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Distribution of abo, Rhesus Blood groups and Haemoglobin Genotype in Enugu north and enugu south local government area, Enugu State, Nigeria

Author: 
Eluke B.C., Okonji C.U. and Swems C.I.A.
Subject Area: 
Health Sciences
Abstract: 

Background: ABO, Rhesus blood groups and Haemoglobin genotype are inherited characters. These may vary from one population to another. Aim: This study is to update information on the distribution of ABO, Rh blood group and haemoglobin genotype in Enugu North and Enugu South local Government Area, Enugu State. Methods: Eight hundred participants from each of the zones in the two local government areas were selected randomly. Two milliliters of blood collected from the cubital fossa of the subjects into an EDTA bottle was used for the determination of ABO, Rhesus blood group and Hb genotype using the standard tile technique and alkaline cellulose acetate electrophoresis technique. Data obtained were analysed using SPSS version 20. Results: The result showed that the pattern of distribution of ABO in each of the local government areas was in the order O>A>B>AB. In Enugu North, the pattern of distribution of ABO blood group were observed as O (57.5%), A (23.0%), B (17.0%) and AB (2.5%) respectively. The percentage frequency of Rh positive and Rh negative was 90.8% and 9.1% respectively. The percentage frequency of HbAA, HbAS and HbSS was 68.5%, 30.0% and 1.5% respectively. In Enugu South, the pattern of distribution of ABO groups were observed as O (58.2%), A (21.8%), B (14.5%) and AB (5.5%). The Rh positive and Rh negative distribution in the studied population was 93.8% and 6.2% respectively The haemoglobin genotype, 73% were HbAA, 26% HbAS, 1% HbSS were obtained. Conclusion: Blood group O and Rh positive blood groups were the most common blood group obtained in each of the two local government areas and blood group AB and Rh negative blood groups was the least common in this study. The percentage frequency of HbSS obtained in this study was low and this indicates a low prevalence of Sickle cell disease in this area.

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