, we may think that there is a different treatment received from parents, in the sense that the behavior of women within the household can meet the expectations of parents. There are no significant gender differences in emotional self-concept, physical self-concept, psychological self-concept, and global self-concept. We can conclude that gender theory explains that because women's undervalued position in the historical, economic, socio-political and cultural context is the reason why women present lower levels of self-concept than their male counterparts.

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