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Effect of esterification using jatropha curcas seed oils on some physical and mechanical properties of cellulosic fabric

Author: 
F. I. Omizegba (Ph.D.), K. A. Bello (Ph.D.), H. M. Adamu (Ph.D.), D. E. A. Boryo (Ph.D.), J. O. Abayeh (Ph.D.), R. S. Oguike (MSc.).
Subject Area: 
Life Sciences
Abstract: 

For many decades cellulose fabrics has been subjected to different chemical treatments in order to improve resistance against shrinkage, creasing, flexibility, tensile strength and absorbency. Such chemicals include urea and melamine formaldehyde resins. These chemicals are expensive and pose danger to the environment. Polycarboxylic and nitric acids have also been used on cellulose base fabrics for easy care finish. Recently ionic cross linking, polyurethane with nanomaterials as catalyst or co-catalysts has been considered. In order to go more environmentally green and less expensive, this paper presents the results of the physical and mechanical properties of cellulosic fabric esterified with 50cm3 of oils extracted from the seed of Jatropha curcas. The oil was extracted with hexane under reflux with yields of 47.25% and moisture of 0.56%. The fabric was subjected to pretreatments of scouring, bleaching and mercerization to remove impurities and to enhance fibre consolidation before esterification. The results showed that yarn crimp was 31% warp direction while the grey fabric (control) gave the lowest crimp value (5%) along the same direction. The linear density (46 Tex) along warp direction was recorded for Jatropha esterified fabrics compared to 37 Tex for the grey fabric. The fabric sett increased from 24th/cm for grey fabric to 34th/cm for Jatropha fabric along warp direction. The reduction in shrinkage was obvious after esterification using the oil. The tensile parameters were remarkable after esterification 280.78N and 170.40N with extension of 18.07mm and 15.88mm along warp and weft directions respectively for the esterified fabric. That of the grey fabric was 223.87N and 109.39N with extensions of 3.64mm and 3.56mm in warp and weft directions respectively. There was a remarkable improvement in the dry and wet crease recovery angles after esterification (128o dry and 86o wet) along warp direction. The grey fabric gave the lowest crease recovery (50o dry and 37o wet) in the same direction. The observed short fall in strength of the cellulose ester may be attributed to the formation of ester bond. However the general improvement in the investigated properties due to dimensional stability, flexibility and fineness is commendable. This research has contributed immensely to knowledge because this is the first time that biodegradable organic seed oil like Jatropha curcas is used to modify the physical and mechanical properties of cellulosic fabric through esterification. Therefore, the oil is recommended for replacement of the present day toxic chemicals used in textile finishing of cellulosic fabrics.

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