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Established Chonemorpha fragrans callus exhibited biological activities as that of plant extract

Author: 
Renuka Madhu, Anupam J Das, Laxmikanth, G. and Veena, V.
Subject Area: 
Life Sciences
Abstract: 

Chonemorpha fragrans is a medicinal plant used in Indian medicinal systems for the treatment of skeletal gynaecological disorder, stomach disorders, respiratory diseases, rheumatism, skin diseases, diabetes and jaundice. The plant extract shows antipyretic, antidiabetic, anti-parasitic, anticancer and anti-HIV activity. According to International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN), the plant is considered to be endangered medicinal plant in the Karnataka and vulnerable in Kerala state of India. The threats for the C. fragrans are due to exploitation of its natural habitat and overexploitation of plant for medicinal use. Conventional propagation by seeds has very low seed viability and the vegetative propagation through stem cutting has low frequency of rooting and low survival rate. The present investigation Chonemorpha fragrans was focused on standardizing the protocol for micropropagation, explore the biological potential such as antimicrobial and anticancer properties of the aqueous and methanolic extract of callus from leaves and leaves alone. The best explants for the direct regeneration were found to be shoot tip as well as single node followed by root and shoot induction. More importantly, the embryogenesis from callus was successfully obtained. Methanolic extract exhibited excellent broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity against human pathogens such as Klebsiella pneumonia, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Bacillus subtilis than the aqueous extracts of leaves as well as callus. The anticancer activity revealed that methanolic extract of leaves exhibited inhibition of leukemic cells with the IC50 concentration of 0.3±0.02 and 0.29±0.02 µg ml-1 in HL-60 and K562 cells respectively than the 0.5±0.02 and 0.39±0.02 µg ml-1 methanolic extract of callus in HL-60 and K562 cells respectively. The aqueous extract of leaves showed IC50 concentration of 1.4±0.03 and 1.8±0.04 µg ml-1 in HL-60 and K562 cells respectively aqueous extract of callus showed 1.1±002 and 1.2±0.05 µg ml-1 in HL-60 and K562 cells respectively. These results concluded that the methanolic extract of both callus and leaves of the plant exhibited maximum anticancer activity than aqueous extract of both. The phytochemicals analysis revealed the maximum variety of compounds was present in the methanolic extract which corresponds with the considerable inhibition demonstrated on test microorganisms and cancer cells. These results revealed the optimum micropropagation of medicinal plant that can be used as a natural drug source for modern medicine.

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