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Effects of processing methods on some nutritional and anti-nutritional properties of selected pulses

Author: 
Chinchitha Lawrence and Rajani, V.
Subject Area: 
Life Sciences
Abstract: 

Pulses are important source of macronutrients, containing almost twice the amount of protein compared to cereal grains. In addition to being a source of macronutrients and minerals, pulses also contain plant secondary metabolites that are increasingly being recognized for their potential benefits for human health. Pulses, whose history of cultivation dates back to earlier times, are essential for human and animal nutrition as well as crop rotation. It has been established that pulses contain various substances, some varieties of which can be toxic (though rare) or may cause indigestion. However, it has been observed that the effects of these factors disappear or decrease when legumes are properly prepared. The present study was based on the comparison of effects of processing on some of the nutritional and anti- nutritional properties of five selected pulses (Mung bean, Chickpea, Soya bean, Horse gram and Green peas) during various stages of processing (soaking, sprouting and cooking). In all the cases, it was observed that the pulses were affected by the processing methods. The carbohydrate content was increased as a result of cooking in all the pulses, while other factors decreased. The highest value of carbohydrate was found to be in cooked Horse gram (68730 mg/ml) and the lowest in sprouted Green peas (7460 mg/ml). Sprouted Soybean gave highest protein content (3562.5776 mg/ml) and the lowest by cooked Horse gram (102.6416 mg/ml). Soaked Chick pea showed maximum value for Total Phenol (2.615 mg/ml) and cooked Horse gram, the minimum value (0.089 mg/ml). In case of Tannin, soaked Soybean gave the highest value (2077.1422 mg/ml) and the lowest by cooked Horse gram (61.4284 mg/ml). Soaked Soybean was found to give maximum Phytic acid (16.2375 mg/ml) and the minimum by cooked Green peas (4.217 mg/ml). The sprouting led to the increase in the protein content in all the pulses, while carbohydrate, tannin, phenol and phytic acid contents were decreased. The decreased concentration in Total phenol, Tannin and Phytic acid content was due to enzymatic changes during germination period in seeds. The reduction of anti-nutrients may improve the nutritional quality of legumes. Thus it can be said that through proper processing methods, the nutritional factors can be improved and negative impacts due to anti- nutritional factors can be minimized.

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