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The effect of maternal use of cannabis and its derivatives duringpregnancy on human development: A systemic review

Author: 
Muhammad A Hamid, Jabeen Fayyaz, Imrana Khalid, Marium Shahid and Denis Scolnik
Subject Area: 
Health Sciences
Abstract: 

We review the literature for the association between prenatal cannabis and its derivatives use onthe human development. The psycho-active ingredient in cannabis; is prenatally transported transplacentally and later is secreted in breast milk as well. It has been found to causephysical and neuro-behavioral consequences among children.Various scientific studies in pregnancy outcome and fetal growth; and neurological, cognitive and behavioral development among children borne by cannabis users. PubMed, EBSCO, COCHRANE, MEDLINE and ProQuest databases were used to retrieve studies relevant to keywords. The data from the prospective research were taken from the three most extensive prospective longitudinal studies, namely: The Ottawa Prenatal Prospective Study (OPPS), the Maternal Health Practices and Child Development (MHPCD), and the Generation R study. The rest of the retrospective studies were selected on cannabis use in pregnancy. Beyond the postnatal period, epidemiological studies have revealed adverse effects of prenatal cannabis exposure to the brain development leading to short- and long-term cognitive impacts. Cumulative findings include exaggerated Moro’s reflex, increased tremors, impaired visual habituations, sleep pattern disturbances, memory deficits, language and perceptual skills alterations, impaired reasoning abilities, low intelligence Quotient (IQ), poor academic performance and low executive functions among children of cannabis users.

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