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Economic and demographic consequences of depopulation processes in Bosnia and Herzegovina

Author: 
Branko Krsmanović, Nenad Lalic, Stevo Pašalić and Aleksandar Đurić
Subject Area: 
Social Sciences and Humanities
Abstract: 

The research subject of this paper are migration from BiH starting from the end of the 20th century until today. The aim of the study is to analyze the consequences of total migration and other demographic losses in BiH, that have reached the highest percent of migration during the nineties of the 20th century in Europe after the Second World War. The results of the research show that migration demographic losses were approximately 50% of nowadays population in BiH. The long-term effects of emigration have come to its fullest. Emigration of the most vital age groups has led to the reduction of fertile cohorts, which results in a decrease of birth, increase in mortality rates and the population aging. In the first decade of this century, there was a negative birth rate. Several factors have had the influence to biological (natural) depopulation and the first was emigration. Continuous and intense emigration was one of the main cause why BiH was in the group of European countries with expressed population aging. After the 20th century where population of BiH was doubled, 21st century was marked by the total depopulation. Among various factors that have an influence to the demographic perspective of BiH, the most important one is the negative migration balance. The social impact of migration in BiH is visible and multidimensional. War and post-war changes have led to the sensibility of many groups to economical and political turmoil, and the consequence is a lag in the overall development.

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