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Evaluation of AgNOR staining using exfoliative cytology in oral squamous cell carcinoma

Author: 
Hitasree, B. N., Malathi Manne, Shivani Neelam, Syed Afroz Ahmed, Charu Suri, Shahela Tanveer and Shravan Kumar
Subject Area: 
Health Sciences
Abstract: 

Introduction: Oral squamous cell carcinoma encompasses all malignancies originating in the oral cavity and there is need for improvement in early detection of oral carcinomas because treatment is more effective and the morbidity is minimal. Cytological study of oral cells is a non-aggressive technique that is well accepted by patients and an attractive option for early diagnosis. AgNORs study provides understanding of the tumoral behavior since their frequency, size and cell arrangement have been reported as a discriminatory factor between certain suspected lesions. Aim: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the acidic, argyrophilic, nonhistonic proteins by using silver-staining AgNOR technique in exfoliated cells and to compare in normal oral mucosa and oral squamous cell carcinoma. Materials And Methods: Exfoliative cells were obtained from 25 cases of oral squamous cell carcinoma and 25 cases of normal mucosa by using wooden spatula. After staining, 100 epithelial cells were randomly selected and counted by using oil immersion at 1000x magnification. Student’s independent t-test was used for data analysis. Result: The mean AgNORs count per nucleus was found to be 4.46 in oral squamous cell carcinoma group and 2.84 in normal mucosa with a p-value (<0.0001) and was statistically significant. Conclusion: Thus the present study suggested that, the silver staining technique used for the detection of NORs in conjunction with exfoliative cytology is an easy, non-invasive and accurate screening method for the detection of clinically suspicious oral cancerous lesions. Because of its simplicity and high reliability for cellular proliferation, AgNOR staining with oral smears can be used as an adjunct to the other cytological diagnoses for the early detection of oral cancer.

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