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The distribution of mosquito larvae and pupae on a university campus in awka, anambra state, Nigeria; A comparative investigation

Author: 
Nchekwube Chidimma, Prof Timothy Paget, Dr. Catherine Hayes and Dr. John Fulton
Subject Area: 
Health Sciences
Abstract: 

Background: The World Malaria Report has estimated that 3.4 billion people are still at risk of infection via malarial parasites irrespective of global efforts to control infection and elimination. Over 80% of these cases are diagnosed in Africa. Aims: The primary aim of this study was to investigate the distribution of mosquitoes across a residential university campus (Nnamdi Azikiwe) via the collection of eggs, larvae and pupae. The secondary aim was then to compare the relative incidence and prevalence rates of malaria diagnosis with the relative distribution of these malarial vectors amongst students living in the study area. Methods: A cross sectional survey was executed with 384 participants living in residential accommodation at Nnamdi Azikiwe University via a questionnaire. Mosquito eggs, larvae and pupae were manually collected using ovitraps and ladles. The mosquitoes were taken to the National Arbovirus and Vectors Research Division Enugu, Nigeria for positive identification. Results: The study showed that an increase in malaria vector had a significant impact in the prevalence rates of malaria diagnosed amongst students living in residential accommodation at Nnamdi Azikiwe University. The comparator study recorded 58 (39%) prevalence in 2012 while the research study indicated a prevalence of 116 (43%) which was calculated to be double the prevalence of the students recorded as being exposed in 2012). Malaria vector abundance also increased by a ratio of 1:5 between 2012 with 38 (19%) and 195 (61%) in 2016. Conclusion: Ensuring adequate interventions to maintain vector density low as well as continuous vector surveillance to prevent increasing incidence and prevalence rates of malaria are required.

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