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An evaluation of facial and smile esthetics in garhwali population: a cephalometric and photogrametric study

Author: 
Tarun Sharma, P Narayana Prasad, Tarun kumar, Gaurav Chaudhary, Prashant Saini and Navid Wani
Subject Area: 
Health Sciences
Abstract: 

Introduction: In this study we want to evaluate facial and smile esthetics in Garhwali population with cephalometric and photogrammetric study and a novel esthetic evaluation technique has also been assessed that explains the relationship of the maxilla and mandible to the cranial base in the form of a triangle, called the T-analysis. Materials and Methods: 120 subjects were taken, out of which 60 class I subjects comprising of 30 males and 30 females having the esthetically pleasing profile and smile were selected for extraoral photograph and cephlometric analysis.. Angles namely facial convexity angle, total facial convexity angle, nasofrontal angle, nasofacial angle, nasal tip angle, nasolabial angle, nasomental angle, cervicomental angle, maxillary lip contour angle and mandibular lip contour angle were recorded for the subjects. The buccal corridors were measured for smile analysis. 30 class I, 30 class II, 30 class III subjects were taken for T-analysis. T- analysis include stable point sella(s), ptA, and ptB then angles SAB, ABS, BSA, were measured to assess the relation of the maxilla and mandible with cranial base. Results: Garhwali population has a straighter profile as compared to white European population and other north Indian population. There is sexual dimorphism seen with males having more convex profile, a prominent nose and sharper nasal tip in comparison to females. Males have more acute cervicomental angles than females. While Females have prominent maxillary lip contour than males. There is no statistically significant difference found between the observation of lateral profile and cephalometric values in both males and females. The mean values of buccal corridor in males and females suggestive of broad buccal corridor. In assessing the relation of the maxilla and mandible with cranial base angles SAB, ABS, BSA in Class I, Class II, Class III subjects, we have found that there is highly significant difference exist between them. Conclusion: The parameters for facial and smile of this study can be considered during orthodontic treatment planning and t analysis can be use as the diagnostic tool to differentiate between class I, class II, class III to strengthen our diagnosis.

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