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Estimation of subcutaneous fat thickness using various anthropometric measurements and correlation of outcome variables with type 2 diabetes mellitus: A 1-year cross-sectional study

Author: 
Dr. V. A. Kothiwale and Dr. Ravikanth Ramadhenu
Subject Area: 
Health Sciences
Abstract: 

Background: Diabetes mellitus is strongly associated with obesity. The anthropometric measurements are used as the predictors of diabetes mellitus and insulin resistance. Neck circumference, among the various anthropometric measurements, is a convenient method associated with metabolic syndromes such as diabetes mellitus. Aim: To estimate the subcutaneous fat thickness using various anthropometric measurements and correlate the outcome variables with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Methods: A total of 100 patients aged 18 years or more with type 2 diabetes mellitus were included in a cross-sectional study. Anthropometric dataincluding body mass index, waist circumference, waist-to-hip ratio, neck circumference, interscapular skin thickness and homeostatic model assessment to quantify insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) were collected for all patients. Based on the HOMA-IR values, patients were divided into two groups: HOMA-IR<2.41 (n = 44) and HOMA-IR>2.41 (n = 56). The data were analyzed using SPSS 21 and were compared using independent samplet-test. Pearson’s correlation coefficient was used to find correlation. Results: Increasedwaist-hip ratio and waist circumference were observed in 96% and 97% of the patients, respectively. The mean fasting blood sugar (FBS), postprandial blood sugar (PPBS), and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels were 163.67±70.87 mg/dL (range 82–536 mg/dL), 243.16±87.75 mg/dL (range101–625 mg/dL), and 8.72±2.08(range 6.1–15.4), respectively. Reduced (79%) high-density lipoprotein levels (34.09 ± 7.83 mg/dL) and elevated (46%) low-density lipoprotein levels (95.13 ± 39.87 mg/dL) were observed in the patients. Neck circumference, FBS, PPBS and HbA1c were significantly increased in patients with HOMA-IR>2.41 when compared to patients with HOMA-IR<2.41 (p<0.050). Among the anthropometric measures, only neck circumference was used to compare the other clinical characteristics including, blood glucose levels and HOMA-IR.A moderate positive correlation was observed between neck circumference and clinical characteristics including HOMA-IR, FBS, PPBS, and HbA1c(p< 0.050). Conclusion: Anthropometric measures, such as neck circumference, have a high significance in detecting the subcutaneous fat thickness. The ease of application and low cost of neck circumference measurement may allow its use in public health services. Neck circumference can serve as a straightforward and time-saving clinical screening method in determining the risk of insulin resistance.

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