Ecological status assessment of Litani river, Lebanon using chlorophyll a

  • strict warning: Non-static method view::load() should not be called statically in /home4/vibu/public_html/journalcra.com/sites/all/modules/views/views.module on line 842.
  • strict warning: Declaration of content_handler_field::options() should be compatible with views_object::options() in /home4/vibu/public_html/journalcra.com/sites/all/modules/cck/includes/views/handlers/content_handler_field.inc on line 208.
  • strict warning: Declaration of views_handler_filter::options_validate() should be compatible with views_handler::options_validate($form, &$form_state) in /home4/vibu/public_html/journalcra.com/sites/all/modules/views/handlers/views_handler_filter.inc on line 589.
  • strict warning: Declaration of views_handler_filter::options_submit() should be compatible with views_handler::options_submit($form, &$form_state) in /home4/vibu/public_html/journalcra.com/sites/all/modules/views/handlers/views_handler_filter.inc on line 589.
  • strict warning: Declaration of views_plugin_style_default::options() should be compatible with views_object::options() in /home4/vibu/public_html/journalcra.com/sites/all/modules/views/plugins/views_plugin_style_default.inc on line 25.
  • strict warning: Declaration of views_plugin_row::options_validate() should be compatible with views_plugin::options_validate(&$form, &$form_state) in /home4/vibu/public_html/journalcra.com/sites/all/modules/views/plugins/views_plugin_row.inc on line 135.
  • strict warning: Declaration of views_plugin_row::options_submit() should be compatible with views_plugin::options_submit(&$form, &$form_state) in /home4/vibu/public_html/journalcra.com/sites/all/modules/views/plugins/views_plugin_row.inc on line 135.
  • strict warning: Non-static method view::load() should not be called statically in /home4/vibu/public_html/journalcra.com/sites/all/modules/views/views.module on line 842.
  • strict warning: Declaration of views_handler_filter_boolean_operator::value_validate() should be compatible with views_handler_filter::value_validate($form, &$form_state) in /home4/vibu/public_html/journalcra.com/sites/all/modules/views/handlers/views_handler_filter_boolean_operator.inc on line 149.
  • strict warning: Non-static method view::load() should not be called statically in /home4/vibu/public_html/journalcra.com/sites/all/modules/views/views.module on line 842.
Author: 
Safa Baydoun and Nabil Amacha
Subject Area: 
Life Sciences
Abstract: 

Eutrophication of Litani River, the most important water resource in Lebanon, has become a pressing national concern. In spite of the intensive efforts on studying the physiochemical properties of its water, not enough attention has so far been given to the biological quality elements and trophic status of the river. Considered as the most sensitive indicator for nutrient enrichment and algal biomass, seasonal levels of sestonic chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) were determined in this study at five stations of Litani River during 2013 and 2014 and the relationship with transparency (Secchi disk), nutrients and mineralization levels was tested. Findings revealed statistically significant spatial variations in chlorophyll-a between the stations under study with Upper Litani River forming a homogenous subset characterized by hypereutrophic levels (54.54±38.61 µg/L in Rayak; 57.39±42.67 µg/L in El Marj and 67.21±60.94 µg/L in Jib Janine), while oligotrophic levels were observed at the Lower Litani River (2.60±2.82 µg/L in Dellafi and 3.14±1.49 µg/L Khardali). Correlation coefficients between chlorophyll-a and levels of phosphates, nitrites and ammonia were significantly positive. Negative correlation was revealed with Secchi disk readings and nitrate levels, yet no statistical significance was reached with nitrates. It is concluded that phosphates and both nitrites and ammonia have positive influences on algal proliferation and eutrophication of Upper Litani River. However, the negative correlation with nitrates suggests that Chl-a did not relate to nitrates and it may be a poor criterion for assessing the ecological status and nutrient-related problems of the river possibly due to the complex nitrogen cycle dynamics of the river. Thus, it is of importance to explore total nitrogen and total phosphate and their relationship with chlorophyll-a as potentially a more reliable tool.

PDF file: 

Editorial Board Member's

Dr.Geetanjali Joshi Mishra
Lucknow, UP, INDIA
Dr. Sankalp Verma
India
Tannu Arora
India
Prof Dr. Lee Mun Seng
Malaysia
Dr. Muhammad shoaib Ahmedani
Saudi Arabia
Dr. Lim Gee Nee
Malaysia
DANA MOHAMMED
UK
Ali Majnoony Tootakhaneh
Iran
Prof. Somchai Amornyotin
Thailand
Nurhodja Akbulaev
Turkey
Muhammad Hamid
Pakistan
MOHAMMAD GHOLAMI
Iran
MAVLYANOV ISKANDAR RAKHIMOVICH
Uzbekistan
Hasan Ali Abed Al-Zu’bi
Jordan
Faraz Ahmed Farooqi
Saudi Arabia
Eric Randy Reyes Politud
Philippines
Eapen, Asha Sarah
USA
Dr. Ruchika Khanna
India
DR. MUHAMMAD ISMAIL MOHMAND
UK
DR. MAHESH SHIVAJI CHAVAN
India
Dr. Lokesh Gambhir
India
DR. IRAM BOKHARI
Pakistan
Dr. FARHAT NAZ RAHMAN
Pakistan
Dr. Charu Bisaria
India
Dr. Achmad Choerudin
Indonesia
Bensafi Abd-El-Hamid
Algeria
Dr. Pralhad Kanhaiyalal Rahangdale
India
Dr. ASHWANI KUMAR DUBEY
India
Dr. Arun Kumar
India
DR. M. ARUNA
India
ALIIHSAN SEKERTEKIN
Turkey
Yassine KADMI
French
Tariqual Islam Sajeeb
Dhaka
Jiban Shrestha
Nepal
Fredrick OJIJA
Tanzanian
Dr. Rasha Ali Eldeeb
Egypt
DR. PATRICK D. CERNA
Philippines
Dr. Amzad Basha Kolar
India
Prof. Suhail Hussein Al-Fatlawi
Iraq
ZiedIBN El Hadj
Tunisia
Zafer Omer Ozdemir
Turkey
Uthumporn Utra
Malasiya
Tarek Habeeb Ramadan Ahmed
Egypt
Syed Abdul Rehman Khan
China
Sri. P.C. Puri
India
Dr. Mohd Ramzi Bin Mohd Hussain
Malasiya
Peter Changilwa Kigwilu
Africa
P. Rajasulochana
India
Nam Nguyen Dang
Vietnam
Lachachi Abdelheq
Algerie
Ibrahim Khider Ibrahim Osman
Sudan
Firuza M. Tursunkhodjaeva
Uzbekistan
Faraz Ahmed Farooqi
Saudi Arabia
Elsadig Gasoom FadelAlla Elbashir
Sudan
Dr. Zafar Iqbal
Pakistan
DR. Yogesh Dnyandeo Narkhede
India
Dr. Recep TAS
Turkey
Dr. Mustafa Y.G. Younis
Libiya
Dr. Ashok Kumar
India
Arshad Mehmood
Pakistan
Anania B. Aquino
Phillippines
Ahmed I.S. Ahmed
Egypt
Yaling Lin
Taiwan
Souhir Neifar
Tunisia
Nihad Abdel Latif Ali Kadhim
Iraq
Muhammad Aslam
Pakistan
Dr. Shahera S.Patel
India
Dr. Nicolas Padilla-Raygoza
Mexico
Dr. Jatinder Pal Singh Chawla
India
Dr. Devendra Kumar Gupta
India
Diones Krinski
Brasil
Aberham Kebedom Darge
Ethiopia
Atiya Firdous
Pakistan
Prof. Marco Nemesio E.Montano
Phillippines
Prof. Zora Singh
AUSTRALIA
Dr. Alaa Fahmy Mohamed
Egypt
Moataz Mostafa El-Nahas Ali El-sherbini
Egypt
Prof. M. Abdul Mottaleb
Maryville
Dr. Ali Seidi
Iran