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Einstein's speculation e = mc2, related experiments, and einstein's conjecture of unification

Author: 
Lo, C. Y.
Subject Area: 
Physical Sciences and Engineering
Abstract: 

The formula E = mc2 is actually only a speculation of Einstein because it has never been proven. This formula started from special relativity and has become famous because of the atomic bomb. However, for a single type of energy, Einstein has failed to prove it. Einstein thought that he had proved that the electromagnetic energy is equivalent to mass because he had mistaken that the photons have only electromagnetic energy. However, General Relativity shows that the photons necessarily have the combination of electromagnetic energy and the gravitational energy. Theoretically, the electromagnetic energy is not equivalent to mass because the electromagnetic energy-stress tensor is traceless and thus cannot affect the Rici curvature as a mass does. Moreover, the electromagnetic energy would generate repulsive gravitation, which has been confirmed by experiments, but the mass generates only attractive gravitation. It is due to the existence of such a charge-mass interaction, general relativity also must be extended and Einstein's unification between electromagnetism and gravitation is necessary. In addition, experimentally a charged capacitor has a reduced weight and a piece of heated-up metal would also have a reduced weight, instead of an increased weight as Einstein predicted. Now, E = mc2 is established as an obstacle.

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